Mangroves for the FutureNational Strategy and Action PlanAn Ecosystem-Based Integrated Coastal Management in Sri Lanka
ContentsMangroves for the FutureNational Strategy and Action PlanAn Ecosystem-Based Integrated Coastal Management in Sri L...
Contents           Published by: 	      IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature),                            ...
ContentsContents	     ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................. vi	     FOREWORD......
Contents           1.18	Socio-ecological Systems (SES): The Human Face of           	     Coastal Ecosystems. ...............
Contents            2.6.3	 Interpretation of Impacts on Coastal            	Ecosystems and Lessons...........................
ContentsABBREVIATIONS         ABBREVIATIONS         ADB		   Asian Development Bnak         BP		    Before Present         ...
ABBREVIATIONS                                                                      ContentsGIS		       Geographic Informat...
Contents ABBREVIATIONS          NSC		National Science Council          NSF		National Science Foundation (now NSF)         ...
FOREWORD                                                                                    ContentsFOREWORDThe Mangroves ...
FOREWORDContents       As the NSAP notes, Sri Lanka’s coastal ecosystems are relatively small in size in       their micro...
Executive SummaryExecutive Summary1. The Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP) – 2004, prepared by   the Coast Conservation ...
Executive Summary          5. The coastal ecosystems and the associated rivers and watersheds             of the wider env...
Executive Summary Box A. Five planning caveats considered for critical assessment of material presented in 	        the NS...
Executive Summary             these physical landforms and their dynamic interactions at the coast.             The contin...
Executive Summary16.	Change trends, pertaining to coastal ecosystems, define the strategic    options available for planne...
Executive Summary             The MCZ provides habitat for corals, seagrasses, seaweeds, algae,             micro-organism...
Executive Summary    Tidal flat: Low-lying land contiguous with the sea and coastal    ecosystems such as estuaries and la...
Executive Summary         Ecosystem -                                      Change Trend - Issue                        Pla...
Executive Summary  Ecosystem -                               Change Trend - Issue                     Planning Options SES...
Executive Summary                              Mangroves for the Future Small Grant Fund                              (SGF...
Executive Summary   Policy 8.	    Stop, discourage and penalize methods of ‘artificial                 aggregative’ fishin...
Executive Summary                 Disaster Management and Hazard Mitigation                     Policy 13.	       ‘Vulnera...
Executive Summary     Programme of Work                                   Actions/OutputsB. A heavy burden of             ...
Executive Summary            Programme of Work                                 Actions/Outputs       C. Planting of mangro...
Executive Summary     Programme of Work                                 Actions/OutputsProblems:                         4...
Executive Summary            Programme of Work                                  Actions/Outputs       Sri Lankan reality: ...
Executive Summary     Programme of Work                                   Actions/Outputstrained coastal managers,        ...
Executive Summary              Programme of Work                                 Actions/Outputs         community to boun...
Executive Summary      Programme of Work                                  Actions/Outputs 12. Strengthening the           ...
Executive Summary          Answer:	       The country cannot invest on the scale required for                         comp...
Executive Summary25.	Participation and transparent decision making are the most    important factors that contribute towar...
xxxii                                                                                                    Executive Summary...
INTRODUCTION1.	    INTRODUCTION1.1	   Coastal Ecosystems FocusSri Lanka is the first South Asian Country to have a compreh...
INTRODUCTION        The ecosystem focus deviates from the ‘coastal habitats’ foundation of        three decades of coastal...
INTRODUCTIONCoastal ecosystems are complex systems which include humancommunities (Box 2; Figure 1). Even where the biophy...
INTRODUCTION     Box 2. A socio-ecological system (SES) has emergent attributes                                           ...
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Mangroves

  1. 1. Mangroves for the FutureNational Strategy and Action PlanAn Ecosystem-Based Integrated Coastal Management in Sri Lanka
  2. 2. ContentsMangroves for the FutureNational Strategy and Action PlanAn Ecosystem-Based Integrated Coastal Management in Sri Lanka
  3. 3. Contents Published by: IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Sri Lanka Office for the National Steering Committee of the Mangroves for the Future Programme, Sri Lanka, Copyright: © 2009 IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non - commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holder. Research, synthesis and compilation: Dr J I Samarakoon Photographs: Unless otherwise indicated, all still photographs are by Dr J I Samarakoon Citation: Sri Lanka National Strategy and Action Plan (2009) Mangroves for the Future Programme, IUCN Sri Lanka Country Office, Colombo. xxxii + 219pp. ISBN: 978 - 955 - 8177 - 96 - 9 Cover Photograph: A hive of activity near the Fisheries Harbour in Tangalle; Ranjith Mahindapala Produced by: IUCN Sri Lanka Office Designed and layout by: K. Amila Tharanga Printed by: Karunaratne Sons Ltd. 67, UDA Industrial Estate, Katuwana Road, Homagama. Available from: IUCN Sri Lanka Country Office, 53, Horton Place, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka.ii
  4. 4. ContentsContents ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................. vi FOREWORD............................................................................ ix Executive Summary ....................................................... xi1. INTRODUCTION  .................................................................. 1 1.1 Coastal Ecosystems Focus. .................................................1 1.2 Coastal Ecosystems in Sri Lanka.......................................4 1.3 How to Read The NSAP. ................................................ 13 1.3.1 Structure of the Report............................................... 14 1.4 Planning the NSAP – Starting Point.............................. 15 . 1.5 The Tragedy of the Commons........................................ 16 1.6 The Mangroves for the Future Programme (MFF) – An Opportunity........................................................... 18 1.7 Integration with International Processes........................ 20 . 1.8 Terminology – a Clarification........................................ 20 . 1.9 Coastal Ecosystems: Bio-physical Reality and Need for Ecosystem-based ICM. ..................................................... 21 1.9.1 Evolution of Estuaries, Lagoons and Deltas............... 24 1.9.2 A Micro-tidal regime................................................... 24 1.9.3 A Narrow Continental Shelf...................................... 25 1.9.4 Geological Base and Geomorphology (Swan, 1983; Cooray 1982)......................................... 27 . 1.9.5 Impact of Technology................................................. 27 1.9.6 Coastal Processes. ....................................................... 29 . 1.10 The Developmental Setting............................................. 34 1.10.1 Development History and Poverty............................ 36 1.11 Planning Principles......................................................... 37 . 1.12 Management of Change in Ecosystems. ........................... 37 1.13 Causal Model Analysis of Coastal Ecosystems. ............... 39 1.14 Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) is Development.................................................................... 39 1.15 Natural Hazards as Stimuli for Improved ICM. .............. 43 1.15.1 The Great Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004: An Opportunity for Improved ICM................................ 43 1.16 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Tsunami 2004: a Foundation for MFF NSAP. ........................... 43 1.17 An Asian Perspective on Ecosystem-based ICM............ 44 . iii
