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Mangroves Document Transcript

  • 1. Mangroves for the FutureNational Strategy and Action PlanAn Ecosystem-Based Integrated Coastal Management in Sri Lanka
  • 2. ContentsMangroves for the FutureNational Strategy and Action PlanAn Ecosystem-Based Integrated Coastal Management in Sri Lanka 
  • 3. Contents Published by: IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Sri Lanka Office for the National Steering Committee of the Mangroves for the Future Programme, Sri Lanka, Copyright: © 2009 IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non - commercial purposes is authorized without prior written permission from the copyright holder provided the source is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of this publication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without prior written permission of the copyright holder. Research, synthesis and compilation: Dr J I Samarakoon Photographs: Unless otherwise indicated, all still photographs are by Dr J I Samarakoon Citation: Sri Lanka National Strategy and Action Plan (2009) Mangroves for the Future Programme, IUCN Sri Lanka Country Office, Colombo. xxxii + 219pp. ISBN: 978 - 955 - 8177 - 96 - 9 Cover Photograph: A hive of activity near the Fisheries Harbour in Tangalle; Ranjith Mahindapala Produced by: IUCN Sri Lanka Office Designed and layout by: K. Amila Tharanga Printed by: Karunaratne & Sons Ltd. 67, UDA Industrial Estate, Katuwana Road, Homagama. Available from: IUCN Sri Lanka Country Office, 53, Horton Place, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka.ii
  • 4. ContentsContents ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................. vi FOREWORD............................................................................ ix Executive Summary ....................................................... xi1. INTRODUCTION  .................................................................. 1 1.1 Coastal Ecosystems Focus. .................................................1 1.2 Coastal Ecosystems in Sri Lanka.......................................4 1.3 How to Read The NSAP. ................................................ 13 1.3.1 Structure of the Report............................................... 14 1.4 Planning the NSAP – Starting Point.............................. 15 . 1.5 The Tragedy of the Commons........................................ 16 1.6 The Mangroves for the Future Programme (MFF) – An Opportunity........................................................... 18 1.7 Integration with International Processes........................ 20 . 1.8 Terminology – a Clarification........................................ 20 . 1.9 Coastal Ecosystems: Bio-physical Reality and Need for Ecosystem-based ICM. ..................................................... 21 1.9.1 Evolution of Estuaries, Lagoons and Deltas............... 24 1.9.2 A Micro-tidal regime................................................... 24 1.9.3 A Narrow Continental Shelf...................................... 25 1.9.4 Geological Base and Geomorphology (Swan, 1983; Cooray 1982)......................................... 27 . 1.9.5 Impact of Technology................................................. 27 1.9.6 Coastal Processes. ....................................................... 29 . 1.10 The Developmental Setting............................................. 34 1.10.1 Development History and Poverty............................ 36 1.11 Planning Principles......................................................... 37 . 1.12 Management of Change in Ecosystems. ........................... 37 1.13 Causal Model Analysis of Coastal Ecosystems. ............... 39 1.14 Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) is Development.................................................................... 39 1.15 Natural Hazards as Stimuli for Improved ICM. .............. 43 1.15.1 The Great Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004: An Opportunity for Improved ICM................................ 43 1.16 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Tsunami 2004: a Foundation for MFF & NSAP. ........................... 43 1.17 An Asian Perspective on Ecosystem-based ICM............ 44 . iii
  • 5. Contents 1.18 Socio-ecological Systems (SES): The Human Face of Coastal Ecosystems. ......................................................... 45 1.19 Adapting to Future Uncertainty. ..................................... 46 1.20 Issues in Sustainable Management of Socio-ecological Systems........................................................................... 46 . 1.21 The National Strategy and Action Plan (NSAP). ............ 47 1.22 Towards 2030: MFF NSAP............................................ 48 . 2. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS.................................................. 49 . 2.1 Preamble......................................................................... 49 . 2.2 Methodology: Information on Ecosystem Trends......... 53 . 2.3 Coastal Ecosystems – Definition, Regional Diversity, and Use Patterns............................................................. 54 . 2.3.1 Definition.................................................................... 55 2.3.2 Structure and Functioning of the Seven Coastal Ecosystems..................................................... 58 2.3.3 Regional Diversity – The Coasts of the Provincial Councils...................................................................... 67 2.3.4 Distribution and Extents of Coastal Ecosystems........ 80 2.3.5 Coastal Ecosystems – Size Matters!. ........................... 81 . 2.3.6 Coastal Habitats: The Need to Reform Perceptions.. 82 2.4 Ecosystem - Catchment Relations: Defining the Wider Environment. ................................................................... 88 2.5 Multiple Uses and Development Trends of Coastal Ecosystems . ..................................................................... 89 2.5.1 Coastal Fisheries......................................................... 93 2.5.2 Special Area Management......................................... 105 3.5.3 Agriculture and Livestock........................................ 110 . 2.5.4 Industrial Development............................................ 115 2.5.5 Coastal Tourism Development................................. 118 2.5.6 Urbanization and Housing Development................ 120 . 2.5.7 Brackish Water and Shrimp Aquaculture................. 121 2.5.8 Mineral Mining......................................................... 125 2.5.9 Power and Energy. ................................................... 128 . 2.5.10 Anchorages, Fishery Harbours and Ports................ 128 2.6 Coastal Ecosystems and Natural Hazards: Vulnerability, Exposure and Resilience. ........................ 129 2.6.1 Post-tsunami livelihood support............................... 133 2.6.2 Tsunami-2004 & Post-tsunami Trends .................... 133iv
  • 6. Contents 2.6.3 Interpretation of Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems and Lessons............................................ 134 2.7 Societal Dependence on Coastal Ecosystems and Resources: Do Traditional Coastal Communities Exist ?. ..................................................... 134 2.7.1 “Traditional” Coastal Populations............................ 137 2.7.2 Non-traditional Coastal Populations........................ 139 2.7.3 Open Access Resources and Common Property Resources.................................................................. 140 2.7.4 Inferences.................................................................. 141 2.8 Ecosystem Change – Problem of Seeing and Understanding.............................................................. 141 . 2.9 Global Change and Sea Level Rise. ................................ 146 2.10 Problems to be Addressed in the NSAP. ....................... 147 2.11 Coastal Ecosystem Change Trends - Synthesis. ............. 148 2.12 Future Research............................................................ 151 .3. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP). ..........................................................................153 3.1 The Structure of the National Strategic Action Plan (NSAP)..................................................... 153 . 3.2 Policies. .......................................................................... 153 3.3 Strategic Action Plan (SAP). .......................................... 156 3.4 Relationship between Planned Development and Coastal Ecosystems. ....................................................... 167 3.4.1 Some Planning Questions and Answers................... 168 3.4.2 Validation. ................................................................ 169 . 3.5 Development Opportunities. ......................................... 169 3.5.1 Ecosystem Restoration & Rehabilitation................. 171 3.6 Background to the SAP................................................ 172 . 3.6.1 National Studies........................................................ 176 3.6.2 National Workshop – 19 November 2007................ 177 3.7 Implementation. ............................................................. 177 3.7.1 Participation. ............................................................ 178 . 3.8 Monitoring & Evaluation Strategy: Learning and Adapting................................................. 179 . 3.9 Compatibility with CZMP 2004  ................................. 182 3.10 Conclusion. .................................................................... 183 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................. 187 ANNEXES ............................................................................. 205 
  • 7. ContentsABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONS ADB Asian Development Bnak BP Before Present CAS Complex Adaptive System CBNRM Community Based Natural Resources Management CBO Community-based Organization CCD Coast Conservation Department CEA Central Environmental Authority CFHC Ceylon Fishery Harbours Corporation CM Coastal Management CPRU Coastal Planning & Research Units CRC Coastal Resources Center CRMP Coastal Resources Management Programme CSR Corporate Social responsibility CVI Coastal Vulnerability Index CZMP Coastal Zone Management Plan CZM Coastal Zone Management DANIDA Danish International Development Agency DFAR Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources DNP Department of National Planning DS Divisional Secretary DSD Divisional Secretary Division ECCDP Eastern Coastal Community Development Project ExD Extensive and Scattered Distribution (reference to regional coastal maps) ED Education Department EIA Environmental Impact Assessment EPC Environment Protection Committee F&CC Fishing and Coastal Communities FAO Food and Agricultual Organization FCCISL Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry in Sri Lanka FRP Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic FVP Finalized Village Plan GCEC Greater Colombo Economic Commission GDP Gross Domestic Product GESAMP UN - Group of Experts on Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollutionvi
  • 8. ABBREVIATIONS ContentsGIS Geographic Information SystemGNP Gross National ProductGOSL Government of Sri LankaGPS Global Positioning SystemGSMB Geological Surveys and Mines BureauHMS Her Majesty’s ServiceICM Integrated Coastal ManagementID Incipient DuneiNGO International Non-Governmental OrganizationIPCC Inter-government Panel on Climate ChangeIRMP Integrated Resources Management Programme in WetlandsISO International Organization for Standardization IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature, Sri LankaIWMI International Water Management InstituteLG Local GovernmentLGA Local Government AuthorityLGF Large Grant FundM/Cons. I Ministry of Construction IndustryMCPA Marine Coastal Protected AreaMCZ Marine Coastal ZoneMDG Millennium Development GoalsMEA Millennium Ecosystem AssessmentMENR Ministry of Environment and Natural ResourcesMFF Mangroves for the FutureMFOR Ministry of Fisheries and Ocean ResourcesMIOI Multiple Inter-Sectoral, Organized Intervention (see Table 13)Mln MillionMOENR Ministry of Environment and Natural ResourcesMOF Minsitry of FisheriesMPA Marine Protected AreaMPPA Marine Pollution Prevention AuthorityMSL Mean Sea LevelNAPA National Programme of ActionNAQDA National Aquaculture Development AuthorityNARA National Aquatic Resources Development AgencyNARESA Natural Resources, Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka (now NSF)NCB National Coordinating BodyNGO Non-Governmental OrganizationNSAP National Strategy and Action Plan (Mangroves for the Future) vii
  • 9. Contents ABBREVIATIONS NSC National Science Council NSF National Science Foundation (now NSF) OBM Outboard Motor OMRN Ocean Management Research Network PC Provincial Council PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (US) PoW Programme of Work P-P Public – Private Partnership P-P-C Public – Private – Community Partnership RGA Rapid Green Assessment (Tsunami 2004 impact on coastal ecosystems) SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAM Special Area Management SAMDC SAM Development Committees SAREC Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries SGF Small Grants Fund SIDA Swedish International Development Agency SLRDC Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development Board SME Small and Medium Establishment TB Ceylon Tourist Board TURF Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries UDA Urban Development Authority UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme Unis Universities UoM University of Moratuwa USAID United States Agency for International Development WRB Water Resources Boardviii
  • 10. FOREWORD ContentsFOREWORDThe Mangroves for the Future programme is a partnership led initiativeaimed at promoting investments and action in ecosystem conservationfor sustainable coastal development. The initiative seeks to ensure ‘ahealthier, more prosperous and secure future for all Indian Ocean coastalcommunities’.Known as MFF, Mangroves for the Future programme takes a long-termview which addresses the continuing challenges to coastal ecosystems andlivelihoods. MFF currently focusses on the countries most affected by the2004 tsunami: India, Indonesia, Maldives, Seychelles, Sri Lanka and Thailand.In Sri Lanka, the destructive tsunami waves of 26 December, 2004 killedaround 40,000 people, displaced nearly half a million people and causedenormous environmental damage to much of the country’s coastline,excluding the north-western coastal area. A large area of natural ecosystemsincluding coastal vegetations, mangroves, sand dunes and lagoons hadbeen severely damaged. These valuable ecosystems have been known fortheir significant ecosystem services, crucial for the long term livelihoodsecurity of communities. MFF introduces a new paradigm for conservationof coastal zones by positioning ecosystems and the services they provide asa vital part of coastal development infrastructure. It addresses a number ofareas, including unsustainable development processes, poor coordinationand conflicting interests in coastal management between sectors, weakgovernance at the national level, inadequate regional collaboration inenvironmental matters, and gaps in capacity, knowledge and empowermentamong coastal ecosystem managers and users.The Coast Conservation Department in its Coastal Zone Management Plan– 2004 notes that “Sri Lanka’s coastal habitats have undergone degradationin different degrees during the past resulting in the decline of their resourcesas well as extents at an unprecedented rate”. The causes for this situationare well documented, and it is now evident that a more cohesive and anintegrated approach is required to address these issues. This NationalStrategy and Action Plan (NSAP) has provided an opportunity to examinethese matters in a more logical way by focussing on the respective parentecosystems as the units of management for human wellbeing by optimizingtheir value as development infrastructure. ix
  • 11. FOREWORDContents As the NSAP notes, Sri Lanka’s coastal ecosystems are relatively small in size in their micro-tidal setting resulting in low carrying capacity and low resilience. The coastal ecosystems are distributed in association with the 103 rivers which influence their structure and functioning. The NSAP drew on the vast experiences in the country, primarily of the Coast Conservation Department and secondarily of the Central Environmental Authority, and seeks to support inter-sectoral mechanisms for integrated coastal zone management. It also complements the existing national policies. The preparation of this NSAP has been intensely participatory, with the involvement of the relevant Government Agencies and other stakeholders. It has been reviewed and updated over the last year or so, with considerable dialogue with the Coast Conservation Department, the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, and a number of experts. The entire process was overseen by the National Steering Committee (NSC) of MFF Sri Lanka. We would like to thank Dr J I Samarakoon for his research and analysis and for painstakingly compiling the NSAP. His commitment to ensure regular updating of the draft NSAP during the last year was outstanding. This would not have been possible if not for the efforts of the National Steering Committee of MFF, which regularly reviewed the state of the NSAP. We would also like to thank the previous Chair of the NSAP, Mr W R M S Wickramasinghe, former Additional Secretary, Ministry of Environment & Natural Resources for his leadership during the formative years of the NSC. We also thank Dr D T Wettasinghe for editorial assistance. Ms Padmini Batuwitage Dr Ranjith Mahindapala Chair, National Steering Country Representative Committee, MFF Sri Lanka IUCN, International Union Additional Secretary, for Conservation of Nature & Ministry of Environment & Natural Resources, Sri Lanka Natural Resources November, 2009
  • 12. Executive SummaryExecutive Summary1. The Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP) – 2004, prepared by the Coast Conservation Department (CCD), in accordance with the Coast Conservation Act of 1981 notes that “Sri Lanka’s coastal habitats have undergone degradation to different degrees during the past, resulting in the decline of their resources as well as extents, at an unprecedented rate”. Causal factors responsible for this degradation are both natural and human-made. Since 1990, coastal habitats were managed as per successive Coastal Zone Management Plans of the Coast Conservation Department. However, in the disturbing circumstances noted above, a more systemic approach is perceived to be imperative. This could be achieved through the integrated management of coastal habitats with their parent ecosystems as the focus. The Mangroves for the Future National Strategy and Action Plan (NSAP) provides an opportunity to initiate the shift to coastal ecosystems as the unit of management for human wellbeing and optimize their value as development infrastructure.2. Sri Lanka’s 1,600-km coastline has seven classes of inter-related coastal ecosystems: coastal marine zones (CMZ), bays, beaches, dunes, estuaries, lagoons and tidal flats. Mangroves, seagrasses, coral reefs and soft mud bottoms are habitats situated within these seven parent ecosystems.3. The technical definition of ‘ecosystem’ has been adapted to suit practical integrated coastal management (ICM) recognizing their fundamental attributes, namely (i) structural complexity – composed of interacting parts; (ii) linkages to the wider environment; (iii) dynamic stability - meaning predictable change without undergoing irreversible transformation; (iv) resilience – the capacity to bounce back after both natural and human-made shocks such as pollution; (v) ecological ephemerality (temporariness in ecological time); (vi) geomorphological ephemerality (temporariness in geological time); and (vii) coupling of ecosystem processes with those in the wider environment such as a watershed.4. Sri Lanka’s coastal ecosystems, excepting the CMZs, are relatively small in size in their micro-tidal setting (difference between high and low tide never exceeds one meter). Therefore, their carrying capacity as well as their resilience is inherently low. xi
  • 13. Executive Summary 5. The coastal ecosystems and the associated rivers and watersheds of the wider environment, which influence their structure and functioning, are distributed over five Provincial Councils. Land use in these ecosytems comes under the jurisdiction of Northern, Northwestern, Western, Southern and Eastern Provincial Councils. 6. The NSAP draws upon almost three decades of ICM experience primarily of the CCD, and secondarily of the CEA. The MFF Strategic Framework affirms that it seeks to: “… support the inter- sectoral mechanisms for integrated coastal zone management through the Coast Conservation Department”. 7. The NSAP consists of three chapters - Chapter 1: Introduction, Chapter 2: Existing Situation and Trends and Chapter 3: The Strategic Action Plan. The first two chapters set the foundation for the priorities that have to be addressed in integrated management. 8. The more economically sensitive and productive ecosystems are affected by the ‘tragedy of the commons’ - too many people competing to extract a share of a diminishing resource base, since access is not regulated (open access). Many laws exist, but enforcement is very weak. The result is continuing ecosystem decline. 9. The MFF Programme’s vision, goal and objectives, in integrating and collaborating with other international programmes, are: Vision: a more healthy, prosperous and secure future for all coastal populations in the Indian Ocean countries, where all ecosystems are conserved and managed sustainably as development infrastructure; Goal: to conserve and restore coastal ecosystems as key assets which support human wellbeing and security; Objectives: (i) to strengthen the environmental sustainability of coastal development, and (ii) to promote investment of funds and effort in coastal ecosystem management. 10. The NSAP is an exercise in strategic planning. It identifies priorities for action based upon the analysis of the existing situation and use trends pertaining to coastal ecosystems. The management priorities identified require refinement in the context of situation-specific geographic settings, taking into account both biophysical and socio- economic diversity. Planning was guided by five caveats (see Box A).xii