  5. 5. Contents 1.18 Socio-ecological Systems (SES): The Human Face of Coastal Ecosystems. ......................................................... 45 1.19 Adapting to Future Uncertainty. ..................................... 46 1.20 Issues in Sustainable Management of Socio-ecological Systems........................................................................... 46 . 1.21 The National Strategy and Action Plan (NSAP). ............ 47 1.22 Towards 2030: MFF NSAP............................................ 48 . 2. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS.................................................. 49 . 2.1 Preamble......................................................................... 49 . 2.2 Methodology: Information on Ecosystem Trends......... 53 . 2.3 Coastal Ecosystems – Definition, Regional Diversity, and Use Patterns............................................................. 54 . 2.3.1 Definition.................................................................... 55 2.3.2 Structure and Functioning of the Seven Coastal Ecosystems..................................................... 58 2.3.3 Regional Diversity – The Coasts of the Provincial Councils...................................................................... 67 2.3.4 Distribution and Extents of Coastal Ecosystems........ 80 2.3.5 Coastal Ecosystems – Size Matters!. ........................... 81 . 2.3.6 Coastal Habitats: The Need to Reform Perceptions.. 82 2.4 Ecosystem - Catchment Relations: Defining the Wider Environment. ................................................................... 88 2.5 Multiple Uses and Development Trends of Coastal Ecosystems . ..................................................................... 89 2.5.1 Coastal Fisheries......................................................... 93 2.5.2 Special Area Management......................................... 105 3.5.3 Agriculture and Livestock........................................ 110 . 2.5.4 Industrial Development............................................ 115 2.5.5 Coastal Tourism Development................................. 118 2.5.6 Urbanization and Housing Development................ 120 . 2.5.7 Brackish Water and Shrimp Aquaculture................. 121 2.5.8 Mineral Mining......................................................... 125 2.5.9 Power and Energy. ................................................... 128 . 2.5.10 Anchorages, Fishery Harbours and Ports................ 128 2.6 Coastal Ecosystems and Natural Hazards: Vulnerability, Exposure and Resilience. ........................ 129 2.6.1 Post-tsunami livelihood support............................... 133 2.6.2 Tsunami-2004 Post-tsunami Trends .................... 133iv
  6. 6. Contents 2.6.3 Interpretation of Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems and Lessons............................................ 134 2.7 Societal Dependence on Coastal Ecosystems and Resources: Do Traditional Coastal Communities Exist ?. ..................................................... 134 2.7.1 “Traditional” Coastal Populations............................ 137 2.7.2 Non-traditional Coastal Populations........................ 139 2.7.3 Open Access Resources and Common Property Resources.................................................................. 140 2.7.4 Inferences.................................................................. 141 2.8 Ecosystem Change – Problem of Seeing and Understanding.............................................................. 141 . 2.9 Global Change and Sea Level Rise. ................................ 146 2.10 Problems to be Addressed in the NSAP. ....................... 147 2.11 Coastal Ecosystem Change Trends - Synthesis. ............. 148 2.12 Future Research............................................................ 151 .3. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP). ..........................................................................153 3.1 The Structure of the National Strategic Action Plan (NSAP)..................................................... 153 . 3.2 Policies. .......................................................................... 153 3.3 Strategic Action Plan (SAP). .......................................... 156 3.4 Relationship between Planned Development and Coastal Ecosystems. ....................................................... 167 3.4.1 Some Planning Questions and Answers................... 168 3.4.2 Validation. ................................................................ 169 . 3.5 Development Opportunities. ......................................... 169 3.5.1 Ecosystem Restoration Rehabilitation................. 171 3.6 Background to the SAP................................................ 172 . 3.6.1 National Studies........................................................ 176 3.6.2 National Workshop – 19 November 2007................ 177 3.7 Implementation. ............................................................. 177 3.7.1 Participation. ............................................................ 178 . 3.8 Monitoring Evaluation Strategy: Learning and Adapting................................................. 179 . 3.9 Compatibility with CZMP 2004  ................................. 182 3.10 Conclusion. .................................................................... 183 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................. 187 ANNEXES ............................................................................. 205
  7. 7. ContentsABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONS ADB Asian Development Bnak BP Before Present CAS Complex Adaptive System CBNRM Community Based Natural Resources Management CBO Community-based Organization CCD Coast Conservation Department CEA Central Environmental Authority CFHC Ceylon Fishery Harbours Corporation CM Coastal Management CPRU Coastal Planning Research Units CRC Coastal Resources Center CRMP Coastal Resources Management Programme CSR Corporate Social responsibility CVI Coastal Vulnerability Index CZMP Coastal Zone Management Plan CZM Coastal Zone Management DANIDA Danish International Development Agency DFAR Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources DNP Department of National Planning DS Divisional Secretary DSD Divisional Secretary Division ECCDP Eastern Coastal Community Development Project ExD Extensive and Scattered Distribution (reference to regional coastal maps) ED Education Department EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EPC Environment Protection Committee FCC Fishing and Coastal Communities FAO Food and Agricultual Organization FCCISL Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry in Sri Lanka FRP Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic FVP Finalized Village Plan GCEC Greater Colombo Economic Commission GDP Gross Domestic Product GESAMP UN - Group of Experts on Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollutionvi
  8. 8. ABBREVIATIONS ContentsGIS Geographic Information SystemGNP Gross National ProductGOSL Government of Sri LankaGPS Global Positioning SystemGSMB Geological Surveys and Mines BureauHMS Her Majesty’s ServiceICM Integrated Coastal ManagementID Incipient DuneiNGO International Non-Governmental OrganizationIPCC Inter-government Panel on Climate ChangeIRMP Integrated Resources Management Programme in WetlandsISO International Organization for Standardization IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature, Sri LankaIWMI International Water Management InstituteLG Local GovernmentLGA Local Government AuthorityLGF Large Grant FundM/Cons. I Ministry of Construction IndustryMCPA Marine Coastal Protected AreaMCZ Marine Coastal ZoneMDG Millennium Development GoalsMEA Millennium Ecosystem AssessmentMENR Ministry of Environment and Natural ResourcesMFF Mangroves for the FutureMFOR Ministry of Fisheries and Ocean ResourcesMIOI Multiple Inter-Sectoral, Organized Intervention (see Table 13)Mln MillionMOENR Ministry of Environment and Natural ResourcesMOF Minsitry of FisheriesMPA Marine Protected AreaMPPA Marine Pollution Prevention AuthorityMSL Mean Sea LevelNAPA National Programme of ActionNAQDA National Aquaculture Development AuthorityNARA National Aquatic Resources Development AgencyNARESA Natural Resources, Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka (now NSF)NCB National Coordinating BodyNGO Non-Governmental OrganizationNSAP National Strategy and Action Plan (Mangroves for the Future) vii
  9. 9. Contents ABBREVIATIONS NSC National Science Council NSF National Science Foundation (now NSF) OBM Outboard Motor OMRN Ocean Management Research Network PC Provincial Council PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (US) PoW Programme of Work P-P Public – Private Partnership P-P-C Public – Private – Community Partnership RGA Rapid Green Assessment (Tsunami 2004 impact on coastal ecosystems) SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAM Special Area Management SAMDC SAM Development Committees SAREC Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries SGF Small Grants Fund SIDA Swedish International Development Agency SLRDC Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development Board SME Small and Medium Establishment TB Ceylon Tourist Board TURF Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries UDA Urban Development Authority UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme Unis Universities UoM University of Moratuwa USAID United States Agency for International Development WRB Water Resources Boardviii
  10. 10. FOREWORD ContentsFOREWORDThe Mangroves for the Future programme is a partnership led initiativeaimed at promoting investments and action in ecosystem conservationfor sustainable coastal development. The initiative seeks to ensure ‘ahealthier, more prosperous and secure future for all Indian Ocean coastalcommunities’.Known as MFF, Mangroves for the Future programme takes a long-termview which addresses the continuing challenges to coastal ecosystems andlivelihoods. MFF currently focusses on the countries most affected by the2004 tsunami: India, Indonesia, Maldives, Seychelles, Sri Lanka and Thailand.In Sri Lanka, the destructive tsunami waves of 26 December, 2004 killedaround 40,000 people, displaced nearly half a million people and causedenormous environmental damage to much of the country’s coastline,excluding the north-western coastal area. A large area of natural ecosystemsincluding coastal vegetations, mangroves, sand dunes and lagoons hadbeen severely damaged. These valuable ecosystems have been known fortheir significant ecosystem services, crucial for the long term livelihoodsecurity of communities. MFF introduces a new paradigm for conservationof coastal zones by positioning ecosystems and the services they provide asa vital part of coastal development infrastructure. It addresses a number ofareas, including unsustainable development processes, poor coordinationand conflicting interests in coastal management between sectors, weakgovernance at the national level, inadequate regional collaboration inenvironmental matters, and gaps in capacity, knowledge and empowermentamong coastal ecosystem managers and users.The Coast Conservation Department in its Coastal Zone Management Plan– 2004 notes that “Sri Lanka’s coastal habitats have undergone degradationin different degrees during the past resulting in the decline of their resourcesas well as extents at an unprecedented rate”. The causes for this situationare well documented, and it is now evident that a more cohesive and anintegrated approach is required to address these issues. This NationalStrategy and Action Plan (NSAP) has provided an opportunity to examinethese matters in a more logical way by focussing on the respective parentecosystems as the units of management for human wellbeing by optimizingtheir value as development infrastructure. ix
  11. 11. FOREWORDContents As the NSAP notes, Sri Lanka’s coastal ecosystems are relatively small in size in their micro-tidal setting resulting in low carrying capacity and low resilience. The coastal ecosystems are distributed in association with the 103 rivers which influence their structure and functioning. The NSAP drew on the vast experiences in the country, primarily of the Coast Conservation Department and secondarily of the Central Environmental Authority, and seeks to support inter-sectoral mechanisms for integrated coastal zone management. It also complements the existing national policies. The preparation of this NSAP has been intensely participatory, with the involvement of the relevant Government Agencies and other stakeholders. It has been reviewed and updated over the last year or so, with considerable dialogue with the Coast Conservation Department, the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, and a number of experts. The entire process was overseen by the National Steering Committee (NSC) of MFF Sri Lanka. We would like to thank Dr J I Samarakoon for his research and analysis and for painstakingly compiling the NSAP. His commitment to ensure regular updating of the draft NSAP during the last year was outstanding. This would not have been possible if not for the efforts of the National Steering Committee of MFF, which regularly reviewed the state of the NSAP. We would also like to thank the previous Chair of the NSAP, Mr W R M S Wickramasinghe, former Additional Secretary, Ministry of Environment Natural Resources for his leadership during the formative years of the NSC. We also thank Dr D T Wettasinghe for editorial assistance. Ms Padmini Batuwitage Dr Ranjith Mahindapala Chair, National Steering Country Representative Committee, MFF Sri Lanka IUCN, International Union Additional Secretary, for Conservation of Nature Ministry of Environment Natural Resources, Sri Lanka Natural Resources November, 2009
  12. 12. Executive SummaryExecutive Summary1. The Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP) – 2004, prepared by the Coast Conservation Department (CCD), in accordance with the Coast Conservation Act of 1981 notes that “Sri Lanka’s coastal habitats have undergone degradation to different degrees during the past, resulting in the decline of their resources as well as extents, at an unprecedented rate”. Causal factors responsible for this degradation are both natural and human-made. Since 1990, coastal habitats were managed as per successive Coastal Zone Management Plans of the Coast Conservation Department. However, in the disturbing circumstances noted above, a more systemic approach is perceived to be imperative. This could be achieved through the integrated management of coastal habitats with their parent ecosystems as the focus. The Mangroves for the Future National Strategy and Action Plan (NSAP) provides an opportunity to initiate the shift to coastal ecosystems as the unit of management for human wellbeing and optimize their value as development infrastructure.2. Sri Lanka’s 1,600-km coastline has seven classes of inter-related coastal ecosystems: coastal marine zones (CMZ), bays, beaches, dunes, estuaries, lagoons and tidal flats. Mangroves, seagrasses, coral reefs and soft mud bottoms are habitats situated within these seven parent ecosystems.3. The technical definition of ‘ecosystem’ has been adapted to suit practical integrated coastal management (ICM) recognizing their fundamental attributes, namely (i) structural complexity – composed of interacting parts; (ii) linkages to the wider environment; (iii) dynamic stability - meaning predictable change without undergoing irreversible transformation; (iv) resilience – the capacity to bounce back after both natural and human-made shocks such as pollution; (v) ecological ephemerality (temporariness in ecological time); (vi) geomorphological ephemerality (temporariness in geological time); and (vii) coupling of ecosystem processes with those in the wider environment such as a watershed.4. Sri Lanka’s coastal ecosystems, excepting the CMZs, are relatively small in size in their micro-tidal setting (difference between high and low tide never exceeds one meter). Therefore, their carrying capacity as well as their resilience is inherently low. xi
  13. 13. Executive Summary 5. The coastal ecosystems and the associated rivers and watersheds of the wider environment, which influence their structure and functioning, are distributed over five Provincial Councils. Land use in these ecosytems comes under the jurisdiction of Northern, Northwestern, Western, Southern and Eastern Provincial Councils. 6. The NSAP draws upon almost three decades of ICM experience primarily of the CCD, and secondarily of the CEA. The MFF Strategic Framework affirms that it seeks to: “… support the inter- sectoral mechanisms for integrated coastal zone management through the Coast Conservation Department”. 7. The NSAP consists of three chapters - Chapter 1: Introduction, Chapter 2: Existing Situation and Trends and Chapter 3: The Strategic Action Plan. The first two chapters set the foundation for the priorities that have to be addressed in integrated management. 8. The more economically sensitive and productive ecosystems are affected by the ‘tragedy of the commons’ - too many people competing to extract a share of a diminishing resource base, since access is not regulated (open access). Many laws exist, but enforcement is very weak. The result is continuing ecosystem decline. 9. The MFF Programme’s vision, goal and objectives, in integrating and collaborating with other international programmes, are: Vision: a more healthy, prosperous and secure future for all coastal populations in the Indian Ocean countries, where all ecosystems are conserved and managed sustainably as development infrastructure; Goal: to conserve and restore coastal ecosystems as key assets which support human wellbeing and security; Objectives: (i) to strengthen the environmental sustainability of coastal development, and (ii) to promote investment of funds and effort in coastal ecosystem management. 10. The NSAP is an exercise in strategic planning. It identifies priorities for action based upon the analysis of the existing situation and use trends pertaining to coastal ecosystems. The management priorities identified require refinement in the context of situation-specific geographic settings, taking into account both biophysical and socio- economic diversity. Planning was guided by five caveats (see Box A).xii
  14. 14. Executive Summary Box A. Five planning caveats considered for critical assessment of material presented in the NSAP The following planning caveats are relevant in seeking to move from habitat-based CZM to ecosystem-based ICM. Caveat 1: “See and understand change, even where everything appears to remain the same” Understanding ecosystem change is difficult. Change may be so slow that it cannot be detected until appropriate time spans are considered (Diamond, 2002). This is made possible by a combination of techniques, time series photography and historical narratives of resource users. Caveat 2: “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result”. A wide range of unintended consequences of coastal management activities tell their story. Repetition of similar actions without an ecosystem perspective cannot produce a different result. Fishery livelihood in all ecosystems is seriously impeded. Caveat 3: “Understand the power dynamics at the local level that make action possible”. This is the challenge faced by a coastal manager. The issue is ‘distance management’ (Diamond, 2002). Decisions devoid of local participation make their implementation impossible. Caveat 4: “Repeated lies do not make a truth”. The virtues of mangroves have been uncritically applied in Sri Lanka based upon the false analogy of their structure and functioning in meso- and macro-tidal settings, in other countries. Today, the mangrove invasion of estuaries has become a serious problem. Similar situations need to be recognized generally to enable planning to deal with ecological reality instead of myth. Caveat 5: “A panacea or universal medicine does not exist for coastal ecosystem problems”. Ostrom (2007) brings together the viewpoints of several leading scientists to demonstrate the need to move beyond ‘… simple, predictive models of social- ecological systems … and to develop through more comprehensive models a serious capacity to diagnose problems before solutions can be identified …’.11. The character of coastal ecosystems is diverse. Their diversity is defined by geomorphology, coastal processes and socio-economic demands. The three classes of geomorphological landforms, viz. bedrock-related, depositional, and hydrologic and wind-generated have evolved in combination with eustatic sea level changes and land sinking during the past 10,000 years. These processes have set limits on their potential for contribution to national economic growth and to support local livelihoods. The micro-tidal hydrologic environment (tidal amplitude less than 1 meter), the monsoons, waves and sediment discharges combine to shape the behaviour of xiii