  • 14. Executive Summary Box A. Five planning caveats considered for critical assessment of material presented in the NSAP The following planning caveats are relevant in seeking to move from habitat-based CZM to ecosystem-based ICM. Caveat 1: “See and understand change, even where everything appears to remain the same” Understanding ecosystem change is difficult. Change may be so slow that it cannot be detected until appropriate time spans are considered (Diamond, 2002). This is made possible by a combination of techniques, time series photography and historical narratives of resource users. Caveat 2: “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result”. A wide range of unintended consequences of coastal management activities tell their story. Repetition of similar actions without an ecosystem perspective cannot produce a different result. Fishery livelihood in all ecosystems is seriously impeded. Caveat 3: “Understand the power dynamics at the local level that make action possible”. This is the challenge faced by a coastal manager. The issue is ‘distance management’ (Diamond, 2002). Decisions devoid of local participation make their implementation impossible. Caveat 4: “Repeated lies do not make a truth”. The virtues of mangroves have been uncritically applied in Sri Lanka based upon the false analogy of their structure and functioning in meso- and macro-tidal settings, in other countries. Today, the mangrove invasion of estuaries has become a serious problem. Similar situations need to be recognized generally to enable planning to deal with ecological reality instead of myth. Caveat 5: “A panacea or universal medicine does not exist for coastal ecosystem problems”. Ostrom (2007) brings together the viewpoints of several leading scientists to demonstrate the need to move beyond ‘… simple, predictive models of social- ecological systems … and to develop through more comprehensive models a serious capacity to diagnose problems before solutions can be identified …’.11. The character of coastal ecosystems is diverse. Their diversity is defined by geomorphology, coastal processes and socio-economic demands. The three classes of geomorphological landforms, viz. bedrock-related, depositional, and hydrologic and wind-generated have evolved in combination with eustatic sea level changes and land sinking during the past 10,000 years. These processes have set limits on their potential for contribution to national economic growth and to support local livelihoods. The micro-tidal hydrologic environment (tidal amplitude less than 1 meter), the monsoons, waves and sediment discharges combine to shape the behaviour of xiii
  • 15. Executive Summary these physical landforms and their dynamic interactions at the coast. The continental shelf is narrow, has little surface relief and supports relatively low fishery stocks, except in the north where it widens and provides scope for different forms of sea-bottom relief including seagrass beds and corals. 12. Pressure on coastal ecosystems stemmed from population growth as well as conflicting demands from un-integrated development sectors. The population grew from 7 to 21 million, over the past six decades, with one-fourth living near the coast. Stresses arising from economic development have intensified. Coastal fisher-folk and their dependents rank among the poorest in the country because of depleting fishery resources, partially attributed to the impact of modernization of craft and gear. Today, about a million people derive their livelihood from coastal fishery despite the absence of meaningful management. 13. The NSAP adheres to four planning principles in considering management options directed at: (i) optimal utilization of development opportunities, (ii) equitable distribution of benefits, (iii) minimal damage to structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems, and (iv) prevention of negative externalities. Management of coastal ecosystems as development infrastructure hinges on understanding and addressing natural and human-made change, within the ICM framework. 14. ICM is a process that seeks to improve human wellbeing by maintaining biodiversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems, by integrating government with the community, science with management, sectoral and public interests, and investment in development with the conservation of environmental quality and functions. Its principles and objectives have been refined by learning from implementation in a range of countries and development settings. 15. Recent experience with coastal hazards and the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 reveals that increased resilience of coastal communities protects life and property. Resilience is an attribute of socio-ecological systems which have adaptive capacity, i.e. learning from experience to create conditions that enable bouncing back after a disaster.xiv
  • 16. Executive Summary16. Change trends, pertaining to coastal ecosystems, define the strategic options available for planners to address any mismatch between ‘goals and values’ germane to the existing situation and society expectations. Ecosystem-human relationships, now subsumed under the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), are drawn increasingly into the globalization process. These human-driven relationships are superimposed on bio-physical attributes that have set the fundamental limits on coastal ecosystem structure and functioning.17. Published ecological research on the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems of Sri Lanka is rare. Reminiscences of scientists who were associated with research, planning and management of selected coastal ecosystems over the past decades bridged the gaps in information. Thus, ecosystems (and socio-ecological systems) are recognized both as complex systems and possessed of emergent attributes, which cannot be precisely predicted in the face of continuous environmental change.18. The coast refers broadly to the area of interaction between land and the sea including all seven classes of coastal ecosystems, namely: • The land belt with sand dunes, tidal flats, and water bodies (estuaries and lagoons) where tidal seawater and freshwater from land drainage mix to form brackish water; and • The beach, the belt of contiguous sea (about 10 kilometers wide) overlying the continental shelf to about 30 meters depth and including the sea bed. The coast in the NSAP differs from the legally defined Coastal Zone of Sri Lanka for functional and operational ecological reasons. It enables land use planning, the foundation of ICM, to be in harmony with ecosystem structure and functioning. The seven defined coastal ecosystems are: Marine Coastal Zone (MCZ): The approximately 10-kilometer wide belt of sea extending from the mean low-water level of the beach or other landform (e.g. cliff) to a depth of 30 meters. This includes the water column, and the seabed with its diverse physical features and associated resident and migratory populations of plants and animals. It is a definitional adaptation required in the Sri Lankan context. xv
  • 17. Executive Summary The MCZ provides habitat for corals, seagrasses, seaweeds, algae, micro-organisms, and communities of organisms that inhabit soft muddy deposits. The majority of coastal fishers operate here. Bay: Coastal indentation, generally situated in association with stable headlands. A bay is connected with coastal marine processes in a manner which maintains conditions somewhat similar to the MCZ, but seasonally more influenced by land drainage. Beaches situated in a bay are anchored by the headlands. Generally, a bay is shallower and more productive than the open sea since it receives and traps nutrients and sediment from land drainage. However, one of the deepest bays in the world, Trincomalee Bay, also characterizes the Sri Lankan coastline. Beach: Beaches are accumulations of unconsolidated material on the shore. The material consists of various mixtures, among others, of mainly silica sand, coral sand, pebbles, mud and mineral sand. The appearance and quality of beach sand varies with the proportion of silica sand (from land drainage) to biogenic sand (shells and coral fragments) in the mixture. Sand dune: Dunes are wind blown accumulations of sand which are distinctive from adjacent landforms such as beaches and tidal flats. Estuary: Estuaries exist in many forms ranging from a simple funnel shaped opening of a river to the sea where freshwater from land drainage and tidal seawater mix to form brackish water, to the more extreme form of an estuarine delta (rare in Sri Lanka). Barrier- built estuaries rank high as the most productive coastal ecosystems since they receive and retain nutrients from land drainage. Estuaries and the MCZ are coupled ecosystems that are significant for fisher livelihood. The fate of a barrier-built estuary is sealed at the time it is born as the outcome of complex geomorphology. Longevity is determined by its own dimensions, the size and nature of the catchment, and land use. Lagoon: A lagoon is a late evolutionary stage of smaller estuaries where the tidal inlet is blocked by a sand bar, which is relatively stable and has to be breached forcibly to enable tidal exchange.xvi
  • 18. Executive Summary Tidal flat: Low-lying land contiguous with the sea and coastal ecosystems such as estuaries and lagoons, affected by periodic flooding by stream flow and tidal inundation, and subject to persistent, desiccating wind. Such terrain develops characteristic vegetation consisting of halophytes (salt-tolerant plants which resist dehydration). The influence of salt is through periodic inundation or by salt spray. Tidal flats occur where the dry season is prolonged and strong winds prevail.19. The National Strategy and Action Plan (NSAP) flows from the analysis of the situation and use trends pertaining to the coastal ecosystems. These are summarized in Table A below, under the headings: geomorphology, demography, tourism, fishery, agriculture, waste management, and global change.Table A: Summary of trends pertaining to coastal ecosystems and relevant management planning options. Ecosystem - Change Trend - Issue Planning Options SES Attribute Geomorphology MCZ Open access competition intensifies among Multiple, inter-sectoral, fishers using traditional and small mechanized organized interventions boats. A period of respite and recovery ensued in (MIOI) including law the Northern and Eastern MCZs because of civil enforcement, property conflict. In 2003-2004 when a temporary peace rights, changeover from prevailed and normal fishing resumed, before open access nature, the tsunami, production in the North and East regulated land use by bounced back to a level higher than during the way of processes such pre-conflict level. Resilience of the MCZ thus was as ICM, etc. Research & demonstrated. By 1988 (FAO, 1988) the coastal modelling where causes fishery had already reached the maximum are unclear. Interventions sustainable level. Overcapacity in small scale require support from fishing craft occurred following 2004 Tsunami. strengthened law Consumer price escalation compensates for the enforcement diminishing returns on the unit fishing effort. Fishery management continues to lag. Some form of common property resources use rights are under discussion. Bays Open access competition persists. Bays that As above. serve as anchorages face pollution problems from waste oil as well as material from land drainage. xvii
  • 19. Executive Summary Ecosystem - Change Trend - Issue Planning Options SES Attribute Beach Erosion along the southern and southwestern MIOI. Consultation and coasts increasingly under control (ADB, 2006). research to identify Conflicts between fishers and tourism interests options for beach sharing are increasing. Conflicts erupted at some for multiple uses. Better locations such as Arugam Bay following the law enforcement. 2004 Tsunami. Dune Illegal sand mining from better endowed Mapping and zoning of and remote sand dunes reportedly on the dunes for optimal use increase as in Kalpitiya. Sand mining in Ampan- without destabilizing e.g. Manalkadu area increased during 2003/2004. Jaffna. Research. Limits of extraction not known. Estuary Hydrology increasingly threatened by MIOI. Research. sedimentation, pollution, land fill and misplaced mangrove planting. Diminishing fish catches. Periodic spikes in shrimp productivity. Lagoon As above, aggravated by closure of tidal inlet. MIOI, Research Tidal Flats Unregulated expansion in shrimp cultivation MIOI. Implementation of in Northwestern Province leading to serious existing strategies, law pollution in linked water bodies (Mundel, enforcement. Puttalam, Dutch Canal). Sensitive tidal flats associated with brackish water bodies in the Southern and Eastern Provinces require zoning which harmonizes biodiversity concerns and multiple uses. Demography Coastal The population directly and indirectly dependent Research – mainly Fishers on coastal fishery resources has increased in cultural anthropology. proportion with the three-fold increase in the The available studies country population from 7 to 21 million in six (e.g. Stirrat, 1988) decades. Catches have declined. Loss of income are limited and need is compensated by rise in market prices. widened scope. Migration Both male and female emigration for As above employment has increased mainly to Europe (especially Italy) and Gulf countries. Significance in relation to MCZ carrying capacity unclear. Poverty, Poverty among estuarine and lagoon fishers, As above coupled with Vulnerability and traditional coastal fishers has increased urgent measures to owing to depleted catches. Decline in wellbeing promote employment has been mitigated by remittances from female and income generation. family members employed abroad. Tourismxviii
  • 20. Executive Summary Ecosystem - Change Trend - Issue Planning Options SES Attribute Land use and Potential for win-win coexistence between MIOI, consultation conflict traditional coastal land use and tourism exists. with private sector Appropriate models have not been developed. on modalities of P-P partnerships. Research. Fishery Food security, Increasing emphasis on the export-oriented MIOI. Research income sub-sectors including deep sea fishing (multiday boats), shrimp aquaculture and ornamental fishery. Too little attention to integrated ecosystem-based fishery management. Agriculture Food security, Abandoning of low-lying coastal lands, MIOI. Research. income consequent to inappropriate development efforts, continues. Optimization of land use including P-P partnerships little explored. Waste Management Pollution and Decline in coastal fishery and deteriorating MIOI, research, health health trend linked to water pollution, improper modelling sanitation, excessive groundwater extraction, depleted catchment Global change: climate aberration & sea level rise Adaptation Impacts will aggravate over decadal and longer Application of techniques periods. Prioritization of hazard impact sites developed during 2004 not initiated. Mapping based on risk factors and Tsunami assessment. vulnerability indices is required supported by Research. mathematical modelling. Aggravation of chronic disasters - an uncharted territory.20. In order to facilitate learning effective ecosystem-based management, the common mistakes that lead to environmental harm are described in Section 2.8.21. The NSAP is based upon the fourteen policies listed below. Special Area Management (SAM) Policy 1. Support implementation of existing and future ecosystem-based ICM processes at SAM sites, designated in the CZMP 2004, through the xix
  • 21. Executive Summary Mangroves for the Future Small Grant Fund (SGF) and Large Grant Fund (LGF) programmes, in collaboration with the Coast Conservation Department. Sedimentation and Pollution Policy 2. Stop, discourage and penalize all land uses and activities in estuaries, lagoons and their watersheds that facilitate accelerated sedimentation. Policy 3. Encourage and provide incentives to individuals and groups that undertake physical removal of sediment from estuaries and lagoons, including vegetation that contributes to sediment stabilization. Policy 4. Stop, discourage and penalize the discharge of sewage, municipal waste and industrial effluent, directly and indirectly, into estuaries, lagoons, bays and the MCZ, and generally in the wider environment of coastal ecosystems. Policy 5. Encourage and promote incentives for sanitation and waste treatment in the wider environment of all coastal ecosystems. Fishing Policy 6. Switchover from open-access fishing in the MCZ, bays, estuaries and lagoons to ‘closed fishing’ based upon combinations of licensing and tenure rights, supported by meaningful incentives for co-management (closure implicitly recognizes that ‘tradeable licensing’ cannot work in an environment where alternative employment is not readily available). Policy 7. Stop, discourage and penalize the use of mechanized trawls in the MCZ (10 kilometers) to a depth of 30 meters – to enable meaningful enforcement of existing laws and regulations.xx
  • 22. Executive Summary Policy 8. Stop, discourage and penalize methods of ‘artificial aggregative’ fishing within 10 kilometers of shore, e.g. ‘light course fishing’ – to enable meaningful enforcement of existing laws and regulations.Land development Policy 9. Progressively zone and demarcate all coastal land with the goal of enrolling coastal communities, who are losing economic opportunities in ‘traditional practices’, to benefit from new opportunities based upon community tenure rights to common property resources (CPRs).Participation in Development Policy 10. Promote participation of coastal communities in development decisions based upon their own economic interests, and sharing of coastal resources by way of political advocacy and lobbying, without becoming dependent upon political and corporate patronage that fragment coastal ecosystems.Education and Awareness Policy 11. Educate and create awareness at all levels about coastal ecosystems based upon their actual geographic character and vulnerability, and potential contribution to local and national economic growth.Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Policy 12. Promote commitment to achievement of the MDGs at the level of Provincial Councils with particular focus on MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability. xxi
  • 23. Executive Summary Disaster Management and Hazard Mitigation Policy 13. ‘Vulnerability’ and ‘risk’ assessments and maps must set the foundation for land use interventions related to hazard mitigation and adaptation to impacts of global climate change, and clearly directed at enhanced resilience of local communities. Policy 14. All interventions that seek to mitigate hazards must receive certification by the CDM and local authorities that ‘risk’ will not be increased as an unintended consequence (negative externality). 22. The NSAP is presented in Table B, in the format developed by the Regional MFF Programme, organized under 15 Programmes of Work (PoWs). Table B: Summary programmes of work and actions/outputs constituting the NSAP of the MFF Strategic Framework Programme of Work Actions/Outputs ACTIONS TO BUILD KNOWLEDGE 1. Improving the 1.1 Redefine and map coastal ecosystems knowledge base for coastal planning, policy and 1.1.1 Prepare an ‘Atlas of Coastal Ecosystems’ linked to a GIS management database by way of inter-disciplinary study, including: Sri Lankan reality: 1.2 Establishment of an interactive website linked to the GIS Limited knowledge about database of the ‘Atlas of Coastal Ecosystems’ for participatory the actual state of the acquisition of information, discussion of development topics, ecosystem and trends. promoting awareness on land assets and development opportunities, and building community awareness on the Problems: burden of unintended consequences. A. Misconception of 1.3 Establishment of a website supported with up-to-date ecosystem development photos for interaction with the media to maintain a flow of and evolution. ICM information on relevant problems and issues to generate practiced more for sustained national attention. This would enable management conservation rather of coastal ecosystems to be perceived as a ‘national problem’ than as a development since Sri Lanka is a ‘large island nation’ in which coastal process. Livelihood aspects processes have implications for entire catchments. discounted.xxii
  • 24. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/OutputsB. A heavy burden of 1.4 Development of animated models (descriptive andunintended consequences mathematical) for key coastal ecosystems supported by(negative externalities) of research. The models will demonstrate progressive changefragmented development in structure, functioning and economic value (e.g. topo-undermining ecosystem chronological models, see Action 2.1). Such modelling maystructure and functioning. be feasible immediately for Puttalam Lagoon, Negombo Lagoon and Batticaloa Lagoon which now display persistentC. Mismatch between actual and serious signs of decline (eutrophication). These modelsstructure and functioning are also required for Programme of Work 3 (Reef-to-ridgeof coastal ecosystems and decision making).popular perception resultingfrom confusion with coastal 1.5 Lobby for establishment of a ‘political committee’ (orhabitats. Lack of integrated and some other mechanism) which would have power to guidea unifying technical foundation policy based upon knowledge transferred to the legislaturefor ICM based on a definition from Actions 1.1 to 1.4of ecosystems 1.6 Initiate an ‘adult education’ short course in a university/ universities to disseminate knowledge on ecosystem- based ICM using Sri Lankan case histories (including local language) supported by visual models to demonstrate long term trends.2. Designing ecologically 2.1 Review all development and restoration workand socio-economically completed or underway in order to:sound coastal ecosystemrehabilitation and - assess their impacts on the definitive characteristicsmanagement. and productivity of the ecosystem. e.g. in the case of estuaries and lagoons the assessment must focus onProblems: the long-term impact on the hydrological volume, tidal prism, tidal inlet width, surface area, depths, crossA. Gap between community sections, etc;perception of significance - relate actual costs e.g. Lunawa Lagoon restoration toof coastal ecosystems for potential costs for other estuarine ecosystems such aslivelihood and that of national Negombo, Puttalam, Batticaloa, Kokkilai, Nanthikadal,coastal managers/planners. Jaffna, and integrate them with national plans.Ecosystem rehabilitation forwhom? 2.2 Conduct research (3 months) that can link to Action 1.1.1 and to 1.4 and provide analytical case histories forB. Lack of models reflecting selected coastal ecosystems deserving of rehabilitation.trends in critical drivers The case histories would reflect topographical change with(natural and socio-economic) time (topo-chronological models) and causes of change.of adverse change in coastalecosystems. What part/s 2.3 Develop topographical-chronological models supportedof an ecosystem are to be by descriptive and mathematical interpretations thatrehabilitated? enable predictions in the long-term (see Action 1.4) of demand for economic goods and services. xxiii
  • 25. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/Outputs C. Planting of mangroves in 2.4 Provide comprehensive training and guidelines for highly sensitive estuaries community leaders, and parties engaged especially in and lagoons resulting in estuarine and lagoon rehabilitation work, on ecosystem accelerating the reduction relations with a focus on long-term impact on the in hydrological volume and hydrological volume and tidal prism (including unintended aggravation of eutrophication. consequences of interventions that contribute to sediment build-up, especially ‘cut-and-run’ mangrove planting. D. Coastal community perception that improvement 2.5 Mobilization of women through ‘cash-for-work’ in wellbeing flows from programmes to remove haphazardly planted mangroves, severance of dependence on restore depth and replant as sediment filters and boundary natural resources. markers in a manner that will not diminish the hydrological volume and tidal prism in reference to models developed under Action 1.4. 2.6 Promote cultural anthropology research targeted at defining ‘coastal communities’ to determine trans- generational perpetuation of coastal livelihood, particularly inheritance of ‘rights’ 3. Provide decision support for 3.1 Establish a GIS database for coastal water bodies and ridge-to-reef approaches to their catchments in the Eastern Province, similar to that land resources management. described at 1.1.1 Problems: 3.2 Inventorize, map and classify all coastal management (rehabilitation) projects within particular catchments and A. Increasing frequency sub-catchments based on implications for hydrological of flooding in the Eastern volumes of associated estuaries and lagoons. Province (perhaps linked to climate change?), impeded 3.3 Promote and implement diverse interventions drainage and crop damage, for enhancing coral reefs as recreational viewing and increased social conflict ornamental fish collection sites in bays along the predicted to aggravate as Southwestern and Southern coastline while engaging in post-conflict investment in land use planning in the catchments to mitigate negative development escalates. externalities that threaten coral health and to add value. 3.4 Develop land zoning and mitigating measures for reducing immediate land use impacts from e.g. coastal tourism on coral reef habitats. 4. Integrating coastal 4.1 Develop ecosystem valuation models for diverse ecosystem economic values ecosystems. An appropriate model is urgently required for in development planning and a large estuarine system which accounts for impacts on appraisal. linkages within a catchment as well as long-term impacts of ecosystem processes such as sedimentation, flooding, property development.xxiv