  15. 15. Executive Summary these physical landforms and their dynamic interactions at the coast. The continental shelf is narrow, has little surface relief and supports relatively low fishery stocks, except in the north where it widens and provides scope for different forms of sea-bottom relief including seagrass beds and corals. 12. Pressure on coastal ecosystems stemmed from population growth as well as conflicting demands from un-integrated development sectors. The population grew from 7 to 21 million, over the past six decades, with one-fourth living near the coast. Stresses arising from economic development have intensified. Coastal fisher-folk and their dependents rank among the poorest in the country because of depleting fishery resources, partially attributed to the impact of modernization of craft and gear. Today, about a million people derive their livelihood from coastal fishery despite the absence of meaningful management. 13. The NSAP adheres to four planning principles in considering management options directed at: (i) optimal utilization of development opportunities, (ii) equitable distribution of benefits, (iii) minimal damage to structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems, and (iv) prevention of negative externalities. Management of coastal ecosystems as development infrastructure hinges on understanding and addressing natural and human-made change, within the ICM framework. 14. ICM is a process that seeks to improve human wellbeing by maintaining biodiversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems, by integrating government with the community, science with management, sectoral and public interests, and investment in development with the conservation of environmental quality and functions. Its principles and objectives have been refined by learning from implementation in a range of countries and development settings. 15. Recent experience with coastal hazards and the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 reveals that increased resilience of coastal communities protects life and property. Resilience is an attribute of socio-ecological systems which have adaptive capacity, i.e. learning from experience to create conditions that enable bouncing back after a disaster.xiv
  16. 16. Executive Summary16. Change trends, pertaining to coastal ecosystems, define the strategic options available for planners to address any mismatch between ‘goals and values’ germane to the existing situation and society expectations. Ecosystem-human relationships, now subsumed under the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), are drawn increasingly into the globalization process. These human-driven relationships are superimposed on bio-physical attributes that have set the fundamental limits on coastal ecosystem structure and functioning.17. Published ecological research on the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems of Sri Lanka is rare. Reminiscences of scientists who were associated with research, planning and management of selected coastal ecosystems over the past decades bridged the gaps in information. Thus, ecosystems (and socio-ecological systems) are recognized both as complex systems and possessed of emergent attributes, which cannot be precisely predicted in the face of continuous environmental change.18. The coast refers broadly to the area of interaction between land and the sea including all seven classes of coastal ecosystems, namely: • The land belt with sand dunes, tidal flats, and water bodies (estuaries and lagoons) where tidal seawater and freshwater from land drainage mix to form brackish water; and • The beach, the belt of contiguous sea (about 10 kilometers wide) overlying the continental shelf to about 30 meters depth and including the sea bed. The coast in the NSAP differs from the legally defined Coastal Zone of Sri Lanka for functional and operational ecological reasons. It enables land use planning, the foundation of ICM, to be in harmony with ecosystem structure and functioning. The seven defined coastal ecosystems are: Marine Coastal Zone (MCZ): The approximately 10-kilometer wide belt of sea extending from the mean low-water level of the beach or other landform (e.g. cliff) to a depth of 30 meters. This includes the water column, and the seabed with its diverse physical features and associated resident and migratory populations of plants and animals. It is a definitional adaptation required in the Sri Lankan context. xv
  17. 17. Executive Summary The MCZ provides habitat for corals, seagrasses, seaweeds, algae, micro-organisms, and communities of organisms that inhabit soft muddy deposits. The majority of coastal fishers operate here. Bay: Coastal indentation, generally situated in association with stable headlands. A bay is connected with coastal marine processes in a manner which maintains conditions somewhat similar to the MCZ, but seasonally more influenced by land drainage. Beaches situated in a bay are anchored by the headlands. Generally, a bay is shallower and more productive than the open sea since it receives and traps nutrients and sediment from land drainage. However, one of the deepest bays in the world, Trincomalee Bay, also characterizes the Sri Lankan coastline. Beach: Beaches are accumulations of unconsolidated material on the shore. The material consists of various mixtures, among others, of mainly silica sand, coral sand, pebbles, mud and mineral sand. The appearance and quality of beach sand varies with the proportion of silica sand (from land drainage) to biogenic sand (shells and coral fragments) in the mixture. Sand dune: Dunes are wind blown accumulations of sand which are distinctive from adjacent landforms such as beaches and tidal flats. Estuary: Estuaries exist in many forms ranging from a simple funnel shaped opening of a river to the sea where freshwater from land drainage and tidal seawater mix to form brackish water, to the more extreme form of an estuarine delta (rare in Sri Lanka). Barrier- built estuaries rank high as the most productive coastal ecosystems since they receive and retain nutrients from land drainage. Estuaries and the MCZ are coupled ecosystems that are significant for fisher livelihood. The fate of a barrier-built estuary is sealed at the time it is born as the outcome of complex geomorphology. Longevity is determined by its own dimensions, the size and nature of the catchment, and land use. Lagoon: A lagoon is a late evolutionary stage of smaller estuaries where the tidal inlet is blocked by a sand bar, which is relatively stable and has to be breached forcibly to enable tidal exchange.xvi
  18. 18. Executive Summary Tidal flat: Low-lying land contiguous with the sea and coastal ecosystems such as estuaries and lagoons, affected by periodic flooding by stream flow and tidal inundation, and subject to persistent, desiccating wind. Such terrain develops characteristic vegetation consisting of halophytes (salt-tolerant plants which resist dehydration). The influence of salt is through periodic inundation or by salt spray. Tidal flats occur where the dry season is prolonged and strong winds prevail.19. The National Strategy and Action Plan (NSAP) flows from the analysis of the situation and use trends pertaining to the coastal ecosystems. These are summarized in Table A below, under the headings: geomorphology, demography, tourism, fishery, agriculture, waste management, and global change.Table A: Summary of trends pertaining to coastal ecosystems and relevant management planning options. Ecosystem - Change Trend - Issue Planning Options SES Attribute Geomorphology MCZ Open access competition intensifies among Multiple, inter-sectoral, fishers using traditional and small mechanized organized interventions boats. A period of respite and recovery ensued in (MIOI) including law the Northern and Eastern MCZs because of civil enforcement, property conflict. In 2003-2004 when a temporary peace rights, changeover from prevailed and normal fishing resumed, before open access nature, the tsunami, production in the North and East regulated land use by bounced back to a level higher than during the way of processes such pre-conflict level. Resilience of the MCZ thus was as ICM, etc. Research demonstrated. By 1988 (FAO, 1988) the coastal modelling where causes fishery had already reached the maximum are unclear. Interventions sustainable level. Overcapacity in small scale require support from fishing craft occurred following 2004 Tsunami. strengthened law Consumer price escalation compensates for the enforcement diminishing returns on the unit fishing effort. Fishery management continues to lag. Some form of common property resources use rights are under discussion. Bays Open access competition persists. Bays that As above. serve as anchorages face pollution problems from waste oil as well as material from land drainage. xvii