  • 26. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/OutputsProblems: 4.2 Land titling, land identification, and land allocation for landless coastal communities is ‘regarded’ as a necessaryA. The coastal ecosystem planning intervention to address poverty. Valuation ofgoods and services are given land zoning in the context of up market urbanization mayrelatively marginal importance reveal the manner in which economic drivers may be usedin national economic planning to address poverty.since impacts of negativeexternalities are not included.5. Learning from evaluation 5.1 Evaluate development consequences of:of the environmental effectsof coastal management i. Beach ecosystem management (CCD/DANIDA; CCD/initiatives, including post- ADB/Dutch Aid);tsunami response. ii. Special area management (CCD/USAID; CCD/ADB/ DutchAid)Problems: iii. Muthurajawela Marsh-Negombo Lagoon IRMP (CEA/ Dutch Aid)A. The official CCD outlookon CZM during the past two A key requirement in this evaluation of coastaldecades was confined to a management, implemented over three decades, is a morenarrow coastal belt which precise understanding of the relationships to sustainableexcluded consideration livelihood benefits, stemming from the managementof causes of ecosystem of coastal ecosystems, with particular regard to: (i)consequences. The ‘big picture’ empowering institutions; (ii) participation in developmentcontinues to be missed. decisions – governance; (iii) integrated land use; (iv) entrainment of corporate social responsibility (CSR). 5.2 Develop guidelines for planning and formulating ecosystem-based ICM projects, which target contributions to livelihood enhancement with clearly quantified baseline socio-economic indicators and predicted outcome from the project. 5.3 Develop measures for integration of coast protection and other engineering works implemented by CCD and other executing agencies of the MOF into ecosystem- based EIA. ACTIONS TO STRENGTHEN EMPOWERMENT6. Promoting civil society 6.1 Promote a nationwide media campaign on regionalawareness and participation in development opportunities linked with coastal ecosystemscoastal decision making and potential for economic growth supported by the MDGs and the accelerated restoration of the 2004 tsunami destruction. The campaign would highlight land use problems in sensitive watersheds, inappropriate land use and impeded drainage. xxv
  • 27. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/Outputs Sri Lankan reality: The media campaign may promote a systematic long- term study of flooding risk based on probabilities and Unorganized coastal consequences associated with climate change to build communities whose relatively security confidence. This would link with Action 1.5 to small numbers are ignored demonstrate the need for integration among national, within the existing political provincial, LG authorities and the relevant bureaucracies power structure except in focusing on policy. urban settings. 6.2 Studies on flooding risk for the most sensitive Problems: catchments in the Eastern Province to highlight long-term adaptation measures associated with increased flooding A. Development planning frequency linked to climate change, identification of the based on inadequate weakest links, safeguarding food security and the role of understanding of diversity, women. constraints and opportunities - hence failing to enlist public 6.3 Studies on integration of the labour force and land participation. reform (to mitigate land fragmentation) to service economic activities generated by ecosystem-based ICM. B. Inadequate recognition of Study feasibility of land reforms based on collectively the relative smallness of some owned property rights. Existing national policy promotes of Sri Lanka’s watersheds and labour migration (e.g. temporary foreign employment) coastal linkages leading to a while the civil conflict stimulates emigration of Tamils. fragmented national outlook on coastal management. 6.4 Promote public awareness campaigns, among coastal communities, on development opportunities to enable C. Lack of predictive studies group organization, activism and lobbying to establish and guidance on management dialogue with LG authorities and national agencies. of flooding risk in sensitive catchments. 6.5 Generate a process of advocacy and activism related to multiple uses of coastal ecosystems. D. Diminishing labour force 6.6 Explore ways and means of promoting gender rights to man economic activities especially in high risk (hazard vulnerability) areas – learn generated through ecosystem- from the marginalization of women in relief, reconstruction based ICM. and rehabilitation 6.7 Promote learning from ‘best practices’ in ecosystem utilization, by way of study tours. 7. Building the capacity of 7.1 Initiate university-based training programmes for professional coastal managers imparting skills in ecosystem-based planning and adaptive for integrated coastal management. This would include mainly ‘training of management with the focus on trainers’ with the support of regional expertise. ecosystems (not habitats). 7.2 Establish Coastal Planning & Research Units (CPRUs) Sri Lanka has a substantial at Eastern, Southeastern, Ruhuna, Colombo, Sri number of internationally Jayawardenapura, Kelaniya and Jaffna University to assistxxvi
  • 28. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/Outputstrained coastal managers, in collaborative training and as the sources (public domainespecially in the CCD for repositories) of technical information for central andtraining of trainers regional planning. 7.3 Building capacity of coastal community leaders to access public domain information and professional coastal managers in promoting sustainable development through lobbying and political activism.8. Supporting environmentally 8.1 Initiate an awareness and motivation campaign to re-sustainable livelihoods for orient career expectations and stem urban migration ofcoastal communities coastal community youth; generate sustainable livelihoods based on effective management of coastal ecosystems.Problems: 8.2 Promote research through the CPRUs to fill informationA. Careers for coastal gaps (see Action 7.2).community youth - thereis a mismatch between the 8.3 Inventorize regional examples and case historiesexpectations of parents, their on policies and measures that have reversed thechildren and coastal planners exiting emigration trend from coastal (rural) settings(national and international). seeking lucrative employment elsewhere. How may economic choices be reversed in a globalized economicB. Lack of research and environment.information on careerexpectations of coastal 8.4 Formulate a process of licensing fishing, closing accesscommunity members. to the MCV and transferring collective property rights to coastal fishers, despite interventions that have resultedC. Lack of reliable information in drastic increase in coastal fishing effort through post-on land opportunities, tsunami relief and rehabilitation.investment requirements,infrastructure, policies and 8.5 Establish land use zoning, collective property rights tolabour force expectations tidal flats and investment in infrastructure for developmentto enable sound planning of of coastal aquaculture by way of P-P partnerships, insustainable livelihoods. keeping with corporate social responsibility (CSR).9. Improving community 9.1 Complete the analysis of data collected during theresilience to natural disasters MOENR/UNEP ‘Rapid assessment of the impact of the 2004 tsunami on coastal ecosystems’ and prepare a preliminaryProblems: ‘Atlas of Coastal Vulnerability – Negombo to Keerimalai’. This would provide a scientific basis for constructingA. Lack of scientific information Coastal Vulnerability Indices (CVIs).on the relative exposureof coastal communities to 9.1.1 Communities located at sites with higher CVIs maymultiple hazards. then be trained to explore the four factors that contribute to resilience:B. The lack of self-confidence - robustness of infrastructure;within an ‘at risk’ coastal - resourcefulness; xxvii
  • 29. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/Outputs community to bounce back - rapid recovery – doing things quickly to get back on through organized self-help their feet; - absorb lessons learnt, including shifting to safer locations. 10. Identifying sustainable 10.1 Implement land titling and other property rights financing mechanisms for programmes that would prevent expropriation of coastal coastal ecosystem conservation common property resources (CPRs). Problems: 10.2 Establish a legal assistance entity to enable public interest litigation to safeguard common property resources A. Coastal communities and to prevent land expropriation. lack assets to enter into P-P partnerships to implement 10.3 Support land survey for identification and demarcation sustainable financing of common property resources for inclusion in the Finalized mechanisms as (e.g. eco- Village Plans (FVPs). tourism) 10.4 Train coastal communities in preparation of bankable B. Coastal land use decisions business plans for sustainable development of coastal are predominantly with the resources based upon property rights to ‘open access state although the constitution resources’. provides for ‘traditional use’ community rights of common property resources (CPRs). ACTIONS TO ENHANCE GOVERNANCE 11. Supporting national ICZM 11.1 Assessment of regulatory institutional relationships to identify the ‘weak links’ in law enforcement supported by Sri Lankan reality: actual case histories to demonstrate positive and negative consequences. Exclusion of coastal communities from meaningful 11.2 Raise awareness at the coastal community level on developmental decision making the consequences of weak law enforcement, and steps to coupled with biased law be taken, individually and collectively, to safeguard against enforcement. negative externalities on coastal ecosystems. Problems: 11.3 Support for media campaigns based on the technical aspects of ecosystem decline stemming from weak law A. Regulatory and law enforcement and improper land use. enforcement mandates fragmented among separate government agencies; inappropriate for ecosystem management.xxviii
  • 30. Executive Summary Programme of Work Actions/Outputs 12. Strengthening the 12.1 Land reform to provide collective property rights to integration and enforcement coastal communities for the allocation/alienation of tidal of environmental and social flats for coastal aquaculture. safeguards in coastal land use planning 13. Building national systems of 13.1 Regional study is in progress and is mainly beyond the marine and coastal protected scope of national specialists except in collaboration with areas that contribute to a regional partners. regional network 14. Promoting adaptive coastal 14.1 Comprehensive participatory assessment of all management that includes past projects (Irrigation Department’s salt exclusion and ongoing ecological and socio- drainage projects, CCD/SAM processes, CEA/IRMP, NGO/ economic assessment and iNGO interventions, ongoing ADB/ECCDP, post-tsunami monitoring rehabilitation projects) in order to identify best practices. 15. Encouraging 15.1 Inventorize, map, identify ownership and classify environmentally sustainable all private sector entities (SMEs), located in proximity to business practices in coastal coastal ecosystems, to monitor their adherence to the areas ‘triple bottom line’ and application of corporate social responsibility. This would reveal the financial, technological Problem: and investment obstacles to compliance. Inability of majority of SMEs 15.2 Establish a funding mechanism to support business to adhere to environmental entities to comply with environmental standards, in standards and remain collaboration with the respective business chambers. profitable since much of plant and machinery were 15.3 Organize coastal communities to lobby against non- installed prior to enactment of compliance by SMEs on the basis of scientifically testable environmental regulations. evidence such as soil/water quality tests.23. The planning questions and answers relevant to the NSAP are:Question 1: What can the country gain from the investment to switch from management of coastal habitats to management of coastal ecosystems, when there are other priorities?Answer: It will safeguard future development opportunities that are directly linked to the health of coastal ecosystems, which otherwise would be lost forever.Question 2. Can the country afford it, especially ecosystem restoration? xxix
  • 31. Executive Summary Answer: The country cannot invest on the scale required for comprehensive restoration and rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems. But it can afford the investment to stop their decline and retain present and future developmental opportunities. Question 3. Will investing in coastal ecosystems prevent another ‘Tsunami 2004’ disaster in particular and natural hazards in general? Answer: Sri Lanka cannot prevent natural hazards by investing in coastal ecosystems. But it can certainly minimize the loss of life and property by integrating useful interventions such as exposure, vulnerability and risk-based measures into coastal ecosystem management. However, planning with the next tsunami in mind is impractical since internationally renowned experts consider it to be over 400 years away (Sieh, 2006). Validation based upon actual experience is provided for each of the answers to the planning questions. Coastal tourism and aquaculture offer scope for development in well- functioning coastal ecosystems. Private sector participation in public-private-community (P-P-C) investment programmes are feasible with appropriate incentives and environmental safeguards against the downward spiral associated with global markets. Under prevailing conditions massive investment in restoration and rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems in Sri Lanka is not a feasible option. However, numerous well planned, site-specific, interventions are feasible to slow down the existing decline trends until favourable conditions return for increased investment. 24. The NSAP evolved through: (i) National study and consultation, focused mainly on situation analysis and trends, and workshop consultation, (ii) Regional studies and consultation, focused on gaps in knowledge required for coastal management; simple ecosystem valuation tools; training needs; sustainable funding mechanisms; institutional mechanisms required for sustainable governance; and role of and expansion of protected areas, (iii) Integration: combining findings from (i) and (ii) in consultation with the
  • 32. Executive Summary25. Participation and transparent decision making are the most important factors that contribute towards meaningful ecosystem- based ICM. The guiding principles, at the tactical level, are: • Do no harm; • Ensure there are no losers; and • Adhere to ‘subsidiarity principle’ Slow and steady progression based upon awareness and education is desirable. Ecosystem-based development must be made the responsibility of stakeholders. A carefully planned process of stakeholder identification is a practical first step for implementing agencies, to enable future transfer of long-term responsibility based on shared benefits.26. Monitoring and evaluating the outcome of the ecosystem-based management of coastal ecosystems, and how decision makers and coastal managers use that information, will determine the success or failure of the NSAP. The information may be used as an opportunity to extract lessons from actual experience in SGF and LGF projects, to improve development of adaptive capacity and future endeavour. The latter constitutes a tribute to the continuing effort of human beings to enhance their wellbeing. Carefully selected and measured indicators will reveal the manner in which coastal ecosystems contribute as development infrastructure for human wellbeing. Identification of project-specific indicators for monitoring shall be the responsibility of both SGF and LGF project proponents and the NSC.27. In keeping with Policy 1, every effort shall be made to consolidate the ongoing and envisaged ecosystem-based SAM efforts of the CCD, as embodied in the CZMP 2004. A framework to identify monitoring indicators has been developed. The goals and actual indicators should be arrived at in consultation with the on-site primary stakeholders, using logical framework analysis. xxxi
  • 33. xxxii Executive Summary (Photo: Kumudini Ekaratne) (Photo: Dr Ranjith Mahindapala) (Photo: Kumudini Ekaratne)
  • 34. INTRODUCTION1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Coastal Ecosystems FocusSri Lanka is the first South Asian Country to have a comprehensiveCoastal Management Law which came into force in 1981. Accordinglythe Coast Conservation Department (CCD), established for the purpose,has discharged responsibility in keeping with Coastal Zone ManagementPlans (CZMPs) using environmental impact assessment (EIA) as atool. However progressive degradation of coastal habitats could not beavoided. Both natural causes and human interventions associated withpopulation growth have contributed. The inherent complexity andfragility of coastal habitats and their susceptibility to many dynamicprocesses occurring both on land and the sea have to be addressedtogether in order to arrest, retard and reverse degradation. Persistingwith the same management actions as during the past three decadesmay not produce a different result. Now is the time to shift focus fromcoastal habitats as units of management to the complexity of coastalecosystems which include human communities (CCD, 2006).The Mangroves for the Future (MFF) National Strategy and Action Plan(NSAP) focuses on: • coastal ecosystems (which include human communities as interacting components) • coastal communities (interacting with the biophysical components) • trends in the conservation and management of coastal ecosystems (cultural aspects) • mission and vision of the Coast Conservation Department (CCD) charged with the sustainable development of coastal ecosystems and dependent communities in keeping with the Coast Conservation Act No. 57 of 1981 
  • 35. INTRODUCTION The ecosystem focus deviates from the ‘coastal habitats’ foundation of three decades of coastal zone management embodied in national Coastal Zone Management Plans - CZMPs (CCD, 1990; CCD, 1997; CCD, 2006). The CZMPs are prepared by the Coast Conservation Department (CCD) in keeping with its statutory mandate. An assessment of critical coastal habitats in mid-1980s provided the foundation for the habitat approach (Samarakoon and Pinto, 1988). Persuasive technical justification is now required to enable adopting the ecosystem approach in the next revision of the CZMP. The first step here is to realize that the ecosystem approach entails dealing with ‘complex systems’ and requires ‘systems thinking’ (Box 1). Box 1. Planning for Complex Systems and Applying Systems Thinking Complex systems: Systems can be understood as being simple, complicated, or complex. Simple problems, such as following a recipe may encompass some basic issues of technique and terminology, but once these are mastered, following the “recipe” carries with it a very high assurance of success. Complicated problems, like sending a rocket to the moon, are different. Their complicated nature is related to the scale of a problem (cf. simple systems), but also to issues of coordination or specialised expertise. However, rockets are similar to each other and because of this following one success there can be a relatively high degree of certainty of outcome repetition. In contrast complex systems are based on relationships, and their properties of self-organisation, interconnectedness and evolution. Therefore they cannot be understood solely by simple or complicated approaches to evidence, policy, planning and management. Also complex systems differ one from another. Therefore a single recipe does not provide a solution. Each and every complex system has to be addressed as a unique situation requiring an adaptive response. Systems thinking: Systems thinking is an approach based on the belief that the component parts of a system will act differently when isolated from the system’s environment or other parts of the system. It sets out to view systems in a holistic manner. Consistent with systems philosophy, systems thinking concerns an understanding of a system by examining the linkages and interactions between the elements that comprise the whole of the system. This helps us to see the big picture - from which we may identify multiple leverage points that can be addressed to support constructive change. It also helps us see the connectivity between elements in the situation, so as to support joined-up actions (integration). <>
  • 36. INTRODUCTIONCoastal ecosystems are complex systems which include humancommunities (Box 2; Figure 1). Even where the biophysical componentschange slowly, the processes in the human component grow, organizeand diversify relatively more rapidly. Therefore ecosystem-basedplanning carries many uncertainties. Planning may be simplified tosome extent by using change trends (ecological history) to map futures.Two questions arise: 1. Do change trends in ‘coastal habitats’ reveal deviation from planning goals and societal values? 2. If deviaition exists, what can be done to reduce, and where necessary, to restore balance?The CZMP 2004 (CCD, 2006) provides the answer to the first question.It asserts: “Most of Sri Lanka’s coastal habitats have undergone degradation to different degrees during the past resulting in the decline of their resources as well as extents at an unprecedented rate”.The NSAP provides an opportunity to search for an answer to thesecond question.Numerous studies of coastal diversity worldwide reveal that anappropriate land (spatial) unit possessed of ‘representational identity’must be selected for natural resources management to achieve replicableand sustainable results (Darby, 2000). This is the geographic space withwhich people interact causing change as well as being changed by itsattributes. That unit for coastal resources management is the ‘coastalecosystem’, more appropriately represented as a ‘socio-ecological system’- SES (Gallopin, 2006), which possesses emergent attributes (Box 1).The coastal area, where the land and sea interact, is the most dynamiccomponent of a country’s landscape. In this context, the ever changingnature of a coastal ecosystem, properly defined and understood, enablesboth internal and external drivers (forces) that cause change to beidentified and managed (UN Earth Summit 1992, Chapter 17; UNEP,2002). Figure 1 shows the diverse variables that influence change in acomplex coastal ecosystem – some manageable by human intervention,others beyond any form of human control. 