  19. 19. Executive Summary Ecosystem - Change Trend - Issue Planning Options SES Attribute Beach Erosion along the southern and southwestern MIOI. Consultation and coasts increasingly under control (ADB, 2006). research to identify Conflicts between fishers and tourism interests options for beach sharing are increasing. Conflicts erupted at some for multiple uses. Better locations such as Arugam Bay following the law enforcement. 2004 Tsunami. Dune Illegal sand mining from better endowed Mapping and zoning of and remote sand dunes reportedly on the dunes for optimal use increase as in Kalpitiya. Sand mining in Ampan- without destabilizing e.g. Manalkadu area increased during 2003/2004. Jaffna. Research. Limits of extraction not known. Estuary Hydrology increasingly threatened by MIOI. Research. sedimentation, pollution, land fill and misplaced mangrove planting. Diminishing fish catches. Periodic spikes in shrimp productivity. Lagoon As above, aggravated by closure of tidal inlet. MIOI, Research Tidal Flats Unregulated expansion in shrimp cultivation MIOI. Implementation of in Northwestern Province leading to serious existing strategies, law pollution in linked water bodies (Mundel, enforcement. Puttalam, Dutch Canal). Sensitive tidal flats associated with brackish water bodies in the Southern and Eastern Provinces require zoning which harmonizes biodiversity concerns and multiple uses. Demography Coastal The population directly and indirectly dependent Research – mainly Fishers on coastal fishery resources has increased in cultural anthropology. proportion with the three-fold increase in the The available studies country population from 7 to 21 million in six (e.g. Stirrat, 1988) decades. Catches have declined. Loss of income are limited and need is compensated by rise in market prices. widened scope. Migration Both male and female emigration for As above employment has increased mainly to Europe (especially Italy) and Gulf countries. Significance in relation to MCZ carrying capacity unclear. Poverty, Poverty among estuarine and lagoon fishers, As above coupled with Vulnerability and traditional coastal fishers has increased urgent measures to owing to depleted catches. Decline in wellbeing promote employment has been mitigated by remittances from female and income generation. family members employed abroad. Tourismxviii
  20. 20. Executive Summary Ecosystem - Change Trend - Issue Planning Options SES Attribute Land use and Potential for win-win coexistence between MIOI, consultation conflict traditional coastal land use and tourism exists. with private sector Appropriate models have not been developed. on modalities of P-P partnerships. Research. Fishery Food security, Increasing emphasis on the export-oriented MIOI. Research income sub-sectors including deep sea fishing (multiday boats), shrimp aquaculture and ornamental fishery. Too little attention to integrated ecosystem-based fishery management. Agriculture Food security, Abandoning of low-lying coastal lands, MIOI. Research. income consequent to inappropriate development efforts, continues. Optimization of land use including P-P partnerships little explored. Waste Management Pollution and Decline in coastal fishery and deteriorating MIOI, research, health health trend linked to water pollution, improper modelling sanitation, excessive groundwater extraction, depleted catchment Global change: climate aberration sea level rise Adaptation Impacts will aggravate over decadal and longer Application of techniques periods. Prioritization of hazard impact sites developed during 2004 not initiated. Mapping based on risk factors and Tsunami assessment. vulnerability indices is required supported by Research. mathematical modelling. Aggravation of chronic disasters - an uncharted territory.20. In order to facilitate learning effective ecosystem-based management, the common mistakes that lead to environmental harm are described in Section 2.8.21. The NSAP is based upon the fourteen policies listed below. Special Area Management (SAM) Policy 1. Support implementation of existing and future ecosystem-based ICM processes at SAM sites, designated in the CZMP 2004, through the xix
  21. 21. Executive Summary Mangroves for the Future Small Grant Fund (SGF) and Large Grant Fund (LGF) programmes, in collaboration with the Coast Conservation Department. Sedimentation and Pollution Policy 2. Stop, discourage and penalize all land uses and activities in estuaries, lagoons and their watersheds that facilitate accelerated sedimentation. Policy 3. Encourage and provide incentives to individuals and groups that undertake physical removal of sediment from estuaries and lagoons, including vegetation that contributes to sediment stabilization. Policy 4. Stop, discourage and penalize the discharge of sewage, municipal waste and industrial effluent, directly and indirectly, into estuaries, lagoons, bays and the MCZ, and generally in the wider environment of coastal ecosystems. Policy 5. Encourage and promote incentives for sanitation and waste treatment in the wider environment of all coastal ecosystems. Fishing Policy 6. Switchover from open-access fishing in the MCZ, bays, estuaries and lagoons to ‘closed fishing’ based upon combinations of licensing and tenure rights, supported by meaningful incentives for co-management (closure implicitly recognizes that ‘tradeable licensing’ cannot work in an environment where alternative employment is not readily available). Policy 7. Stop, discourage and penalize the use of mechanized trawls in the MCZ (10 kilometers) to a depth of 30 meters – to enable meaningful enforcement of existing laws and regulations.xx
  22. 22. Executive Summary Policy 8. Stop, discourage and penalize methods of ‘artificial aggregative’ fishing within 10 kilometers of shore, e.g. ‘light course fishing’ – to enable meaningful enforcement of existing laws and regulations.Land development Policy 9. Progressively zone and demarcate all coastal land with the goal of enrolling coastal communities, who are losing economic opportunities in ‘traditional practices’, to benefit from new opportunities based upon community tenure rights to common property resources (CPRs).Participation in Development Policy 10. Promote participation of coastal communities in development decisions based upon their own economic interests, and sharing of coastal resources by way of political advocacy and lobbying, without becoming dependent upon political and corporate patronage that fragment coastal ecosystems.Education and Awareness Policy 11. Educate and create awareness at all levels about coastal ecosystems based upon their actual geographic character and vulnerability, and potential contribution to local and national economic growth.Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Policy 12. Promote commitment to achievement of the MDGs at the level of Provincial Councils with particular focus on MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability. xxi
  23. 23. Executive Summary Disaster Management and Hazard Mitigation Policy 13. ‘Vulnerability’ and ‘risk’ assessments and maps must set the foundation for land use interventions related to hazard mitigation and adaptation to impacts of global climate change, and clearly directed at enhanced resilience of local communities. Policy 14. All interventions that seek to mitigate hazards must receive certification by the CDM and local authorities that ‘risk’ will not be increased as an unintended consequence (negative externality). 22. The NSAP is presented in Table B, in the format developed by the Regional MFF Programme, organized under 15 Programmes of Work (PoWs). Table B: Summary programmes of work and actions/outputs constituting the NSAP of the MFF Strategic Framework Programme of Work Actions/Outputs ACTIONS TO BUILD KNOWLEDGE 1. Improving the 1.1 Redefine and map coastal ecosystems knowledge base for coastal planning, policy and 1.1.1 Prepare an ‘Atlas of Coastal Ecosystems’ linked to a GIS management database by way of inter-disciplinary study, including: Sri Lankan reality: 1.2 Establishment of an interactive website linked to the GIS Limited knowledge about database of the ‘Atlas of Coastal Ecosystems’ for participatory the actual state of the acquisition of information, discussion of development topics, ecosystem and trends. promoting awareness on land assets and development opportunities, and building community awareness on the Problems: burden of unintended consequences. A. Misconception of 1.3 Establishment of a website supported with up-to-date ecosystem development photos for interaction with the media to maintain a flow of and evolution. ICM information on relevant problems and issues to generate practiced more for sustained national attention. This would enable management conservation rather of coastal ecosystems to be perceived as a ‘national problem’ than as a development since Sri Lanka is a ‘large island nation’ in which coastal process. Livelihood aspects processes have implications for entire catchments. discounted.xxii