  • 37. INTRODUCTION Box 2. A socio-ecological system (SES) has emergent attributes An SES is a complex adaptive system (CAS) that is constantly changing in the face of new circumstances in order to sustain itself. This process of change is only partially open to explicit human direction, e.g. as influenced by policies and national plans. Importantly, change cannot be predetermined. From this perspective, capacity development (skills, organization, learning, adaptation) are emergent properties characterized over time by coherence, collapse and re-emergence. Emergence is an unplanned and uncontrollable process in which properties such as capacity emerge from the complex interactions among the actors (the social process component of the SES) in the system and produce characteristics not found in any of the elements of the system. The power and influence of emergence grows as complexity and uncertainty increase, and feedback occurs <> Meaningful coastal ecosystem management is primarily local. Therefore, the ecosystem approach to conservation and management of coastal resources requires careful and precise recognition of diversity within classes of coastal ecosystems, namely: • bio-physical character • resource demands from society • attributes of dependent coastal communities 1.2 Coastal Ecosystems in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka has seven classes of interrelated coastal ecosystems, explained in greater detail in Chapter 2, which are made up of combinations of coastal habitats (Figure 2):
  • 38. INTRODUCTION • marine coastal zone (MCZ) • bays • beaches • dunes • estuaries • lagoons • tidal flatsThese ecosystems are operationally defined in Chapter 2. Mangroves,seagrasses, coral reefs, soft mud bottoms, etc are not included asecosystems. These are habitats which constitute parts of the MCZ,estuaries and lagoons. As habitats they contribute to the structure andfunctioning of the ‘parent’ ecosystems, but by themselves, they are notecosystems in Sri Lanka’s geomorphological setting. Figure 1. Ecosystems change is influenced by people and institutions within the wider environment, including development drivers and external drivers such as globalization and climate change. Ecosystems change under the influence of dependent social systems, which are themselves complex. Where the latter influence is regulated, some balance may be achieved. Without regulation the ecosystem passes into a state of ‘lesser’ usefulness, if it cannot support socio-economic demand. Development Drivers External Drivers Development vision, employ- Climate change, ment, infrastructure, education, Where dependent population increas- Sea level rise, empowerment, property rights es and imposes increasing demand on Hazards (CPRs), gender, health, law and natural productivity, livelihood secu- order, removal of stress on rity diminishes as individual share of nature resources depletes. Equitable Use Regulation Livelihood Security (Sustainability) COASTAL POPULATION SOCIAL Policy, investment, law enforce- ECOSYSTEM GROWTH SYSTEM ment, participation, stable institu- tions, governance, knowledge Persistent stress on the ecosystem diminishes productivity. With intensi- External Factors fied stress the ecosystem undergoes National policies, corruption, transition to a changed ecological unregulated markets, technol- state. Social system loses benefits. NATURAL SYSTEM ogy, positives and negatives, - state shift- impede development 
  • 39. INTRODUCTION All coastal ecosystems in Sri Lanka have been modified at an increasing rate by people during the post-independence period spanning about six decades. Population increased more than twofold during this period. Ecosystems that support fisheries, especially in the nearshore coastal environment, estuaries and lagoons are among the most modified. This is not unusual; it is the case in all inhabited parts of the world (Blaber, 1997). While coastal ecosystems were modified by people, they were also being altered by natural processes. Natural sedimentation from land drainage caused pronounced change in estuaries and lagoons (Swan, 1983). These were induced by their geomorphological form and tidal regime. An ecosystem is technically defined as any ‘unit that includes all the organisms making up a ‘community’ in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to a clearly defined set of feeding relationships, plant and animal diversity, and material cycles (i.e. exchange of materials between living and non-living parts) within the system’ (Odum, 1971). This scientific definition is appropriately adapted in Chapter 2 for the purpose of management. Apart from the aspects that are included in the definition, two additional attributes of coastal ecosystems significant in management are also explained in Chapter 2, namely: • ecological ephemerality (temporariness in ecological time) • coupling Figure 3 illustrates the interconnectedness (linkages) of the seven classes of coastal ecosystems. Interconnections must not be disrupted because coastal ecosystems are coupled with other ecosystems. They contribute to the capacity of a coastal ecosystem to maintain its structure and functioning. This is because an ecosystem never exits as an isolated entity. These interdependencies, however, are not uniform. They differ by location as well as level of maturity of an ecosystem over time, e.g.: – Dune-beach-MCZ relationships: A dune is supplied by wind-borne sand derived from a beach. The beach is supplied with sand by currents and wave action which transport material from the bed of the MCZ. The inter-connectivity extends also to land since, in the case of silica sand, the rivers transport this material to the coast. Dunes range in age (years) from about ten thousands to a few million years.
  • 40. INTRODUCTION – Estuary-MCZ relationship: Penaeid shrimps, one of the most valuable fishery products harvested from the MCZ and estuaries are a good example. They pass their life cycle as juveniles where freshwater and seawater mix to form brackish water (i.e. in estuaries and lagoons) and live as adults in the sea.The coastal ecosystems of Sri Lanka that directly support livelihood havelow carrying capacity and resilience because of their relative smallnessand shallowness. Carrying capacity implies, as an example, the numberof fishers that the natural productivity of an ecosystem could supportat a given level of fishery catch. Resilience, here, implies the ease withwhich an ecosystem restores its productivity after a disturbance (seesection 1.19, this Chapter for explanation). Figure 4 shows the generaldistribution of some classes of coastal ecosystems and their relationshipto the 103 relatively small rivers.Much debate and discussion is taking place on the combined resilience ofecosystems and dependent communities (e.g. Adger et al. 2005; Gallopin,2006; Ocean Management Research Network – OMRN However, despite compellingarguments, the difficulty of shifting to the ecosystem approach wasattributed to three factors: 1. ‘its explicit criticism of existing resource management institutions, and implicit threat to their established institutional and political interests’, 2. ‘its newness, relatively untried methodology, and consequent lack of substantive guidance for practitioners (and perhaps such practitioners’ expectations of direction)’, 3. ‘its equating of paradigm shifts in management with paradigm shifts in science, arguably leading to ineffective policy interventions’.Strategies and plans become implementable to the extent they can beinterpreted in practical terms. To make ecosystem-based managementpracticable the minimum requirements that need to be met are: • Boundary demarcation and mappability (Figure 5) – of the ecosystem by physical boundaries or on the basis of traditional use 
  • 41. INTRODUCTION – of the ‘parts’ that constitute the demarcated unit – of linkages with other ecosystems • Identifiability of ‘risk factors’, multiple uses, nutrient flows, sedimentation, efficiency of headlands, etc. that are key elements in the structure and functioning of the ecosystem. Perceptions and how we think, also matter. What is seen or read in regard to complex systems, such as coastal ecosystems, is at variance with reality simply because of the limitations of the human mind to comprehend multiple connections (Pinker, 2002; Dawkins, 2004). Fortunately, new techniques of dating and remote sensing enable combining worm’s eye views of coastal landscapes with bird’s eye views (Figure 6). This capability to see beyond first impressions may be combined with documented knowledge and field experience of specialists to assist in planning. Figure 2. Some coastal ecosystem classes. Pictures not to same scale. Rekawa Lagoon–originally a barrier-built estuary has evolved to a state of being almost permanently cut off from the sea. Area: 270 ha. Puttalam Lagoon – barrier built estuary although it is given the label ‘lagoon’ a permanent connection with the sea exists. It does not get closed by sand bar formation as in the case of true lagoons. Many sand bars are situated at the connection with the sea ‘tidal inlet’. About 40% of the area, 40,000 ha, of this estuary is less than 1 meter deep. Only about 10% is 3 meters deep (NARA, 1997).
  • 42. INTRODUCTION A seine net operated from a beach to capture fish in the nearshore MCZ reaching to 2 km at sea. The beach is mainly formed from silica sand supplied by rivers. A sandy beach appears white because of predominance of coral and shell fragments (biogenic sand) instead of silica sand. Coralreef patches situated in the MCZ are the source of biogenic sand. An old (near Pleistocene) stratified sand dune in Hambantota with more recent deposits toward the top. The steep drop shows impact of the 2004 tsunami (Photo: Morley de Silva) 
  • 43. INTRODUCTION Tidal flats in the vicinity of north Mundel Lagoon now being used for shrimp cultivation. All waste flows into the lagoon. These public lands previously were used by coastal communities. A satellite view of Weligama Bay (about 1,000 ha). The indentation is between rocky headlands (transverse protrusions into the sea of the rock base of the island’s landmass). A creek, influenced by the sea, flows in through the upper border. Within the major indentation, sub-indentations occur between smaller headlands. At the lower right facing the sea, a series of small indentations exist. The beaches in the bays are kept in position by the headlands. Very little sand from land drainage is supplied naturally for beach stabilization. Within the ‘bay’ an area similar to the MCZ may be demarcated. The hinterland is highly urbanized. A significant waste load, municipal and commercial, flows into the bay. Unlike in the case of the MCZ in the open sea, some pollutants become trapped within the bay adversely impacting fishery productivity.10
  • 44. INTRODUCTIONFigure 3. All seven classes of coastal ecosystems are interconnected. The connection between a barrier built estuary and the MCZ occurs at the tidal inlet represented by overlap of two triangles. Land use impose negative impacts on water quality as well as the extent of the barrier built estuary (graphic adapted from Olsen et al., 1992). TIDAL INLET MARINE COASTAL ESTUARY ZONE -MCZ 11
  • 45. INTRODUCTION Figure 4. The distribution of coastal ecosystems along the coasts of the five Provincial Councils and their relationship to the 103 rivers and the continental shelf in the MCZ. The river outlets and their catchments influence the size and extent of all except the MCZ. Each provincial coast is explained in detail in Chapter 2. Underwater canyon12
  • 46. INTRODUCTION1.3 How to Read The NSAPThe NSAP seeks to change the perception of coastal ecosystemsand the prevailing position with regard to their management. Itrepresents the 4-dimensional (length, breath, volume and time) realityof coastal ecosystems by way of partial generalization, abstraction andsimplification as required, in a strategic plan. The photographs, maps andother illustrations partially combine these four dimensions. However,justice cannot be done to their immense diversity. Therefore the readermust trust the interpretations of reality given in the document asreasonably authentic because they are based upon actual field experiencespanning several decades. To do so it is necessary, as much as possible,to cast aside preconceived notions and perceptions. As interest in theecosystem approach grows, a more precise representation of change willemerge and new knowledge will be added. This, therefore, is a livingdocument which will continue to develop.The NSAP is linked and integrated with the CZMPs (CCD, 1990; CCD,1997; CCD, 2006). Therefore the reader must go to these and otherrelevant documents to gain more perspective. The NSAP is dedicated tothe ecosystem approach and therefore remains focused on managementof complex systems without allowing fragmentation to creep in.The executive summary presents an overview that may be read in about10 minutes. It includes five planning caveats (Box 3). They may be usedas a reality check by asking the question ‘if this was done before, whatwould have been the result’. Readers, whose main interest is the actionplan, could proceed to Chapter 3 after the Executive Summary. Crossreferences to relevant material in Chapters 1 and 2 have been provided.Some reference is made to the theoretical background of interpretationsand arguments particularly in Chapter 2. Generalizations acquirevalidity when anchored in theory simply because they thus becometestable by scientific methods. Some key references are provided. Furtherclarification of theory may be obtained through specific requests toMENR.MFF Strategic Planning Implementation Framework is at Annex 1 Theoutcomes shown in the framework flow from 19 programmes of workand 63 associated actions. The NSAP was harmonized with the MFFStrategic Framework by way of stepwise clustering of proposed actions. 13
  • 47. INTRODUCTION Box 3. Five planning caveats useful in critical assessment of material presented in the NSAP The following planning caveats are relevant in seeking to move from habitat-based CZM to ecosystem-based ICM. These will become clearer in Chapter 2 Caveat 1: “See and understand change, even where everything appears to remain the same” Understanding ecosystem change is difficult. Change may be so slow that it cannot be detected until appropriate time spans are considered (Diamond, 2005). This is made possible by a combination of techniques, time series photography and historical narratives of resource users. Caveat 2: “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting a different result”. A wide range of unintended consequences of coastal management activities tell a story. Misplaced planting of mangroves as bioshields, nurseries etc. in sensitive estuaries now block water flow. Fishery livelihood is impeded. Caveat 3: “Understand the power dynamics at the local level that make action possible”. This is the contradiction that a coastal manager is straddled with. The issue is ‘distance management’ (Diamond, 2005). Decisions devoid of local participation make their implementation impossible. Caveat 4: Repeated lies do not make a truth”. The virtues of mangroves have been uncritically applied in Sri Lanka. Today, the problem of mangrove invasion in estuaries has become serious. Similar situations need to be recognized generally to enable planning to deal with reality instead of myth. Caveat 5: “Panaceas, universal medicine, do not exist for coastal ecosystem problems”. Ostrom (2007) brings together the viewpoints of several leading scientists to demonstrate the need to move beyond ‘… simple, predictive models of social- ecological systems … and to develop through models a serious capacity to diagnose problems before solutions can be identified …’. 1.3.1 Structure of the Report The strategy and action plan include the following interconnected parts: Chapter 1: Introduction: This provides a brief overview of the existing status and conceptual basis of human-coastal ecosystem relationships in Sri Lanka in keeping with their geological, bio-physical and socio-economic reality. Chapter 2: Existing Situation and Trends: This Chapter provides the technical foundation for the NSAP by analyzing14
  • 48. INTRODUCTION the existing status of coastal ecosystems and change trends. It addresses diversity among coastal ecosystems in the context of regional physical geography and resource needs of the coastal populations. It also analyses past development, their consequences, use trends and implications for the future.Chapter 3: The Strategic Action Plan (NSAP): This section reflects on the issues that emerged from the analysis in Part 2, and proposes draft strategic actions in keeping with the MFF framework, constraints and a monitoring strategy.1.4 Planning the NSAP – Starting PointSri Lanka draws upon almost three decades of experience in coastal zonemanagement to prepare the NSAP. Thereby it complements the existingCZMPs of the CCD. The most recent revision, CZMP 2004, approvedby the Cabinet of Ministers was published recently in the GovernmentGazette (No. 1,429/11 of January 24th, 2006). The NSAP seeks to nudgethe CZMP in the direction of adjusting to ecosystem change. One of thefoci of CZMP 2004 is ‘Conserving Coastal Habitats’ (Chapter 4). TheMFF Strategic Framework and Implementation Programme (Annex 1;Action 11.6) affirms that it seeks to: • “In Sri Lanka support the inter-sectoral mechanisms for integrated coastal zone management through the Coast Conservation Department” ( CCD has already embarked on ecosystem-based ICM in regardto some classes of coastal ecosystems, e.g. beaches. Beach ecosystemmanagement by addressing erosion in an integrated manner is one ofCCD’s outstanding achievements, e.g. beach ecosystem restoration inNegombo. It ventured into estuarine and lagoon ecosystem managementunder its special area management (SAM) component (CCD, 2004). Inparallel, the Central Environmental Authority (CEA) of the MENRalso engaged in ecosystem-based planning and management for wetlandsincluding coastal wetland systems (CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult, 2003).Thereby, Sri Lanka is in a position to extract lessons from actualexperience to support ‘adaptive management’ and apply them in thedevelopment of the NSAP. 15
  • 49. INTRODUCTION Figure 5. An ecosystem can be mapped by physical boundaries based on a topographic map, e.g. Negombo Lagoon (left), or by reference to traditional use pattern, e.g. the shrimp trawling ground off the coast of Chilaw (right). The mapped area becomes the geographic unit of management A map may be prepared in consultation with the resource users and in reference to the sea bed using a global positioning system (GPS) (CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult, 2003; Weerasooriya, 1977). Negombo Lagoon Trawling ground - MCZ 1.5 The Tragedy of the Commons The more sensitive coastal ecosystems in Sri Lanka face the ‘Tragedy of the Commons’ (Hardin, 1965). All coastal ecosystems consist of interacting bio-physical parts and people (SESs, Box 2). Groups of people compete, in the absence of restrictions, for the limited resources in the bio-physical component. Conflict results in, and sharpens, competition. Interests of the competing parties dominate as resource limits are exceeded, and the goose that lays the golden eggs is killed. This is aptly termed ‘Tragedy of the Commons’ (Hardin, 1965). Although, realization16
  • 50. INTRODUCTIONmay dawn that unresolved conflict is undermining shared self-interestno action is taken to resolve the approaching crisis. This is becauseimportant stakeholders believe others’ gains come at their expense.Also, the commons (coastal ecosystems) belong to the governmentand therefore is public property (in practice, no one is responsible).Can competing groups of people agree on a shared course of action tosafeguard the structure and functioning of public property for sharedbenefits? Ostrom et al.(1999) demonstrates that it is possible if consensusis developed for a code of conduct.A platform is required to build consensus for particular actions. TheNSAP has the potential to serve as that platform. It is dedicated tocontribute towards “… the conservation and restoration of coastalecosystems as development infrastructure” (MFF Strategy It flows, partially from the worldwide response tothe great Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 of which, one outcome is theMangroves for the Future Programme (MFF). The NSAP seeks harmonyand integration with all existing coastal resources development processesin Sri Lanka with the goal of consensual action.The overall national purpose of the NSAP in keeping with the MFFvision is: • To develop consensus for elements of a long-term strategy leading to 2030, which will overcome the existing fragmented perception of coastal ecosystems and their development, and provide an integrated foundation for action to arrest existing decline, and enable adaptation to future uncertainty, such as those stemming from climate change.Sri Lanka is a paradigmatic case study in this endeavour. It has a coastalzone management programme already in operation for three decades,three cabinet approved Coastal Zone Management Plans (CZMPs), adedicated line agency, the CCD, and a large contingent of well trainedtechnical experts and coastal managers. It received technical assistanceand financial support from the Coastal Resources Center, Universityof Rhode Island from 1983-2001 under USAID, the Government of theNetherlands (1990-2005), the Asian Development Bank (2001-2008).The MFF Programme provides an opportunity for reflection and morecareful and integrated planning for the future, based upon aggregatedexperience. 17
  • 51. INTRODUCTION 1.6 The Mangroves for the Future Programme (MFF) – An Opportunity The Mangroves for the Future (MFF) programme is a unique partner- led initiative to promote investment in coastal ecosystem conservation for sustainable development. It provides a collaborative platform for the many different agencies, sectors and countries who are addressing challenges to coastal ecosystem and livelihood issues to work towards a common goal. MFF builds on a history of coastal management interventions before and after the 2004 tsunami, and it responds to the call to continue the momentum and partnerships generated by the immediate post-tsunami response ( Figure 6. Views of Negombo Lagoon, a barrier-built estuarine ecosystem, which combines images from the ground with real colour and false colour satellite pictures that enable ‘seeing the big picture’. The land use changes inside the estuary contribute to blockage of water exchange between the sea and its wider basin by way of tidal channels (lower right hand image marked with ‘X’). Socio-economic drivers (poverty and urban expansion) progressively increase land filling (see Chapter 2 for explanation). The photo on the right is a view looking south into a placid lagoon with a sand barrier separating it from the sea (1989). The tidal inlet is stabilized by engineering. Water exchange between the sea and the wide basin occurs through channels. The picture on the left (1990) shows mangroves planted by the owner of the thatch hut for the purpose of subsequent landfill (see Chapter 2).18
  • 52. INTRODUCTIONChanges in sedimentation within Negombo Lagoon from Landsat images 1987-2002. Thelagoon is deep blue, sediment is a paler blue (cyan) 1987 1992 2002 Sedimenta- tion in Lagoon (shown in Cyan) Lagoon Lagoon Lagoon Shell Gas Storage Plant : Growing industrialization- reflects infilling Abandoned activities (in paddy yellow) Paddy –to naturalized grounds grasslands (light green) COMPILED BY INTERNATIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE (IWMI)- 2007 (Nagabatla et al., 2007) The Google Earth image (2008) right, shows settlement expansion (X) in the channel area (Munnakkare and X Siriwardena Pedesa) whichconnects the basin of the lagoon with the sea. Tidal exchange occurs through this channel area. Sediment deposition and mangrove expansion are choking the channel (see Chapter 2 for explanation). 19
  • 53. INTRODUCTION 1.7 Integration with International Processes The MFF Programme is integrated with international agreements and conventions, which seek action in conserving ecosystems, supporting livelihoods, and reducing risk and vulnerability, namely: • 2000 Millennium Development Goals • 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (and the 2010 Biodiversity Target) • 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change • 2005 Hyogo Framework for Action (post-tsunami response) • 2002 UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment • The Paris Declaration, 2005 The Paris Declaration 2005 is regarded as a significant agreement to improve aid effectiveness. A range of viewpoints on the topic are available from the Reality of Aid Network (http://www.realityofaid. org/). The report of the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor, under the co-chairs Hernando De Soto (Peruvian economist) and Madeline Albright (former US Secretary of State) – ‘Making the Law Work for Everyone’, released in June 2008 reveals the manner in which the rule of law combined with property rights would contribute substantively to poverty reduction by way of reforms (http://www. The European Center for Development Policy Management (ECDPM, 2005a, b) provides findings on capacity development for adaptive management of complex systems. 1.8 Terminology – a Clarification The MFF NSAP is not solely about mangroves. This point is important since a singularly important geomorphologic characteristic of Sri Lanka is the rarity of ‘mangrove ecosystems’ situated on alluvial deltas formed at the interface of land and the sea and dominated by mangrove plants as in several other countries in the region. A survey conducted in 2002 by CRMP revealed a total of about 6,080 ha (CCD, 2004). They occur mostly as habitat patches and fringes within estuary and lagoon ecosystems (Swan, 1983, CCD, 1990) in a tidal range of about 50 centimeters. Some exceptional mangrove formations interspersed by20
  • 54. INTRODUCTIONtidal creeks occur along the coastline from Mannar to Poonereyn facingthe Palk Bay where sediment deposition is high. They are absent in thatform along the rest of Sri Lanka’s coastline (Swan, 1983). Therefore theNSAP is an ICM planning process (see Section 1.9) which encompassesall coastal ecosystems as they actually exist in the geological andgeomorphological context of Sri Lanka. (with mangroves recognized ashabitat patches).1.9 Coastal Ecosystems: Bio-physical Reality and Need for Ecosystem-based ICMThe coastline of Sri Lanka, about 1,600 kilometers long, is diverse andin some parts relatively more dynamic, such as the southwest seasonallyaffected by the South West Monsoons. Sri Lanka is influenced bysurface currents in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal (Figure 7 (a)).Swan (1983, 1987) describes Sri Lanka’s geomorphology and provides aclassification based on the significant coastal processes (Figure 7(b)) thatshape the coastline, viz. tides, currents, wave energy, sand stores andsupply, stream flows, erosion and accretion. The three landform classesin Sri Lanka are bedrock-related, depositional and hydrologic (Table 1).The causative factors of coastal landforms have combined with eustaticsea level changes and land sinking to contribute to the formation ofsome of the larger and deeper coastal bays, estuaries and lagoons such asTrincomalee Bay, Puttalam Lagoon, Jaffna Lagoon and Koggala Lagoon.However, the majority are relatively shallow since they are formed bythe deposition of sediments from land drainage that form sand barriersto partially enclose areas inundated by tidal flow.Table 1. Common coastal landforms and sources of their formation (Swan, 1983) Aeolian Class Fluvio-marine Marine (wind-formed) Bedrock-related Not applicable Sea cliffs, caves, blow-holes Not applicable Depositional Not applicable Beaches, spits, beach rock Dunes Deltas, estuaries, Hydrologic Not applicable Not applicable lagoons 21
  • 55. INTRODUCTION Coastal ecosystems originated and evolved under geological and bio- physical influences and constraints (Cooray, 1982; Katupotha, 1995a; Senaratne and Dissanayake, 1982). Changes (e.g. by engineering) can be made to outward manifestations of these ecosystems but the underlying features eventually assert their dominance. Figure 4 shows the general distribution of rivers, estuaries and lagoons and their relationship with the continental shelf. The dunes and beaches are situated between two contiguous river outlets. The major bio-physical limitations of Sri Lanka’s coastal ecosystems are (Swan, 1983) the: • micro-tidal regime in which the coastal ecosystems function • relative smallness of the marine and brackish water coastal ecosystems, due to: – the narrowness of the continental shelf – the predominantly ancient rock base of the island landmass, which provides little sediment and alluvium to the coast. Figure 7.(a). Some coastal processes that influence the coast of Sri Lanka include (A) seasonal sea surface currents entrained by the Southwest and Northeast Monsoonal wind, (B) the wave energy zones, and (C) shoreline types (Swan, 1983).22
  • 56. INTRODUCTIONFigure 7.(b). Wave energy zones, coastal and shoreline typesA Bay and Headland t with structures transverse to Coast Net DriftB Spit and Barrier C Deltas and Saline Flats (low wave Erosion Hazarda with Beaches energy) Submarine Canyonsb with Beaches and Dunes D Limestone 23
  • 57. INTRODUCTION 1.9.1 Evolution of Estuaries, Lagoons and Deltas The coastline is characterized by numerous estuaries and lagoons ranging in size from a few hectares (e.g. Lunawa Lagoon: 27 ha) to several tens of thousands (e.g. Puttalam Lagoon, Jaffna Lagoon and Batticaloa Lagoon: all in excess of 30,000 ha). All came into existence in the Holocene Period dating back about 10,000 years BP (before present), since when, eustatic sea level has remained in the existing condition. During this period the form, shape and size have changed by way of interaction among coastal processes, sedimentation from land drainage and human interference. The one class of coastal land form that is absent is the delta as illustrated in Figure 8 (e.g. bird’s foot delta at the junction of the land and the sea). This is owing to the absence of large rivers with adequate sediment loads and tides with an amplitude that moulds sediments into the form of a delta. As a result Sri Lanka does not possess shorefront mangroves similar to those in countries with appropriate deltas. Figure 8. Stages in the evolution of some coastal ecosystems (Day et al., 1989) 1.9.2 A Micro-tidal regime The sea around Sri Lanka has a tidal range of 75 cm during spring tides and 25 cm at neaps. Since the tidal range is less than 100 cm the marine environment is micro-tidal. The tidal range is lower in the north than in the south (Table 2). Micro-tides cannot create strong currents. This has implications for tidal inlets at estuaries and lagoons, and at locations such as the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay which are perennially low energy zones (Swan, 1983).24
  • 58. INTRODUCTIONTable 2. Tidal levels around Sri Lanka (Swan, 1983) High Water Low Water Locations Mean springs Mean neaps Mean springs Mean neaps Colombo 73 49 6 30 Galle 61 40 6 27 Hambanthota 58 40 - - Batticaloa 70 27 - - Trincomalee 55 43 6 18 Point Pedro 67 49 6 24 Jaffna 67 49 6 24 Delft 46 37 15 24 (Pamban Pass)* 70 46 9 34* Indian territorial waters at the northern boundary of Gulf of Mannar1.9.3 A Narrow Continental ShelfThe continental shelf around Sri Lanka is narrower, shallower and hasless surface relief than is average for the world (Swan, 1983). Its meanwidth is 20 km. It narrows to less than 10 km in the south (Ahangama-Gandara), widens moderately off the west coast north of Galle and inthe south-east (Tangalla-Patanangala), remains narrow, 10-20 km, offmost of the east coast, and widens again northward of Mullaitivu (Figure9). The shelf widens significantly north of the Kalpitiya peninsula onthe north-west and attains its greatest width, 30-60 km, in the north(Figure 4). The significance of the continental shelf to livelihood and foodsecurity is expressed in the fact that about 50% of total fish productionin Sri Lanka, prior to the eruption of the ethnic conflict in the 1980s,came from the north (Sarvananthan, 2003).The relief features of a continental shelf contribute fundamentally tofishery productivity (Darnell, 1990). The paucity of surface relief on thecontinental shelf around Sri Lanka is attributed mainly to its exposureduring the last glaciation when sea level was about 100 m lower (Figure9). During this period much surface erosion occurred. Submergencerecurred again about 10,000 years ago with de-glaciation and rise ofthe sea to its present level (Katupotha, 1992, 1995b). Much of the relieftherefore is patchy and consists of coral rubble, rock outcrops, patchy 25
  • 59. INTRODUCTION reefs, seagrasses, algal beds, and soft mud bottoms (Swan, 1983). The most extensive relief features occur in the Gulf of Mannar and in the north. A vast seagrass meadow exists in this area together with coral reef patches and detritus. This material has accumulated by northward drift along the western coast of Sri Lanka combined with southward drift along the southeast coast of India (Swan, 1983). Two major Indian rivers, Krishna and Godavari discharge into the Bay of Bengal across alluvial deltas along this coastline. Figure 9. Sri Lanka shares a continental shelf with India which broadens in the Northwest and in the North. The area encompassed by the 30 m bathymetric contour also expands proportionately. The meagre surface relief of the continental shelf is characterized by diverse combinations of structures and material in the five provincial MCZs. I II V III IV Key: 10. Flat rock, gorgonids, sponges abundant 11. Coarse whitesand with outcrops of rock and living coral 1. Firm black mud, seagrasses 12. Coarse red and yellow sand, frequent outcrops of rock 2. Black ooze and living coral 3. Firm grey mud and ooze, seagrasses 13. Firm grey sand with frequent outcrops of rock and living 4. Soft grey mud, seagrasses coral 5. Coarse yellow sand 6. Yellow grey sand, seagrasses Coastal Segments – Provincial Councils (see Figure 4) 7. Firm white sand Segment I: Northern Segment IV: Southern 8. Flat rock with firm dark mud and sand Segment IV: Northwestern Segment V: Eastern 9. Flat rock with living coral Segment III: Western26
  • 60. INTRODUCTION1.9.4 Geological Base and Geomorphology (Swan, 1983; Cooray 1982)About 80% of Sri Lanka’s land area consists of ancient crystalline rockdating back about a thousand million years. The crystalline zones,Vijayan, Highland and Southwestern, extend to the coast, in someplaces transversely, in others in parallel or obliquely. These are generallyfronted, backed or topped by beach and dune sequences that date back tothe Holocene Period, and even to the Pleistocene Period. The remainderof the island, about 20%, consists of sedimentary deposits dating back 2-25 millions years. The sedimentary material is mainly in the north andnorthwest (Figure 10) - (Swan, 1983). Furthermore, the relatively shortrivers with small catchments deliver little or no alluvium to the coast(Table 3). This geological and geomorphological character of Sri Lankaprecludes the formation of mangrove vegetation at the interface of theland and the sea along the coastline that borders the crystalline zones(Swan, 1983). However, mangroves at the shorefront exist, somewhatpatchily, mainly along the sheltered coastline from Mannar to Jaffnawhere deposition of silt and alluvium does occur.1.9.5 Impact of TechnologyThe character and behaviour of coastal ecosystems cannot be divorcedfrom geological and geomorphological antecedents, since they setthe limits within which coastal processes operate. However, thesocio-economic pressures from population growth combined withtechnological development force the bio-physical nature of coastalecosystems to change at a rapid rate. Change took place all the time butthe rate has greatly accelerated during the past century. Different typesand scale of water control structures such as revetments and groynes,submerged breakwaters, offshore breakwaters and sea sand dredginghave contributed to physical transformation and set forth biologicalchange.Previously, traditional methods of resource exploitation occurred ata rate which enabled natural recovery. As an example, until the mid-1950s, traditional fishing using the outrigger canoe could exploit theproductivity of the marine coastal zone (MCZ) only during the calmmonths (John, 1951). During the Monsoon, the MCZ rested andrecovered. Today, mechanized fishing is extracting the same resource 27
  • 61. INTRODUCTION base, all through the year, regardless of rough seas and without respite. Now, in parallel with globalization, interests with vastly different levels of power are competing for the same resources. Table 3. Runoff, sediment and sand production characteristics of the twenty principal rivers (Swan,1983). The runoff and sediment load are related to the size of the river catchment and the geological terrain traversed. Mahaveli Ganga ranks higher in sand production than Kalu Ganga despite a lower runoff since the Highland Geological Zone yields more crystalline sandy material. Rank in Runoff Production of Geological Zones Drainage Destination of River- (mln Sediment/Sand Traversed by the System borne Sediment m3) Rivers Sediment Sand Kalu Ganga 8187 1 2 Southwestern Zone Partially in a estuary/lagoon Mahaveli 8142 2 1 Vijayan Zone Trincomalee Bay, Ganga sinks to abyss Kelani Ganga 5582 3 3 Southwestern Zone Sea Walave Ganga 2201 4 4 Highland Zone Mainly in the sea Gin Ganga 2180 5 7 Southwestern Zone Mainly in the sea Maha Oya 1485 6 5 Southwestern Zone Sea Nilwala Ganga 1380 7 12 Highland Zone Mainly in the sea Bentota Ganga 1247 8 13 Southwestern Zone Mainly in the sea Deduru Oya 1130 9 5 Vijayan Zone Chilaw Lagoon Gal Oya 1079 10 7 Vijayan Zone Mainly in the sea Kala Oya 855 11 9 Vijayan Zone Chilaw Lagoon Attanagalu Oya 845 12 17 Southwestern Zone Negombo Lagoon. Mundeni Aru 781 13 10 Vijaya Zone Batticaloa Lagoon Maduru Oya 777 14 10 Vijayan Zone Batticaloa Lagoon Aruvi Aru 567 15 14 Vijayan Zone Sea by way of minor delta Menik Ganga 485 16 15 Southwestern Zone Sea Yan Oya 482 17 15 Vijayan Zone Sea Most sediment Kirindi Oya 429 18 17 Highland Zone trapped by Lunugamvehera Dam Kumbukkan 428 19 17 Highland Zone Sea Oya Ma Oya 300 20 20 Vijayan Zone Kokkilai Lagoon.28
  • 62. INTRODUCTION1.9.6 Coastal ProcessesThe ordinary coastal processes in Sri Lanka, driven by tides, waves andsediment supply from the land, are very well understood, particularly onthe west and south coasts that have been subject to intensive study overthree decades.  However, there was little or no previous understandingof the nature and dynamics of coastal flooding, especially that due to anextreme event such as the Boxing Day Tsunami which occurred on 26December, 2004 (Galappatti pers. comm., Samarakoon, Epitawatte andGalappatti, 2008).The Sri Lankan coastline mainly comprises two types of coastalformations. They are bays, strung between rocky headlands and longspits, and barrier beaches that have formed at the mouths of estuariesand lagoons.  The lands behind these barrier beaches are low lying andliable to water logging. Rivers supply most of the sand (silica) found onthe beaches. Alongshore movement of sand is driven by waves breakingobliquely on the beaches.  Except in the larger well indented bays, thereis some sand that bypasses the headlands.  The small well indented bayson the south coast are not nourished by any river sand and their pocketbeaches (Swan, 1983) have a larger proportion of coral sand.  Suchbeaches cannot quickly recover from the loss of a large amount of sandduring a catastrophic event such as a tsunami.Another main feature of the coastal processes in Sri Lanka is the verysmall tidal range (a maximum of 0.7 m at spring tide, and considerablylower at other times). Since the tidal range is less than 1 meter, SriLanka’s coast is in a micro-tidal environment (Perkins, 1971). As aresult, the small tidal volume exchanges between coastal water bodiesand the sea are often insufficient to overcome large volumes of longshoresediment movement (littoral drift) and maintain tidal openings.  The tidedriven currents in the nearshore area are also very small compared towind driven currents (Galappatti pers. comm.; Samarakoon, Epitawatteand Galappatti, 2008). The impact of coastal sedimentation processes on the MCZ has notbeen studied adequately. The smothering of coral reefs by sediment hasbeen reported for some sites contiguous with urban settlements such asHikkaduwa (Rajasuriya, 1995, 2002). Little or no information is availableregarding sediment impacts on benthic vegetation at deeper locations inthe MCZ. 29
  • 63. INTRODUCTION The dominance of wind driven currents is inadequate for mixing and/ or flushing partially enclosed barrier built estuaries and lagoons in the micro-tidal regime in Sri Lanka. The result is natural sedimentation and infilling. This sediment as it settles is stabilized by seagrasses, mangroves and reed beds. The relatively rapid infilling is revealed in the sequence of Landsat images of Negombo Lagoon from 1980-2006 (Figure 6). This inherent natural result of coastal processes is today accelerated by a wide range of intended and unintended consequences of human activity including misplaced biodiversity conservation interventions (Samarakoon, 2007). The stability of beaches is maintained by a regular supply of sand from rivers draining the hinterland. The loss of sand from a particular beach could be controlled by the natural re-alignment of the shoreline and protection provided by coral reefs and sandstone (beachrock) that fringe some parts of the coastline. However, in recent decades, the natural dynamic equilibrium of the coastline has been disrupted by several destructive practices that have resulted in loss of land and beaches through accelerated erosion. The most significant of these is the mining of sand from the major rivers on the western seaboard.  The devastating beach erosion that has occurred in recent years, particularly along the coastline north of Colombo, the capital city, was due mainly to river sand mining.  The breaking of corals along the southwest coastline has also caused increased exposure of the coastline to erosive forces. The fact that all the major Portuguese and Dutch fortresses built in major towns were also constructed from coral (much easier to work with than granite) indicates that the destruction of protective reefs had been going on for many centuries (Galappatti pers. comm.; Samarakoon, Epitawatte and Galappatti, 2008). In recent years the more exposed sections of coastline have been subject to erosion control (or coastline management) measures. Sand nourishment has been increasingly preferred over the exclusive use of protective structures. All this physical understanding and the increasingly modern approach to coastline management did not prepare the country for the devastation caused by the Boxing Day Tsunami, which was not even included in the accepted long list of natural coastal hazards in Sri Lanka (Galappatti, pers comm..; Samarakoon, Epitawatte and Galappatti, 2008).30
  • 64. INTRODUCTIONFigure 10 (a). Eighty percent (80%) of the land mass of Sri Lanka is composed of rock- based sedimentary material. Two narrow coastal segments along the northwest and the east of the island are composed of recent Quaternary deposits, which are alluvial. The most significant barrier built-estuaries also occur in the Quaternary (alluvial) Zones (see text for explanation).Note the trajectory of the rivers. They traverse different Geological Zones which yield moreor less sand and non-sand sediment. Sand for beach nourishment is delivered only by thoserivers which flow directly to the coast and deliver sand in an unimpeded manner. The even-tual relationship between beaches and sand supply depends upon the many interconnec-tions shown in the flow diagram in Figure 10b. 31