  24. 24. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/OutputsB. A heavy burden of 1.4 Development of animated models (descriptive andunintended consequences mathematical) for key coastal ecosystems supported by(negative externalities) of research. The models will demonstrate progressive changefragmented development in structure, functioning and economic value (e.g. topo-undermining ecosystem chronological models, see Action 2.1). Such modelling maystructure and functioning. be feasible immediately for Puttalam Lagoon, Negombo Lagoon and Batticaloa Lagoon which now display persistentC. Mismatch between actual and serious signs of decline (eutrophication). These modelsstructure and functioning are also required for Programme of Work 3 (Reef-to-ridgeof coastal ecosystems and decision making).popular perception resultingfrom confusion with coastal 1.5 Lobby for establishment of a ‘political committee’ (orhabitats. Lack of integrated and some other mechanism) which would have power to guidea unifying technical foundation policy based upon knowledge transferred to the legislaturefor ICM based on a definition from Actions 1.1 to 1.4of ecosystems 1.6 Initiate an ‘adult education’ short course in a university/ universities to disseminate knowledge on ecosystem- based ICM using Sri Lankan case histories (including local language) supported by visual models to demonstrate long term trends.2. Designing ecologically 2.1 Review all development and restoration workand socio-economically completed or underway in order to:sound coastal ecosystemrehabilitation and - assess their impacts on the definitive characteristicsmanagement. and productivity of the ecosystem. e.g. in the case of estuaries and lagoons the assessment must focus onProblems: the long-term impact on the hydrological volume, tidal prism, tidal inlet width, surface area, depths, crossA. Gap between community sections, etc;perception of significance - relate actual costs e.g. Lunawa Lagoon restoration toof coastal ecosystems for potential costs for other estuarine ecosystems such aslivelihood and that of national Negombo, Puttalam, Batticaloa, Kokkilai, Nanthikadal,coastal managers/planners. Jaffna, and integrate them with national plans.Ecosystem rehabilitation forwhom? 2.2 Conduct research (3 months) that can link to Action 1.1.1 and to 1.4 and provide analytical case histories forB. Lack of models reflecting selected coastal ecosystems deserving of rehabilitation.trends in critical drivers The case histories would reflect topographical change with(natural and socio-economic) time (topo-chronological models) and causes of change.of adverse change in coastalecosystems. What part/s 2.3 Develop topographical-chronological models supportedof an ecosystem are to be by descriptive and mathematical interpretations thatrehabilitated? enable predictions in the long-term (see Action 1.4) of demand for economic goods and services. xxiii
  25. 25. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/Outputs C. Planting of mangroves in 2.4 Provide comprehensive training and guidelines for highly sensitive estuaries community leaders, and parties engaged especially in and lagoons resulting in estuarine and lagoon rehabilitation work, on ecosystem accelerating the reduction relations with a focus on long-term impact on the in hydrological volume and hydrological volume and tidal prism (including unintended aggravation of eutrophication. consequences of interventions that contribute to sediment build-up, especially ‘cut-and-run’ mangrove planting. D. Coastal community perception that improvement 2.5 Mobilization of women through ‘cash-for-work’ in wellbeing flows from programmes to remove haphazardly planted mangroves, severance of dependence on restore depth and replant as sediment filters and boundary natural resources. markers in a manner that will not diminish the hydrological volume and tidal prism in reference to models developed under Action 1.4. 2.6 Promote cultural anthropology research targeted at defining ‘coastal communities’ to determine trans- generational perpetuation of coastal livelihood, particularly inheritance of ‘rights’ 3. Provide decision support for 3.1 Establish a GIS database for coastal water bodies and ridge-to-reef approaches to their catchments in the Eastern Province, similar to that land resources management. described at 1.1.1 Problems: 3.2 Inventorize, map and classify all coastal management (rehabilitation) projects within particular catchments and A. Increasing frequency sub-catchments based on implications for hydrological of flooding in the Eastern volumes of associated estuaries and lagoons. Province (perhaps linked to climate change?), impeded 3.3 Promote and implement diverse interventions drainage and crop damage, for enhancing coral reefs as recreational viewing and increased social conflict ornamental fish collection sites in bays along the predicted to aggravate as Southwestern and Southern coastline while engaging in post-conflict investment in land use planning in the catchments to mitigate negative development escalates. externalities that threaten coral health and to add value. 3.4 Develop land zoning and mitigating measures for reducing immediate land use impacts from e.g. coastal tourism on coral reef habitats. 4. Integrating coastal 4.1 Develop ecosystem valuation models for diverse ecosystem economic values ecosystems. An appropriate model is urgently required for in development planning and a large estuarine system which accounts for impacts on appraisal. linkages within a catchment as well as long-term impacts of ecosystem processes such as sedimentation, flooding, property development.xxiv
  26. 26. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/OutputsProblems: 4.2 Land titling, land identification, and land allocation for landless coastal communities is ‘regarded’ as a necessaryA. The coastal ecosystem planning intervention to address poverty. Valuation ofgoods and services are given land zoning in the context of up market urbanization mayrelatively marginal importance reveal the manner in which economic drivers may be usedin national economic planning to address poverty.since impacts of negativeexternalities are not included.5. Learning from evaluation 5.1 Evaluate development consequences of:of the environmental effectsof coastal management i. Beach ecosystem management (CCD/DANIDA; CCD/initiatives, including post- ADB/Dutch Aid);tsunami response. ii. Special area management (CCD/USAID; CCD/ADB/ DutchAid)Problems: iii. Muthurajawela Marsh-Negombo Lagoon IRMP (CEA/ Dutch Aid)A. The official CCD outlookon CZM during the past two A key requirement in this evaluation of coastaldecades was confined to a management, implemented over three decades, is a morenarrow coastal belt which precise understanding of the relationships to sustainableexcluded consideration livelihood benefits, stemming from the managementof causes of ecosystem of coastal ecosystems, with particular regard to: (i)consequences. The ‘big picture’ empowering institutions; (ii) participation in developmentcontinues to be missed. decisions – governance; (iii) integrated land use; (iv) entrainment of corporate social responsibility (CSR). 5.2 Develop guidelines for planning and formulating ecosystem-based ICM projects, which target contributions to livelihood enhancement with clearly quantified baseline socio-economic indicators and predicted outcome from the project. 5.3 Develop measures for integration of coast protection and other engineering works implemented by CCD and other executing agencies of the MOF into ecosystem- based EIA. ACTIONS TO STRENGTHEN EMPOWERMENT6. Promoting civil society 6.1 Promote a nationwide media campaign on regionalawareness and participation in development opportunities linked with coastal ecosystemscoastal decision making and potential for economic growth supported by the MDGs and the accelerated restoration of the 2004 tsunami destruction. The campaign would highlight land use problems in sensitive watersheds, inappropriate land use and impeded drainage. xxv
  27. 27. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/Outputs Sri Lankan reality: The media campaign may promote a systematic long- term study of flooding risk based on probabilities and Unorganized coastal consequences associated with climate change to build communities whose relatively security confidence. This would link with Action 1.5 to small numbers are ignored demonstrate the need for integration among national, within the existing political provincial, LG authorities and the relevant bureaucracies power structure except in focusing on policy. urban settings. 6.2 Studies on flooding risk for the most sensitive Problems: catchments in the Eastern Province to highlight long-term adaptation measures associated with increased flooding A. Development planning frequency linked to climate change, identification of the based on inadequate weakest links, safeguarding food security and the role of understanding of diversity, women. constraints and opportunities - hence failing to enlist public 6.3 Studies on integration of the labour force and land participation. reform (to mitigate land fragmentation) to service economic activities generated by ecosystem-based ICM. B. Inadequate recognition of Study feasibility of land reforms based on collectively the relative smallness of some owned property rights. Existing national policy promotes of Sri Lanka’s watersheds and labour migration (e.g. temporary foreign employment) coastal linkages leading to a while the civil conflict stimulates emigration of Tamils. fragmented national outlook on coastal management. 6.4 Promote public awareness campaigns, among coastal communities, on development opportunities to enable C. Lack of predictive studies group organization, activism and lobbying to establish and guidance on management dialogue with LG authorities and national agencies. of flooding risk in sensitive catchments. 6.5 Generate a process of advocacy and activism related to multiple uses of coastal ecosystems. D. Diminishing labour force 6.6 Explore ways and means of promoting gender rights to man economic activities especially in high risk (hazard vulnerability) areas – learn generated through ecosystem- from the marginalization of women in relief, reconstruction based ICM. and rehabilitation 6.7 Promote learning from ‘best practices’ in ecosystem utilization, by way of study tours. 7. Building the capacity of 7.1 Initiate university-based training programmes for professional coastal managers imparting skills in ecosystem-based planning and adaptive for integrated coastal management. This would include mainly ‘training of management with the focus on trainers’ with the support of regional expertise. ecosystems (not habitats). 7.2 Establish Coastal Planning Research Units (CPRUs) Sri Lanka has a substantial at Eastern, Southeastern, Ruhuna, Colombo, Sri number of internationally Jayawardenapura, Kelaniya and Jaffna University to assistxxvi