  • 65. INTRODUCTION Figure 10 (b). Shore sand sources, movement, accumulation and renewal (Swan, 1983). Rivers SHORE SAND Coastal CYCLE erosion RELATIVE UPLIFT & DENUDATION SAND SOURCES Offshore stores Littoral SAND TRANSPORT & drift DELIVERY: Waves, currents, littoral drift SUBDUCTION NO SAND SAND TRAPS: headlands, METAMORPHISM TRAPS estuaries, lagoons Inefficient Efficient SHORT TERM STORES MEDIUM/ (unstable) beaches, LONG TERM bars, spits) STORES (stable beaches, dunes) RAPID LEAKAGE SLOW LEAKAGE BY PASS SINKS, REPOSITORIES (shelf, submarine canyons, continental slope, ocean floor outside coastal cells32
  • 66. INTRODUCTIONOn 26th December 2004, tsunami waves, the highest of which rangedfrom 3m to 10m in height, swept over the coastal areas of East, Southand Southwest Sri Lanka. In areas other than around prominentheadlands the beaches rise to approximately 2m to 3m above meansea level and the land (usually wetlands) behind are lower, even nearlysea level. These low lying lands were the most susceptible to floodingby the tsunami waves. The destruction due to fast flowing water wasmitigated in some places by the presence of thick vegetation (or highdensity housing) which to some extent protected the area behind theseobstructions. The large lagoons also absorbed some of the energy andvolume of tsunami waves. In the deep south, southeast, northeast andnorthwest, there are large sand dunes created by wind blown sand. Many of these dune systems were high and strong enough to resist thetsunami wave. However, natural gaps in the dune system (for drainagepaths of rivers and other coastal catchments) allowed the entry of thetsunami waves (Samarakoon, Epitawatte and Galappatti, 2008).The Sri Lanka coastline comes under the purview of the CoastConservation Law and the Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP)which is published by the government from time to time. One of themain features of this legal framework is the body of regulations tocontrol development activities in the coastal zone. The 2004 CZMP haddivided the coastal zone into 99 coastal reaches and specified setbackdistances that restrict construction and other activities close to the highwaterline. These setback regulations have been made with the followingobjectives:  a) Protecting life and property against erosion and storm surge. b) Minimizing public investment in coast protection works. c) Protecting and enhancing the scenic value of coastal environments, protecting vulnerable coastal habitats and unique natural sites. d) Providing buffer zones around coastal archaeological, historical and cultural sites within the Coastal Zone. e) Minimizing use conflicts among different activities taking place in the Coastal Zone. f) Ensuring public access to and along the coast. g) Maintaining consistency among national and regional laws and plans, and h) Ensuring consistency between national development goals and environmental objectives. 33
  • 67. INTRODUCTION The CZMP recognizes the variability of the coastal zone and that no “one size fits all” set of rules would be applicable. The ‘surge’ due to a massive tsunami was not among the hazards envisaged in this plan. Whether it should be included among the more common hazards is also doubtful given the extremely long return period that is attributed to the 2004 event. The CZMP is designed to respond to events with return periods up to around ten years; it is not possible to deal with events with return periods of 200 to 1000 years within the same planning framework (Samarakoon, Epitawatte and Galappatti, 2008). The impact of sea level rise is included in the design guidelines for coastal structures (Galappatti pers. comm.).  However its impact on the drainage of coastal wetlands has not yet been taken fully into account (Samarakoon, Epitawatte and Galappatti, 2008).   1.10 The Developmental Setting Sri Lanka’s coastal area has a development history dating back more than 2,000 years with a legacy of archeological remains including settlements, trading centres, harbours and resource use patterns (Indrapala, 2007; Sri Lanka Survey Department, 2007). This legacy combined with diverse development processes in the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial periods have added their footprints to the prevailing situation in coastal ecosystems. Management of coastal ecosystems pivots on the interactions of people and space in the coastal area and their change with time. Does Sri Lanka need planning for management of coastal ecosystems for wellbeing of dependent communities? The need is real and placed in context by Figure 1. It shows the diverse influences shaping the relationship between society, development and ecosystems. Some features are: • Population increased by about 2 ½ times from about 8 to 21 million since independence in 1949. About 30% of this population lives in the coastal area; • Persistent poverty of about 30% of the population; • Size and productivity of coastal ecosystems remain static but there are more people to be supported and a bigger demand for goods and services to be met;34
  • 68. INTRODUCTION • Increasing technological efficiency to extract (e.g. mechanized fishing methods) the same stock of goods (e.g. fish); from the coastal ecosystems • Implementation of development projects with inadequate EIAs; • Lack of investment in productivity enhancement of the coastal ecosystems; • Increasing pollution from industrial and municipal wastes discharging into coastal ecosystems, sometimes even killing biodiversity entirely (e.g. Lunawa Lagoon); • Misplaced mangrove planting in estuaries and lagoons causing sediment build-up and shrinkage of the water body which prevents fishing and impedes drainage; • Globalization of markets, intensified extraction of high value products (e.g. shrimp), and inadequate regulatory safeguards, thereby creating a downward environmental spiral; and • Decline in governance institutions as the boundary between government (legislature, judiciary & executive), civil society (voluntary organizations including NGOs and CBOs) and markets (private sector/commercial enterprise) become increasingly vague and undermine effective law enforcement. Clearly, Sri Lanka’s coastal ecosystems are being undermined both bynatural change as well as societal pressure. ‘Business as usual’ cannotreverse the relationship. Should Sri Lanka deliberately seek positivechange? Yes, indeed. Then, it must purposefully plan to do so. Plannedchange can be positive if implemented over the long term – spanningdecades. Therefrom arises the need for the NSAP.Ecosystems are constantly changing both naturally and under theinfluence of people. The latter class of change is termed ‘anthropogenic’.Therefore the NSAP primarily addresses change and seeks to promoteICM practices that manage this dynamic, across both space and time.This would prevent coastal ecosystems from passing into a state thatis less useful, or even useless as a ‘public good’ (Figure 1). ‘Uselessness’of a coastal ecosystem as a public good generally accompanies loss ofbiodiversity. 35
  • 69. INTRODUCTION 1.10.1 Development History and Poverty The developmental history of Sri Lanka since independence in 1948 reveals a wayward trajectory (Kelegama, 2006). Economic development today is highly skewed among the provinces. Poverty reduction has been slow due to widening inequalities among income groups and across regions, and because growth is concentrated in Western Province. More inclusive economic growth will require easing specific constraints affecting particular sectors, regions, and groups, but priorities critical for all include improving the quality of education, access to infrastructure like electricity, connectivity to markets and urban centers, and access to finance for micro-enterprises (World Bank, 2007). Rural areas are home to nearly 80 percent of the population and about 88 percent of the poor in the country. Even though the rural poverty rate has declined from 29.4 percent to 24.7 percent during the period 1990/91 to 2002, this still translates to nearly 3.5 million people. The slowdown in agricultural growth over the past decade has slowed poverty reduction among agriculture-dependent households (World Bank, 2007). The economic and social repercussions of over two decades of conflict have affected people throughout the country. Over 65,000 people have died, nearly a million citizens have been displaced, private and public properties and economic infrastructure have been destroyed, local economies and community networks have been disrupted, and health and educational outcomes have deteriorated in districts in the North and East (World Bank, 2007). Coastal ecosystems in Sri Lanka, because of their relative smallness, are highly sensitive to shocks and slow but persistent change which do not allow the expression of their normal dynamics and resilience. These essential characteristics are captured in Chapter 2, Section 3.1. These entities will be placed under intense stress in the post-conflict period unless concerted effort is made to safeguard both ecosystems and livelihoods. All interventions under the NSAP must interact with the existing development setting. Additionally the rural coastal communities were struck a double blow by the impact of the rare and extreme Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004. Therefore the NSAP must address the manner36
  • 70. INTRODUCTIONin which ICM may integrate with mitigation of the existing impactsof coastal hazards in general and those from more regular ones in thefuture.1.11 Planning PrinciplesThe four planning principles underlying the NSAP (Friend andHickling, 1987; Faludi, 1978) are: 1. Optimal utilization of development opportunities. 2. Equitable distribution of benefits. 3. Minimal damage to structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. 4. Prevention or minimization of externalities.Furthermore, precautionary safeguards are useful, in the context ofrelentless globalization of knowledge and markets, to ensure that SriLanka’s exceptional, but limited, natural resource endowments remaina blessing instead of becoming a curse. The adaptability of the relativelysmall coastal ecosystems and the dependent coastal communities toabsorb benefits from accelerated coastal development shall be a planningconcern.1.12 Management of Change in EcosystemsCoastal ecosystems are changing every day due to both natural andanthropogenic causes. These changes oscillate with time, seasonallyor over longer periods of time. As an example, beach ecosystems inthe southwest swing between periods of erosion during the Monsoonfollowed by re-growth and stability during the calm period. Where theregular to and fro movement of sand is obstructed by an engineeringstructure, erosion proceeds progressively until the beach is entirely lost.Thus where change is forced to be in a negative direction, the ecosystemsthemselves pass into an altered state that does not satisfy humanexpectation (Figure 1). The adverse impacts of localized engineeringintervention need to acknowledge also the coupling of that local settingwith processes in the wider environment. Existing trends include: • fragmentation of ecosystems that make up the coastal environment, e.g. by infrastructure 37
  • 71. INTRODUCTION • degradation of estuaries and lagoons, clogged by solid waste, polluted by diverse liquid wastes, and supporting a depleted fish population • transformation - physical loss of habitat, e.g. lagoons filled for housing • perceptions of coastal managers and decision makers that are not based upon geological, geomorphological and bio-physical reality These changes, among others, are described, and their causes and trends are analyzed in Chapter 2. Changes often lead to problems. Some problems are shared, in varying degree, by coastal communities and the country at large. However, a majority of the problems occur in a local context at specific geographic sites. Issues arise from each problem. These issues also constantly change. The most significant problems are those that affect the livelihood of coastal communities and food security. The average income of coastal fisher households position them below the official poverty line of Rs. 2,500/= per month (Department of Census and Statistics, 2006). Adverse changes in coastal ecosystems aggravate their poverty. At the same time consumers in general are compelled to reduce consumption of fish, the most important source of animal protein in Sri Lanka, because of scarcity and escalating prices. Both declining stocks and rising prices drive the competition within coastal communities to extract a share of the diminishing resource. Eventually ecosystem decline forces change in human behaviour, even involving conflict (Figure 1). Sometimes human impact on coastal ecosystems, especially the intensity of resource extraction, is driven by factors outside the control of coastal communities, as in the case of inflation caused by poor fiscal policies. Some economic drivers of change are also exacerbated by global markets such as the consequences of periodic rises in oil prices. Fundamentally, anthropogenic change is driven by the most basic of human emotions - self-interest. Mother Nature, however, marches on regardless of the presence or absence of people, their impacts in the coastal area and attendant economic problems. Natural coastal ecosystems, when severely impacted by human action, merely pass into an altered state which no longer yields goods and services desired by people. Mother Nature is indifferent to38
  • 72. INTRODUCTIONhuman problems. Therefore, people have to change their ways if coastalecosystems must provide to children the same benefits that parents tookfor granted.A common feature of ecosystem change is that it comes about gradually,over extended periods of time, generally decades. This gradualnessdeceives decision makers and coastal managers and they fail to anticipatethe consequences of change. Appropriately termed creeping normalcy, itis explained more fully in Chapter 2. The NSAP analyses several caseswhere coastal managers and decision makers failed to detect and identifyecosystem problems at a strategic level as priorities to enable appropriateprocedures to be adopted at the tactical level.1.13 Causal Model Analysis of Coastal EcosystemsChanges in ecosystems are caused, singly or in combination, by naturaland anthropogenic factors. Interactions occur among the variablescausing change. Therefore straightforward cause-effect relationships aredifficult to identify. A useful technique for understanding the pathwaysby which diverse variables cause change is the preparation of descriptivemodels that reveal underlying causes. Such models are termed ‘causalmodels’. Changes in some inter-related coastal ecosystems (MCZ andestuaries) are analyzed in Chapter 2 by applying a causal model toillustrate usefulness of the technique. It reveals the complex interrelatedpathways by which change occurs in coastal ecosystems. The model isbased on actual observation of change, technical studies, and cumulativeresults of focus group discussions. The virtue of a causal model is themanner in which it reveals the nodes where management interventionsmay be interposed to maintain the continuous flow of ecosystem goodsand services. Thereby causal models also serve as mechanisms foridentifying the manner in which coastal management and developmentactivities may be integrated.1.14 Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) is DevelopmentThe MFF applies the principles of integrated coastal management (ICM)to the development process to achieve its mission (Table 4). Accordinglythe appropriate definition of ICM is: 39
  • 73. INTRODUCTION • The goal of ICM is to improve the quality of life of human communities who depend on coastal resources while maintaining the biological diversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems. Thus ICM must integrate government with the community, science with management, and sectoral with public interests in preparing and implementing actions that combine investment in development with the conservation of environmental qualities and functions (GESAMP Reports and Studies No. 61, 1996) The vision of the MFF Programme and the goal of ICM converge on ‘human wellbeing’. From the outset therefore, ICM should be seen as a development activity. Seers (1979) asserts that the purpose of development is to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment. For Sen (1999), development involves reducing deprivation or broadening choice. Deprivation represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation, and a lack of access to basic infrastructure (Narayan et al. 2000, pp. 4-5; Narayan and Patesch, 2002). Economic growth can result in human development only when poverty is reduced and equity incorporated into its fabric (World Bank, 2005). Sometimes, ICM is tilted towards emphasis on biodiversity conservation. A distinction exists between ICM and biodiversity conservation. The goals of both are the same, viz. maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning. The priorities and emphasis of the two processes differ. The aim of ICM is to “promote the people, while seeking to preserve the place”. The aim of biodiversity conservation is to “preserve the place while engaging the people”. In the ICM process practitioners of coastal management serve as impartial and neutral brokers for communities and various resource users (Best, 2003). A distinction has to be made also, in regard to how coastal ecosystems are perceived in a developed country and in a developing country such as Sri Lanka. In the former the significance of coastal ecosystems for people derives mainly from their role in recreation and property values. In Sri Lanka, the value of a coastal ecosystem derives primarily from the goods and services it supplies to support livelihood and secondarily from its services to industry such as tourism. However, at specific urban sites such as Lunawa Lagoon, and Negombo Lagoon, in the suburbs of Colombo, property values may dominate the manner in which the water body is perceived by the elites and decision makers (Wickremeratne pers. comm.).40
  • 74. INTRODUCTIONTable 4. The principles and objectives of ICM (Clark, 1992, Kay, 2007) Principles Objectives • A long-term view • Strengthen sectoral management by • A broad holistic approach improving training, legislation and • Adaptive framework planning • Working with natural processes • Preserve the biological diversity of • Support and involvement of all relevant coastal ecosystems by preventing administrative institutions habitat destruction, pollution and • Use of a combination of instruments overexploitation • Participatory planning • Promote the rational development and • Reflecting local characteristics sustainable use of coastal resourcesSome ecosystems such as the MCZ and beaches, traditionally used forfisher folk livelihood, have become prime resources for commercialinvestment and national development, e.g. export fishery, tourism. Insuch situations conflict is inevitable. ICM has the potential to reduceconflict by way of win-win solutions instead of zero-sum outcomes?From this stems its significance in dealing with interrelated issues indevelopment, poverty and livelihoods. A population less trapped inpoverty can better negotiate mutually acceptable conflict resolution.Reduction of poverty of coastal ecosystem-dependent communities isa significant and high priority issue which has to be firmly integratedinto ICM in order to achieve sustainable management. In its absence,depletion of the productivity of a natural system is inevitable.Christie et al. (2005) extracted important considerations for improvedICM from a series of evaluation studies on long-term experienceof ICM in the Philippines and in Indonesia (Table 5). The strategicelements bear significance for the NSAP. Similar findings from the MFFRegional Study on ‘Institutional Gaps’ are incorporated in Chapter 2.A strategic outcome from the comparative study (Christie et al., 2005)is the ‘Reaffirmation of participatory management’. Two importantunderlying factors are: contribution from institutional arrangementsand investment over adequately prolonged periods. Evidently, in theabsence of active and organized support from local resource users,and inadequate external inputs, especially financial support, ICM as along term sustainable process becomes tenuous. This is not surprisingsince changes in attitude and behaviour are involved that must becomeabsorbed into the culture at the local setting. 41
  • 75. INTRODUCTION Table 5. Strategic elements that would improve ICM (adapted from Christie et al. 2005; Kay, 2007) Strategy Rationale Literature Effective • Improvement of economic and environmental Pomeroy et al. management conditions fosters ICM success and sustainability (2005); of ICM- • Involvement and participation in ICM are Pollnac et al. derived influenced by initial project benefits and (2005); outcomes perceptions of benefits • Achievement of these benefits stimulates Oracion et al. continuing involvement in the activities, sustaining (2005) the ICM process Re- • Institutional structures to support large scale Pollnac et al. affirmation of projects are often lacking and thereby do not (2005); participatory convey benefits to grass roots level management • Sustaining large-scale interventions over time Oracion et al. will be exceedingly difficult and costly unless (2005) voluntary local participation occurs Integration • ICM also depends on integration within and Eisma et al. in difficult between multiple governance scales, therefore (2005); contexts policies and laws matter • Institutional legal frameworks that mandate Patlis (2005) governance reform are lagging behind the pace of ICM project evolution Long-term • Short project horizons are not conducive White et al. commitment to sustained ICM processes beyond project (2005) is essential to termination success and • Successes of individual ICM efforts can be traced White et al. sustainability directly to relatively small groups of committed (2005) individuals (who champion ICM). Investment in capacity development in project staff, local and national agencies, and NGOs are resources well spent Continuation • Research framed by multiple mandates, goals and Pollnac et al. of the disciplines is essential to the improvement of ICM, (2005); evaluative coastal environments and societies White et and adaptive al. (2005); • ICM projects investing in data management process Olsen and systems and engaging local and national Christie government agencies in self-monitoring exercises (2000) • Help track the impact of ICM efforts; increasingly www. used to ensure that ICM projects result in tangible oneocean. and measurable third-order impacts org42
  • 76. INTRODUCTION1.15 Natural Hazards as Stimuli for Improved ICMPeople living on the coast must continue to adapt to coastal hazards asthey have done in the past if they must secure life and property in thefuture. Towards this end, many lessons are available from the disastroushazards that have impacted coastal populations.1.15.1 The Great Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004: An Opportunity for Improved ICMThe great Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 was a rare, extreme event. SriLanka was unprepared for it and sacrificed more than 30,000 lives(Department of Census and Statistics, 2005). It accentuated the fragilityof exposed coastal communities and the need to enhance their resilience,i.e. their ability to bounce back after a shock (Adger et al., 2005). Extremeevents offer opportunities for learning. Governments and responsibleagencies must learn from them, mainly about how to save life andproperty during future hazards. The MFF Regional Programme, in itsexisting form consolidated in the aftermath of this event and combinesrelevant learning into its integrated framework.The Tsunami 2004 demonstrated that planned land use which takes intoaccount the role of coastal ecosystems and associated risk may contributeto saving life and property in the face of diverse hazards in the future(Samarakoon, Epitawatte & Galappatti, 2008; 2009). However, theincorporation of lessons from the Tsunami 2004 experience into an ICMstrategy requires both strategic planning as well as tactical application.These aspects are discussed in detail in Chapter 2.1.16 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Tsunami 2004: a Foundation for MFF & NSAPThe United Nations Environmental Programme’s (UNEP) MillenniumEcosystem Assessment (MEA) initiated in 2001, involved more thanthousand specialists from both developed and developing countries,and resulted in the worldwide awareness that ecosystems and humanwellbeing are firmly interlinked. Thus the MEA establishes the logicaland scientific foundation for the MFF & the NSAP. The MEA revealedthat human wellbeing can be maintained in the long-term only to the 43
  • 77. INTRODUCTION extent that supportive ecosystems can sustain the supply of goods and services. Where ecosystems are depleted, human wellbeing also diminishes. The key challenge is long-term management of continuity of flow of ecosystem goods and services – this essentially, is sustainable development. (;; Understanding the dimensions of sustainable development of natural resources (and ecosystems), and combining them with technology and investment are important considerations (Daly, 1991). Some leading thinkers have identified a framework for addressing sustainability (PNAS, 2007). This framework (Ostrom, 2007) includes analysis and understanding the attributes of: • Ecosystems (constituting resource systems such as e.g. fishery, estuary, etc) in terms of their resilience, vulnerability and adaptability • The resource units generated by a given system (e.g. fish, visiting tourists) • The users of that system • The governance system that jointly affect and is affected by interactions and resulting outcomes achieved at a particular place and time These recent scientific findings were applied in the development of the NSAP mainly by using ‘causal models’, described as an example in Chapter 2, for improving ICM. 1.17 An Asian Perspective on Ecosystem-based ICM Coastal management in the Asian Region is straddled by some shared problems (ADB, 2002), namely: • Weak law enforcement • Fragmented coastal constituencies that are motivated by short- term inducements • A weak knowledge base that is not amenable to rigorous scientific testing44
  • 78. INTRODUCTIONIn this context, case studies can bring up alternative courses of actionpertaining to ICM that may be meaningful across geographic and culturalboundaries. Case studies would illustrate how problems of relevanceto Sri Lanka have been addressed. A shared feature that could emergefrom the case studies is the need to understand the interactions amongthe bio-physical and social constituents of coastal ecosystems, bothfrom a cultural anthropological perspective and the market demands ofglobalization. This may be addressed by treating coastal ecosystems associo-ecological systems (Gallopin, 2006).1.18 Socio-ecological Systems (SES): The Human Face of Coastal EcosystemsEcosystems of interest for management inevitably have a connectionwith human populations. Therefore, management planning for anecosystem must recognize the interaction among the physical, biologicaland societal sub-systems, especially feedback from the social component(Box 2). Such a tri-partite system is regarded as a socio-ecological system(SES). A SES is defined as a ‘system that includes societal (human) andecological (biophysical) subsystems in mutual interaction (Gallopin,2006). The SES itself is not isolated. It is connected to outside forces ofthe wider environment including: • natural hazards, national political processes (policies and institutions) and central decision-making (governance at all levels) • forces from outside the national border (oceanic processes, global change and globalization)The biophysical subsystem of an SES is geographically definableand restricted within a boundary (Box 2). The societal subsystem hasboth a geographically defined character as well as broader, spatiallyunrestricted political aspects. For instance a national policy, such asthe fishery development policy, formulated and adopted by the centralgovernment, may influence activity within a local ecosystem. The localfisher population may be pleased or displeased with policy implications,e.g. granting of permission to foreign fishing vessels. Agitation anddemonstrations may result. This political aspect belongs to groups ofpeople and constitutes ‘political power’. It is defined as the ‘capabilityof a group of people to resist imposed change if it is undesirable and tomobilize change where it is desirable’ (Etzioni, 1968). The scope of group 45
  • 79. INTRODUCTION power of a population may transcend the boundary of a village or a local government unit depending upon governance, functional institutions and organizations. A major drawback of many ICM initiatives is the inadequate consideration given to the societal component as stewards of ecosystems in keeping with the combined interests of self and nation. 1.19 Adapting to Future Uncertainty Concepts of risk, exposure, vulnerability, resilience, adaptive capacity, and preparedness are being applied worldwide to the analysis of SESs, particularly in the context of adaptation to climate change. In addition to being terms in colloquial language, they are widely used by the life sciences and social sciences, often with different meanings (Gallopin, 2006). Does experience with past coastal hazards reveal a learning trend in Sri Lanka? Unfortunately, there is little evidence of learning from the 1978 cyclone that affected the East of Sri Lanka and the 2004 Tsunami (Samarakoon, Epitawatte and Galappatti, 2009). A firm foundation for learning from the 2004 Tsunami is now available from the scientific impact assessment carried out in 2005 (MENR/UNEP, 2005a; UNEP /MENR, 2005b) and other studies. Planning for future hazards must have a clear spatial orientation. The CCD setbacks give an indication of sites along the coastline, which are relatively more exposed to hazards. More rigorous preparedness would necessitate mapping the coastline specifically for the task of constructing atlases of ‘coastal vulnerability’ (based on coastal vulnerability indices – CVIs) and of ‘risk’ that could be readily understood by Provincial Authorities who are in charge of land allocation for development. Some recommendations for learning are contained in Chapter 2. 1.20 Issues in Sustainable Management of Socio- ecological Systems The sustainable management of coastal ecosystems is fundamentally, a matter of economics and morality. The economic aspect, the value of ecosystem services, is being debated intellectually and improved valuation methodologies will, no doubt, follow. However, there is little evidence of serious consideration for the real value of ecosystems in policy decisions. Edward O. Wilson holds that ‘The issue like all great decisions is moral. Science and technology is what we can do.46
  • 80. INTRODUCTIONMorality is what we agree we should or should not do’ (Wilson, 2002).The challenge for the MFF Programme is to gain a real understanding ofwhat should or should not be done for the sustainable management ofcoastal ecosystems in Sri Lanka.The moral contradiction, whether something effective is done forcoastal ecosystems or not derives from where power lies and knowledgeis generated. Commenting on the failure of transfer of technology inagriculture, Robert Chambers (1990) commented - power is concentratedin the hands of people in high offices and central places. Knowledgeis generated in universities, laboratories, engineering workshops andresearch stations and then transferred packaged for adoption. Theapproach is centralized, standardized and simple – inadequate to meetthe interests and expectations of local populations who are dealing withthe actual uncertainties of living with natural resources. The situationin regard to the management of the coast and its resources in Sri Lanka,is comparable. Professional knowledge can contribute meaningfullyto the NSAP only to the extent that physical geography and culturalanthropology are clearly understood in the perspective of resourcedemands of local communities and the manner in which resources areused.1.21 The National Strategy and Action Plan (NSAP)The procedure used to develop the NSAP is explained in Chapter 3. Theunderlying logic is that the future is a reflection of the past, imprecisethough it may be. Therefore the future will be a product of presentprocesses. Consequently, if planners ignore history, they must surelyrepeat its mistakes. The strategy and action plan being designed for SriLanka seeks to answer three planning questions: • What is the present position of Sri Lanka’s coastal ecosystems in relation to regional diversity of the country and resource demands? • To what condition do planners intend to transform the coastal ecosystems by the year 2030? • How can society get there without aggravating existing damage or causing fresh harm to the coastal ecosystems? 47
  • 81. INTRODUCTION As a foundation for the planning exercise, Chapter 2 presents an analysis of the current status and trends of the coastal ecosystems. 1.22 Towards 2030: MFF NSAP The many crises that confront the coastal ecosystems in Sri Lanka have evolved over long periods of time spanning centuries in the case of aspects that have geological and oceanographic causes, and decades with regard to intended and unintended consequences of human activities. These impacts cannot be reversed or corrected rapidly with piecemeal interventions. Systemic interventions may be implemented gradually. For this purpose strategic planning is of the essence simply because priorities for action can thereby be identified for implementation to make optimal use of available resources. (Photo: Dr Ranjith Mahindapala)48
  • 82. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS2. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS2.1 PreambleThis chapter attempts to build convincing arguments, based on coastalecosystem trends, for the policies and actions proposed in Chapter 3: TheNational Strategy and Action Plan (NSAP). The arguments must emergefrom the legacy of multiple uses and development of coastal ecosystemsand their resources. The way people use coastal ecosystems is the centralissue. Therefore, the material presented in this chapter is partly culturalanthropology. In this approach, people as ecological populationsconstitute a unit of analysis, and culture shapes how that populationalters and adapts to the environment. (Kottak 1999; 2004). Culture, forthe purpose of this chapter means the way of life of coastal communities,the associated wider society and urban counterparts - the behaviour,beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, generally without thinkingabout them, and that are passed along by communication and imitationfrom one generation to the next (Hofstede, 1997).In retrospect, Chapter 1 presented the framework for exploring bothnatural change and human impact on complex coastal ecosystems, andto plan for future hazards. These impacts reveal themselves as time seriestrends, with particular internal rhythms (stressors) interacting withexternal variables (drivers). One challenge for the planner is to identifythe maximum and minimum consequences. Then, planning mayaddress and map the range within which average consequences could bemaintained through monitoring and management. Space does not allowa comprehensive analysis of all aspects relevant to coastal ecosystemmanagement planning. Only the aspects most significant and relevantto the trends, with consequences for ecosystems, are addressed here tofind answers to the three planning questions posed at the conclusion ofChapter 1 (section 1.21). 49
  • 83. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS This chapter is the foundation of the NSAP and seeks to clearly analyze the changes in coastal ecosystem and their trends in recent decades as a sound basis for future planning. Apart from natural change, much of the impact on coastal ecosystems arise from: • diverse traditional and modern practices of expanding populations • planned development interventions, supported by state and private sector investments. Therefore, the existing situation and trends need to be understood in a planning perspective so that adverse impacts on natural systems could be minimized when formulating future actions. Hence, the consequences of previously implemented plans on coastal ecosystems are assessed in relation to four essential planning principles (see Box 4 for an example), namely: • Optimal utilization of development opportunities, • Equitable distribution of benefits, • Minimal damage to structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems, and • Prevention or minimization of negative externalities. Box 4. Development of coastal tourism, Lewis Place, Negombo Development of tourism in Sri Lanka was planned by the government in the mid 1970s. Many incentives were offered to investors including concessionary imports and tax holidays. Hotels were built on the beach at Lewis Place. These same beaches were used by local fishermen for landing traditional fishing craft and fiberglass boats, drawing beach seine nets, drying fish, temporary wadiyas etc. Hotel builders were insensitive to the needs of the fishers and the functioning of the beach as an ecosystem. While incentives were provided, regulations were not in place to safeguard beach ecosystems and fisher livelihood – multiple uses. The hotels were built too close to the sea and obstructed coastal processes. In a few years the beaches were eroded and the hotels were threatened with collapse. The fishermen lost their livelihood. They could not beach land their fishing craft and boats, nor draw nets. Conflicts among hoteliers, fisherfolk and government agencies were intense. In the mid- 1980s the government rebuilt the beaches using engineering technology. DANIDA provided grant assistance to solve the problem. Since planning ignored the four principles, tourism, mainly the hotel owners, benefitted at the expense of the natural ecosystem entraining serious hardship for fisherfolk and substantial costs in conflict resolution.50
  • 84. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSThe seminal thinkers on ecological methods emphasized that withoutknowledge of the past, ecological interpretation is meaningless.Therefore this chapter must supply answers to two questions: • What is the present position of coastal ecosystems based on past trends in relation to: – regional diversity of the country, and – resource demands? • What will be the predictable status of coastal ecosystems if existing trends continue?Why must trends be understood? Trends reveal four strategic optionsthat planners must address, at a particular point in time, in therelationship between the: • values that society holds in regard to coastal ecosystems, and • goal of developing coastal ecosystems.Let’s take the example in Box 4. What did society expect from a beachat Lewis Place, Negombo. It expected their own livelihood to prosperparallel with tourism development. However, a disparity occurredbetween the values of society and the goal of development. Since thenthe beach (at Lewis Place, Negombo) has been restored by way ofexpensive engineering works. The goals and values for coastal resources,and ecosystems in particular, are contained in the CZMPs (CCD, 1990,1997, 2006). These are also embodied in Sri Lanka’s Constitution andthe diverse international commitments made by the Government of SriLanka, including the MDGs.The four planning directions revealed by trends are: • If a trend shows that societal values and development goals are in harmony, only monitoring of the ecosystem is required to ensure balanced continuity. • If a trend shows a mismatch between societal values and development goals, and the causes are known, then policies, strategies and collaborative action are required. 51
  • 85. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS • Where a trend shows a mismatch between societal values and development goals but the causes for the divergence are uncertain, then research must be undertaken. • Where a proposed development activity could create a new change trend, e.g. construction of a port or a fishery harbour, an environmental impact assessment is indicated to ensure harmony between societal values and the development goal. Strategic planning in a developing country is meaningful only if proposed policies, strategies and actions benefit all segments of society, including the poorest and weakest. In the Sri Lankan coastal area this segment of the population is the so-termed ‘coastal communities’, which generally include populations that depend upon coastal resources for livelihood, and rank among the poorest (MOF, 2004; FAO/ADB, 1988). They depend directly upon harvesting natural productivity, and therefore, every adverse impact on coastal ecosystem structure and functioning undermines their livelihood. Benefits can accrue to ‘coastal communities’ only in proportion to equitable management of ecosystem- based development (World Bank, 2005). Contradictions between the chosen development model in Sri Lanka and the integrated management of coastal ecosystems are clearly evident. Sri Lanka’s development model is based more upon the primacy of economic growth measured in terms of the gross domestic product (GDP) and less on equitable distribution of the outcome of that growth. The nature of this growth indicator and its relationship to the behaviour of ecosystems was clarified by Daly (1991). He shows that both economic growth and safeguarding the integrity of ecosystems cannot be simultaneously achieved. However, continuous economic growth that draws upon ecosystem products becomes feasible, within limits, only to the extent that appropriate investment is made to increase the productivity of that ecosystem. The complexity of the interactions between the ecosystem and human populations is presented in a simplified conceptual framework in Chapter 1, (Figure 1). Also, the ecosystem-human relationships, now subsumed under the concept of socio-ecological system (SES) are explained in Chapter 1, Box 2, and Section 1.18. Livelihoods that depend upon ecosystem productivity are increasingly drawn into the globalization process where powerful market forces determine incomes (Stiglitz, 2007).52
  • 86. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSWhile these human-driven relationships are crucially important, in anisland such as Sri Lanka, physical limitations fundamentally influencethe structure and functioning of the coastal ecosystems. Geology,geomorphology and bio-physical attributes that set the fundamentallimits on coastal ecosystem structure and functioning, are described inChapter 1, Section Methodology: Information on Ecosystem Trends Published ecological research on the structure and functioning ofentire coastal ecosystems is rare. Much of the available information isdescriptive and relates to diverse facets of ecosystems, including fishery,seagrasses, mangroves, sediment budget, etc. Long term measurementsof key indicators of ecosystem change are lacking. However, changepertaining to lagoons and estuaries has been catalogued to some extent(CCD, 2006; Samarakoon & Van Zon, 1991; Ganewatte et al. 1995).Even so, adequate information is available, from diverse sources, toweave together a credible and testable representation of the patternsof change. One-off measurements such as the bathymetry of lagoonsand estuaries, coupled with time sequences of aerial photographs,provide a convincing representation of the patterns of change. Livingmemory of some individual scientists who have been associated withthe research, planning and management of selected coastal ecosystemsin past decades, bridge the gaps in information. Fishery statistics, despiteknown shortcomings (Government of Ceylon, 1951, FAO/ADB, 1988),provide a reasonable foundation for inferences about the functioning ofthe MCZ and the impact of technological change.The changes in the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems,and their societal implications are, perforce, records based on limitedscientific literature, field experience of individuals spanning aboutfour decades, and the views and thoughts of experienced specialists.The material presented is based to some extent on multidisciplinarydiscussion and analysis. Of special significance is that it also draws onwell documented experience, spanning 25 years, from ecosystem basedICM initiatives in Sri Lanka: • Coast Protection Scheme Negombo: Rehabilitation of seven kilometers of beach ecosystem consisting of 400,000 cubic meters of beach nourishment, four offshore breakwaters and 2 groynes 53