  28. 28. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/Outputstrained coastal managers, in collaborative training and as the sources (public domainespecially in the CCD for repositories) of technical information for central andtraining of trainers regional planning. 7.3 Building capacity of coastal community leaders to access public domain information and professional coastal managers in promoting sustainable development through lobbying and political activism.8. Supporting environmentally 8.1 Initiate an awareness and motivation campaign to re-sustainable livelihoods for orient career expectations and stem urban migration ofcoastal communities coastal community youth; generate sustainable livelihoods based on effective management of coastal ecosystems.Problems: 8.2 Promote research through the CPRUs to fill informationA. Careers for coastal gaps (see Action 7.2).community youth - thereis a mismatch between the 8.3 Inventorize regional examples and case historiesexpectations of parents, their on policies and measures that have reversed thechildren and coastal planners exiting emigration trend from coastal (rural) settings(national and international). seeking lucrative employment elsewhere. How may economic choices be reversed in a globalized economicB. Lack of research and environment.information on careerexpectations of coastal 8.4 Formulate a process of licensing fishing, closing accesscommunity members. to the MCV and transferring collective property rights to coastal fishers, despite interventions that have resultedC. Lack of reliable information in drastic increase in coastal fishing effort through post-on land opportunities, tsunami relief and rehabilitation.investment requirements,infrastructure, policies and 8.5 Establish land use zoning, collective property rights tolabour force expectations tidal flats and investment in infrastructure for developmentto enable sound planning of of coastal aquaculture by way of P-P partnerships, insustainable livelihoods. keeping with corporate social responsibility (CSR).9. Improving community 9.1 Complete the analysis of data collected during theresilience to natural disasters MOENR/UNEP ‘Rapid assessment of the impact of the 2004 tsunami on coastal ecosystems’ and prepare a preliminaryProblems: ‘Atlas of Coastal Vulnerability – Negombo to Keerimalai’. This would provide a scientific basis for constructingA. Lack of scientific information Coastal Vulnerability Indices (CVIs).on the relative exposureof coastal communities to 9.1.1 Communities located at sites with higher CVIs maymultiple hazards. then be trained to explore the four factors that contribute to resilience:B. The lack of self-confidence - robustness of infrastructure;within an ‘at risk’ coastal - resourcefulness; xxvii
  29. 29. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/Outputs community to bounce back - rapid recovery – doing things quickly to get back on through organized self-help their feet; - absorb lessons learnt, including shifting to safer locations. 10. Identifying sustainable 10.1 Implement land titling and other property rights financing mechanisms for programmes that would prevent expropriation of coastal coastal ecosystem conservation common property resources (CPRs). Problems: 10.2 Establish a legal assistance entity to enable public interest litigation to safeguard common property resources A. Coastal communities and to prevent land expropriation. lack assets to enter into P-P partnerships to implement 10.3 Support land survey for identification and demarcation sustainable financing of common property resources for inclusion in the Finalized mechanisms as (e.g. eco- Village Plans (FVPs). tourism) 10.4 Train coastal communities in preparation of bankable B. Coastal land use decisions business plans for sustainable development of coastal are predominantly with the resources based upon property rights to ‘open access state although the constitution resources’. provides for ‘traditional use’ community rights of common property resources (CPRs). ACTIONS TO ENHANCE GOVERNANCE 11. Supporting national ICZM 11.1 Assessment of regulatory institutional relationships to identify the ‘weak links’ in law enforcement supported by Sri Lankan reality: actual case histories to demonstrate positive and negative consequences. Exclusion of coastal communities from meaningful 11.2 Raise awareness at the coastal community level on developmental decision making the consequences of weak law enforcement, and steps to coupled with biased law be taken, individually and collectively, to safeguard against enforcement. negative externalities on coastal ecosystems. Problems: 11.3 Support for media campaigns based on the technical aspects of ecosystem decline stemming from weak law A. Regulatory and law enforcement and improper land use. enforcement mandates fragmented among separate government agencies; inappropriate for ecosystem management.xxviii
  30. 30. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/Outputs 12. Strengthening the 12.1 Land reform to provide collective property rights to integration and enforcement coastal communities for the allocation/alienation of tidal of environmental and social flats for coastal aquaculture. safeguards in coastal land use planning 13. Building national systems of 13.1 Regional study is in progress and is mainly beyond the marine and coastal protected scope of national specialists except in collaboration with areas that contribute to a regional partners. regional network 14. Promoting adaptive coastal 14.1 Comprehensive participatory assessment of all management that includes past projects (Irrigation Department’s salt exclusion and ongoing ecological and socio- drainage projects, CCD/SAM processes, CEA/IRMP, NGO/ economic assessment and iNGO interventions, ongoing ADB/ECCDP, post-tsunami monitoring rehabilitation projects) in order to identify best practices. 15. Encouraging 15.1 Inventorize, map, identify ownership and classify environmentally sustainable all private sector entities (SMEs), located in proximity to business practices in coastal coastal ecosystems, to monitor their adherence to the areas ‘triple bottom line’ and application of corporate social responsibility. This would reveal the financial, technological Problem: and investment obstacles to compliance. Inability of majority of SMEs 15.2 Establish a funding mechanism to support business to adhere to environmental entities to comply with environmental standards, in standards and remain collaboration with the respective business chambers. profitable since much of plant and machinery were 15.3 Organize coastal communities to lobby against non- installed prior to enactment of compliance by SMEs on the basis of scientifically testable environmental regulations. evidence such as soil/water quality tests.23. The planning questions and answers relevant to the NSAP are:Question 1: What can the country gain from the investment to switch from management of coastal habitats to management of coastal ecosystems, when there are other priorities?Answer: It will safeguard future development opportunities that are directly linked to the health of coastal ecosystems, which otherwise would be lost forever.Question 2. Can the country afford it, especially ecosystem restoration? xxix
  31. 31. Executive Summary Answer: The country cannot invest on the scale required for comprehensive restoration and rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems. But it can afford the investment to stop their decline and retain present and future developmental opportunities. Question 3. Will investing in coastal ecosystems prevent another ‘Tsunami 2004’ disaster in particular and natural hazards in general? Answer: Sri Lanka cannot prevent natural hazards by investing in coastal ecosystems. But it can certainly minimize the loss of life and property by integrating useful interventions such as exposure, vulnerability and risk-based measures into coastal ecosystem management. However, planning with the next tsunami in mind is impractical since internationally renowned experts consider it to be over 400 years away (Sieh, 2006). Validation based upon actual experience is provided for each of the answers to the planning questions. Coastal tourism and aquaculture offer scope for development in well- functioning coastal ecosystems. Private sector participation in public-private-community (P-P-C) investment programmes are feasible with appropriate incentives and environmental safeguards against the downward spiral associated with global markets. Under prevailing conditions massive investment in restoration and rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems in Sri Lanka is not a feasible option. However, numerous well planned, site-specific, interventions are feasible to slow down the existing decline trends until favourable conditions return for increased investment. 24. The NSAP evolved through: (i) National study and consultation, focused mainly on situation analysis and trends, and workshop consultation, (ii) Regional studies and consultation, focused on gaps in knowledge required for coastal management; simple ecosystem valuation tools; training needs; sustainable funding mechanisms; institutional mechanisms required for sustainable governance; and role of and expansion of protected areas, (iii) Integration: combining findings from (i) and (ii) in consultation with the NSC.xxx
  32. 32. Executive Summary25. Participation and transparent decision making are the most important factors that contribute towards meaningful ecosystem- based ICM. The guiding principles, at the tactical level, are: • Do no harm; • Ensure there are no losers; and • Adhere to ‘subsidiarity principle’ Slow and steady progression based upon awareness and education is desirable. Ecosystem-based development must be made the responsibility of stakeholders. A carefully planned process of stakeholder identification is a practical first step for implementing agencies, to enable future transfer of long-term responsibility based on shared benefits.26. Monitoring and evaluating the outcome of the ecosystem-based management of coastal ecosystems, and how decision makers and coastal managers use that information, will determine the success or failure of the NSAP. The information may be used as an opportunity to extract lessons from actual experience in SGF and LGF projects, to improve development of adaptive capacity and future endeavour. The latter constitutes a tribute to the continuing effort of human beings to enhance their wellbeing. Carefully selected and measured indicators will reveal the manner in which coastal ecosystems contribute as development infrastructure for human wellbeing. Identification of project-specific indicators for monitoring shall be the responsibility of both SGF and LGF project proponents and the NSC.27. In keeping with Policy 1, every effort shall be made to consolidate the ongoing and envisaged ecosystem-based SAM efforts of the CCD, as embodied in the CZMP 2004. A framework to identify monitoring indicators has been developed. The goals and actual indicators should be arrived at in consultation with the on-site primary stakeholders, using logical framework analysis. xxxi
  33. 33. xxxii Executive Summary (Photo: Kumudini Ekaratne) (Photo: Dr Ranjith Mahindapala) (Photo: Kumudini Ekaratne)
  34. 34. INTRODUCTION1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Coastal Ecosystems FocusSri Lanka is the first South Asian Country to have a comprehensiveCoastal Management Law which came into force in 1981. Accordinglythe Coast Conservation Department (CCD), established for the purpose,has discharged responsibility in keeping with Coastal Zone ManagementPlans (CZMPs) using environmental impact assessment (EIA) as atool. However progressive degradation of coastal habitats could not beavoided. Both natural causes and human interventions associated withpopulation growth have contributed. The inherent complexity andfragility of coastal habitats and their susceptibility to many dynamicprocesses occurring both on land and the sea have to be addressedtogether in order to arrest, retard and reverse degradation. Persistingwith the same management actions as during the past three decadesmay not produce a different result. Now is the time to shift focus fromcoastal habitats as units of management to the complexity of coastalecosystems which include human communities (CCD, 2006).The Mangroves for the Future (MFF) National Strategy and Action Plan(NSAP) focuses on: • coastal ecosystems (which include human communities as interacting components) • coastal communities (interacting with the biophysical components) • trends in the conservation and management of coastal ecosystems (cultural aspects) • mission and vision of the Coast Conservation Department (CCD) charged with the sustainable development of coastal ecosystems and dependent communities in keeping with the Coast Conservation Act No. 57 of 1981
  35. 35. INTRODUCTION The ecosystem focus deviates from the ‘coastal habitats’ foundation of three decades of coastal zone management embodied in national Coastal Zone Management Plans - CZMPs (CCD, 1990; CCD, 1997; CCD, 2006). The CZMPs are prepared by the Coast Conservation Department (CCD) in keeping with its statutory mandate. An assessment of critical coastal habitats in mid-1980s provided the foundation for the habitat approach (Samarakoon and Pinto, 1988). Persuasive technical justification is now required to enable adopting the ecosystem approach in the next revision of the CZMP. The first step here is to realize that the ecosystem approach entails dealing with ‘complex systems’ and requires ‘systems thinking’ (Box 1). Box 1. Planning for Complex Systems and Applying Systems Thinking Complex systems: Systems can be understood as being simple, complicated, or complex. Simple problems, such as following a recipe may encompass some basic issues of technique and terminology, but once these are mastered, following the “recipe” carries with it a very high assurance of success. Complicated problems, like sending a rocket to the moon, are different. Their complicated nature is related to the scale of a problem (cf. simple systems), but also to issues of coordination or specialised expertise. However, rockets are similar to each other and because of this following one success there can be a relatively high degree of certainty of outcome repetition. In contrast complex systems are based on relationships, and their properties of self-organisation, interconnectedness and evolution. Therefore they cannot be understood solely by simple or complicated approaches to evidence, policy, planning and management. Also complex systems differ one from another. Therefore a single recipe does not provide a solution. Each and every complex system has to be addressed as a unique situation requiring an adaptive response. Systems thinking: Systems thinking is an approach based on the belief that the component parts of a system will act differently when isolated from the system’s environment or other parts of the system. It sets out to view systems in a holistic manner. Consistent with systems philosophy, systems thinking concerns an understanding of a system by examining the linkages and interactions between the elements that comprise the whole of the system. This helps us to see the big picture - from which we may identify multiple leverage points that can be addressed to support constructive change. It also helps us see the connectivity between elements in the situation, so as to support joined-up actions (integration). http://learningforsustainability.net/tools/complex.php
  36. 36. INTRODUCTIONCoastal ecosystems are complex systems which include humancommunities (Box 2; Figure 1). Even where the biophysical componentschange slowly, the processes in the human component grow, organizeand diversify relatively more rapidly. Therefore ecosystem-basedplanning carries many uncertainties. Planning may be simplified tosome extent by using change trends (ecological history) to map futures.Two questions arise: 1. Do change trends in ‘coastal habitats’ reveal deviation from planning goals and societal values? 2. If deviaition exists, what can be done to reduce, and where necessary, to restore balance?The CZMP 2004 (CCD, 2006) provides the answer to the first question.It asserts: “Most of Sri Lanka’s coastal habitats have undergone degradation to different degrees during the past resulting in the decline of their resources as well as extents at an unprecedented rate”.The NSAP provides an opportunity to search for an answer to thesecond question.Numerous studies of coastal diversity worldwide reveal that anappropriate land (spatial) unit possessed of ‘representational identity’must be selected for natural resources management to achieve replicableand sustainable results (Darby, 2000). This is the geographic space withwhich people interact causing change as well as being changed by itsattributes. That unit for coastal resources management is the ‘coastalecosystem’, more appropriately represented as a ‘socio-ecological system’- SES (Gallopin, 2006), which possesses emergent attributes (Box 1).The coastal area, where the land and sea interact, is the most dynamiccomponent of a country’s landscape. In this context, the ever changingnature of a coastal ecosystem, properly defined and understood, enablesboth internal and external drivers (forces) that cause change to beidentified and managed (UN Earth Summit 1992, Chapter 17; UNEP,2002). Figure 1 shows the diverse variables that influence change in acomplex coastal ecosystem – some manageable by human intervention,others beyond any form of human control.
  37. 37. INTRODUCTION Box 2. A socio-ecological system (SES) has emergent attributes An SES is a complex adaptive system (CAS) that is constantly changing in the face of new circumstances in order to sustain itself. This process of change is only partially open to explicit human direction, e.g. as influenced by policies and national plans. Importantly, change cannot be predetermined. From this perspective, capacity development (skills, organization, learning, adaptation) are emergent properties characterized over time by coherence, collapse and re-emergence. Emergence is an unplanned and uncontrollable process in which properties such as capacity emerge from the complex interactions among the actors (the social process component of the SES) in the system and produce characteristics not found in any of the elements of the system. The power and influence of emergence grows as complexity and uncertainty increase, and feedback occurs www.ecdpm.org/pmb22 Meaningful coastal ecosystem management is primarily local. Therefore, the ecosystem approach to conservation and management of coastal resources requires careful and precise recognition of diversity within classes of coastal ecosystems, namely: • bio-physical character • resource demands from society • attributes of dependent coastal communities 1.2 Coastal Ecosystems in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka has seven classes of interrelated coastal ecosystems, explained in greater detail in Chapter 2, which are made up of combinations of coastal habitats (Figure 2):

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