  • 87. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS resulting in the restoration of fisher livelihood and tourism supported by DANIDA (CCD, 1997), and • Master Plan Project for Muthurajawela Marsh and Negombo Lagoon: The first of its king strategic land use plan for the most economically significanr estauarine system implemented with cabinet approval from 1991-2006, supported by the Dutch Government (CEA/ ARCADIS, 2003; CCD, 2005b). This knowledge, analyzed scientifically (Odum, 1971; Holling, 1978) is summarized, as an example, in a composite causal model (Section 2.5.1, Figure 23) that enables (i) mapping the complex interrelationships among many resource-use pathways that caused change, and (ii) identifying the core issues (diseases or pathologies) that afflict sensitive coastal ecosystems and the particular actions that are needed. It demonstrates the analytical contribution to the application of ‘adaptive management’ to ongoing ICM practices. 2.3 Coastal Ecosystems – Definition, Regional Diversity, and Use Patterns Coast, in the NSAP, refers to the area of interaction between the land and the sea which includes all seven classes of coastal ecosystems (see Section 1.2, MCZ, bays, beaches, dunes, estuaries, lagoons, and tidal flats), namely: • The land belt with sand dunes, tidal flats, and water bodies (estuaries and lagoons) where tidal sea water and freshwater from land drainage mix to form brackish water; and • The beach, and the belt of contiguous sea overlying the continental shelf to 30 meters depth (an average distance of about 5 kilometers) including the sea bed. This definition of the coast differs from the statutory coastal zone of Sri Lanka (Figure 11) for both operational and ecological reasons. It is also supported by the scientific literature for ecosystem-based planning. Adherence to the ‘legal coastal zone’ defeats the purpose of ecosystem- based ICM since it does not give adequate consideration to the four attributes of a coastal ecosystem (Chapter 1, Section 1.2.; this chapter Section 2.3.1)54
  • 88. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSLand use planning and implementation, in the context of local ecologicaldiversity, are essential for ICM. Land comes under the jurisdiction ofProvincial Councils and local government authorities (LGAs). Forthis reason coastal diversity is classified in five segments that broadlycorrespond to the coasts of the Northern, North Western, Western,Southern and Eastern Provinces. These segments share some bio-physical features and differ in others. A description of regional diversityand patterns of use follow the definition of coastal ecosystems. Figure 11. (A) The statutory coastal zone of Sri Lanka (Coast Conservation Act 57 of 1981). (B) The coastal area as proposed in the NSAP based on actual distribution and dimensions of coastal ecosystems (see text for explanation) has variable boundaries (shaded area bounded by broken line) under the jurisdiction of Provincial Councils. (A) (B)2.3.1 DefinitionThe seven classes of coastal ecosystems in Sri Lanka were illustratedin Chapter 1 (Figure 2). The need for the shift from habitats toecosystems as the units of management was clarified in Chapter 1. Theinterrelationships among classes of coastal ecosystem and constituenthabitats are illustrated in Figure 3. The scientific definition of ecosystems(Chapter 1, Section 1.2) though appropriate for research, is impracticalfor ICM. The long term objective of managing ecosystems is theretention of their resilience, the ability to recover from disturbance, andfocusing on the particular without being distracted by generalizations(Chapter1, Section 1.19; Holling, 1978, Adger et al., 2005). 55
  • 89. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Holling (1978) made the definition of ecosystems practical (functional and operational) by reducing their attributes to four essential features shared by all systems, living and non-living. However, ecosystems are complex and simplification may exclude important dimensions. Nevertheless, for practical thinking, Holling’s (1978) approach is useful although debate continues about diverse aspects of ecosystems. The approach has already been tested in Sri Lanka (CEA/Euroconsult. 1994; Samarakoon and Van Zon, 1997). Holling’s (1978) approach enables coastal managers to identify ‘particular’ types of activity for management. The four essential attributes, taking an estuary as an example, are: • Composed of interacting parts (i.e. there cannot be a system without parts), e.g. an estuary has water, submerged seagrasses, fringing mangroves, fish, etc. • Connected or linked to a wider environment and never isolated, e.g. an estuary is always linked with the sea. • Changing - dynamic, e.g. an estuary in Sri Lanka is always changing; daily with the tides, and seasonally with the rains. • Resilient with the capacity to bounce back after a disturbance, e.g. a toxic discharge from an industry may cause a fish kill and alter the feeding relationships, however with time the normal food web is restored if the root disturbance is removed. These four attributes can be separately analyzed to diagnose management issues. Furthermore, an ecosystem is a coupled system linked to the wider environment. For example, an estuary functions in rhythm with the tides since it requires mixing of seawater and freshwater. All coastal ecosystems are geologically ephemeral, with time spans of 1000s to millions of years (Chapter 1, Section 1.9). But in ecological terms, with time spans of decades and centuries, they are important components of the coastal landscape providing many services for human wellbeing. This calls for the management and adaptation of the diverse factors that influence coastal ecosystems, ranging from relatively simple human- made factors such as product extraction (e.g. fishing), navigation and waste discharge, to forces beyond human control such as tides, waves, currents and climate (Section 2.2).56
  • 90. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSThe subsidiary aspects of each essential ecosystem attribute, may bearranged hierarchically. For instance, structural complexity consists ofinteracting parts, but all parts are not equally important. In the case ofan estuary, the part that is key to normal structure and functioning is themouth that connects with the sea (tidal inlet). Management must targetthe mouth. The same tactic is applicable to the other three essentialattributes (CEA/Euroconsult, 1994). Thereby, management of a complexsystem can be made simpler yet remain ecologically efficient (Holling,1978). The terminology generally applied to ecosystems for the purposeof management are (Figure 12): Figure 12. Abstract model of a barrier-built estuary based on the Negombo Lagoon to show its hydrological linkage to land drainage by the Dandugam Oya (B1), and to the sea by tides (B2). Thus the Negombo Lagoon behaves as a coupled system in rhythm with the land drainage pattern and the tidal cycle. It is made up of interacting parts that constitute ‘structural complexity’ (A1-A6). Resilience and Dynamic Stability cannot be shown since these attributes change with time and seasons (CEA/ Euroconsult, 1994). See text for further explanation. Key: STRUCTURAL COMPLEX- ITY A1: Seagrasses A2: Fringing mangroves & mangrove islands A3: Mud & shell beds A4: Reed beds A5: Estuary-marsh transition A6: Tidal channel HYDROLOGICAL LINKAGE B1: River flow & land drainage B2: Tidal exchange with the sea RESILIENCE Time dependent attribute – see text for explanation DYNAMIC STABILITY Time dependent attribute – see text for explanation 57
  • 91. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS i) Structural complexity: the interacting parts that constitute the ecosystem ii) Linkages: the manner in which the defined ecosystem is connected to the wider environment iii) Dynamic stability: the manner in which an ecosystem changes in time while retaining its four essential, functional attributes iv) Resilience: the capacity of an ecosystem to bounce back to its original state following a disturbance. 2.3.2 Structure and Functioning of the Seven Coastal Ecosystems The seven classes of coastal ecosystems in the NSAP are derived by reclustering coastal habitats already named in the CZMPs (CCD, 1990, 1997, 2004), and supplementing them with the MCZ and bays (Chapter 1, Section 1.9). Marine Coastal Zone (MCZ): The approximately 10 kilometers wide belt of sea extending from the mean low-water level of the beach or other landform (e.g. cliff) to a depth of 30 meters. This includes the water column, and the seabed with its diverse physical features and associated resident and migratory populations of plants and animals. It is a definitional adaptation required in the Sri Lankan context. The MCZ provides habitats for corals, seagrasses, seaweeds, algae, micro-organisms, and communities of organisms that inhabit soft muddy deposits. These assemblages of organisms and habitats, constitute extensive subsystems such as the seagrass beds along the north-eastern coast and in the Palk Bay, which is the only habitat of the endangered dugong (Dugon dugon). Habitats in the MCZ also provide a home to Penaeid shrimps to spend the marine part of their lifecycle (Figure 13a). This is the area from which the traditional coastal fishermen obtain their catch. Proper management of the MCZ is required to sustain fishery productivity in estuaries and lagoons. The small pelagic fishery in the MCZ is influenced by the seasonal nutrient plumes to the sea that accompany seasonal rains and propagate planktonic growth (Figure 13b; Jayakody & Costa, 1988; Jayawickrema & Jayakody, 1991).58
  • 92. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSBays: Coastal indentation, generally situated in association with stableheadlands. A bay is connected with coastal marine processes in a mannerwhich generally maintains conditions somewhat similar to the open sea,except seasonally, when land drainage increases markedly. The beachsituated in a bay is anchored by the headlands. Its stability is linked tothe efficiency of headlands in preventing sand bypassing out of the bay.The shape of bays may vary depending upon currents, wind and waves(Swan, 1983). Within a bay, the MCZ exists much as in the open sea,and may be addressed as an integrated unit connected to the influenceof land drainage. A bay generally is shallower and more productive thanthe open sea since it receives and traps nutrients and sediment from landdrainage. Interestingly, however, one of the deepest bays in the world,Trincomalee Bay, is also found on the Sri Lankan coastline. Seagrasses,coral reefs and fringing mangroves (where sheltered from strong waveaction) may occur as habitats within shallower bays.Beach: Beaches are accumulations of unconsolidated material on theshore. The material consists of mixtures, among others, of mainly silicasand, coral sand, pebbles, mud and mineral sand. They are formed bythe interaction of coastal processes and resulting water movement.Variants include barrier beaches and spits (Swan, 1983; CCD, 2006).Diverse biological communities occupy a beach. The appearance andquality of beach sand varies with the proportion of silica sand (fromland drainage) to biogenic sand (shells and coral fragments from deadorganisms) (Figure 14). Most beaches are supplied by sand from landdrainage and by recirculation of sand already stored on the sea bed.Only thirteen (13) of the 103 rivers deliver sand in quantities adequate tobe redistributed by littoral drift to compensate for losses due to erosion(Figure 4). This linkage is important for beach management (CCD, 1997;CCD, 2004). Also it is a severe limitation since river sand mining forthe construction sector has intensified to the extent that sand supply tosea is severely curtailed. The sensitivity of beaches to coastal processesas well as interference with them is expressed by the (i) erosive impactof the Southwest Monsoons along some coastal segments (see Section1.9), and (ii) the entrained consequences of engineering structures(revetments, groynes and offshore breakwaters) that were constructed toprotect beaches. Sophisticated technology is required to understand andaddress coastal erosion. The extent of the problem of coast protection isexpressed in the total length of engineering structures that have alreadybeen constructed (Box 5) 59
  • 93. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Figure 13. (a) Both estuaries and the MCZ are required for completion of the life cycle of the penaeid shrimp which contributes substantially to foreign exchange earnings. (b) The small pelagic fishes, sardines and herrings, that support small scale fishing in the MCZ, require connection with estuaries for nutrient rich water that stimulates growth of plankton that they feed on. (a) (b)60
  • 94. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Box 5. The extent of revetments, groynes and breakwaters constructed reflects the investment made in protecting beaches against erosion. The trend of beach protection engineering works is reported to have ‘broken the back’ of erosion. To that extent beach ecosystem stability has been achieved, mainly along the western, southwestern and southern coastlines (Wickremaratne, pers comm.., CCD, 2006).Sand dune: Dunes are wind blown accumulations of sand, whichare distinctive from adjacent landforms such as beaches and tidal flats.Although they resemble beaches when their elevation is low, they differin the manner in which they are formed. Dunes are formed by wind andoccur landward of the reach of wave run up. Recent dunes are unstableas the wind continuously disturbs the sand and changes their form. Theyacquire stability when covered by communities of vegetation such ascreepers (e.g. Ipomea pescapres). Sand dunes constitute a class of coastalecosystems which are diverse regionally in age, structure, dimensionsand stability. 61
  • 95. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Figure 14. Diversity of beach ecosystems. Batticaloa: sandy beach used for landing of Bambalapitiya: narrow beach, poorly fishing craft that operate in the MCZ. supplied with sand. Erosion threatens infrastructure. Protective rock revetment. Induruwa: broad sandy beach well supplied Koggala: beach fronted by rock ledge (Photo: with silica sand from Kalu Ganga (Photo: Dr. Dr. Nirmali Pallewatte) Nirmali Pallewatte) Tangalla: beach at edge of a headland (Prof: Passekudah: a broad, coconut-fringed beach M De Silva) in Kalkudah Bay62
  • 96. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSKankasanthurai, Jaffna: coral rubble beach Ahangama: white beach with much biogenic material (Photo: Dr. Nirmali Pallewatte)Kalutara: a beach rich in black ilmenite Batticaloa: beach at tidal inlet of Batticaloadeposits (as in Pulmodai) Lagoon. Note creepers.Hambantota: beach backed in places by low Hambantota: a broad sloping, palm fringeddunes. See Figure 1-1 for a contrasting high beach. This beach supplies fine sand carrieddune (Photo: Prof. M De Silva) by wind to dunes (Photo: Prof. M De Silva) 63
  • 97. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Sand dunes range in geological age from Pleistocene (>10,000-2 million years BP), through Holocene (< 10,000 years BP) to recent and incipient forms (Figure 15). The CZMP 2004 identifies three types (CCD, 2006): i. Low, flat to slightly undulating, isolated platforms of sand, less than 1 m in height (e.g. incipient dunes occurring in Koggala, Matara, Akurala and Uswetakeiyawa). ii. Transverse primary dunes, consisting of single fore-dune ridges of undulating sand masses associated with stable beaches, exceeding 5 m in height (e.g. dunes at Mannar, Pooneryn, Kalpitiya and along the south-eastern coast). iii. Secondary transgressive dunes, usually exceeding 3 m in height (e.g. dunes at Mannar, Pooneryn, Kalpitiya and Jaffna; most of which are longitudinal, some parabolic, and a few are complex in form. Incipient (immature) dunes are particularly interesting in ICM with respect to their possible role as physical barriers in the face of hazards. This aspect is discussed in detail in Section 2.9. The wind-blown sand supply from beaches to a dune depends on the climatic conditions. In arid zones the sand is generally dry and moved with ease by wind. In the wet zone, moisture from the frequent rains binds the sand grains and prevents transport by wind (Swan, 1983). Figure 15. Diverse dunes. See Figure 2 for another view of a dune in Hambantota. Hambantota: dunes stabilized by Casuarina Yala: dunes topped by creeping vegetation. to reduce wind-blown dust nuisance. Dates Probably as old as those in Hambantota back to Pleistocene (Photo: Prof. M De Silva) (Photo: Wim Giesen).64
  • 98. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSPanama: dune interrupted by spaces where Hambantota: old, stable dunes fronted bysand was washed away by the 2004 tsunami granite (Photo: Prof. M De Silva)(Photo: Wim Giesen).Manalkadu, Jaffna: mobile dunes (shifted by Hambanthota: remains of an incipient dunewind) which partially smothered a church (ID) situated between two stable dunes that(seen jutting out). Probably dates back to terminate at a tidal inlet. Photo taken shortlyHolocene (circa, 10,000 YBP). The tsunami after 2004 tsunami. Later the ID formedwave 2004 reached the dune toe (> 16 m). again (Photo: Prof. M De Silva)Estuary: An estuary exists in many forms ranging from a simple funnelshaped opening of a river to the sea (riverine estuary: CCD, 1997; CCD,2004) where freshwater from land drainage and tidal seawater mix toform brackish water, to the more extreme form of an estuarine delta.Deltas at the confluence of rivers and the sea are typically dynamic andsmall scale, and occur mainly in Palk Bay where wave action is weak.Barrier-built estuaries occur where rivers flow into a partially enclosedarea separated from the sea by a barrier of sand, mix with tidal sea water,and then pass into the sea (Figures 2 and 6). These are also regarded as‘basin estuaries’, as a simplification (CCD, 1997; CCD, 2006). Thebarrier-built estuaries are perennially connected with the sea (e.g. JaffnaLagoon, Negombo Lagoon, Puttalam Lagoon, Chilaw Lagoon). Theseformed about 10,000 years ago in the Holocene Period. Their long-term 65
  • 99. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS destiny (centuries and millennia) is extinction since they are inherently sediment traps – the smaller and shallower they are at the time of origin, the sooner they fill and change into a network of creeks. Barrier-built estuaries rank high among the most productive coastal ecosystems since they receive and retain nutrients from land drainage. A diversity of habitats exist within them, such as seagrass beds, mangroves, shell beds, and soft mud beds, which provide food and shelter for many marine organisms that have evolved to benefit from such ‘nursery areas’ (Figure 13). The fate of a barrier-built estuary is sealed at the time it is born (Perkins, 1974). Longevity is determined by its own dimensions, and the size and nature of the catchment. The larger catchments produce proportionately more sediment. The associated estuaries therefore are filled relatively more rapidly. In general, estuaries belong in the class of “fluctuating water level ecosystems” which are “pulse-stabilized” in a “youthful” stage in regard to productivity (Odum, 1971). This means that adequate, twice-daily tidal flushing prevents estuaries in Sri Lanka from reaching their terminal maturity and loss of fishery productivity (CCD, 1997). However, the limited efficiency of Sri Lanka’s semi-diurnal micro-tides to maintain stability of tidal inlets is an important consideration for coastal managers. Land uses in the catchments resulting in increased sediment and pollutant loads accelerate the demise of barrier-built estuaries, unless safeguards are in place. Lagoon: A lagoon is a late evolutionary stage of relatively smaller estuaries where the tidal inlet is blocked by a sand bar produced by wave action. Sediment received from land drainage may also be trapped at a tidal inlet until it eventually clogs the passage to the sea (Figure 2, Rekawa Lagoon). The tidal connection with the sea then becomes seasonal and the brackish water body is classified as a lagoon (CCD, 1985). Lagoons are classified as distinct ecosystems because the management measures involved are substantially different from those in the case of estuaries. This is because the range of multiple uses that they are capable of supporting is limited, e.g. a lagoon cannot be used as an anchorage for marine fishing craft. Nevertheless, they support livelihood depending on the level of recruitment of commercially valuable fishery species (Jayakody & Jayawickema, 2005).66
  • 100. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSTidal flat: Low-lying land in arid areas situated near the sea, andcoastal ecosystems such as estuaries and lagoons, affected by high tides,periodic flooding and subject to persistent, desiccating wind. Suchterrain develops characteristic vegetation consisting of halophytes(salt-tolerant plants which resist dehydration). The influence of salt isthrough periodic tidal inundation or by salt spray. Halophytic plantsare generally small and shrub-like. The soil is generally rich in alluvium.Although the term ‘salt marsh’ (CCD, 2006; NSF, 2000) is used in theliterature on coastal habitats in Sri Lanka, the term is a misnomer. Saltmarshes are technically the temperate counterpart of mangroves (Zedler,1997) and do not exist in Sri Lanka. Most tidal flats have been convertedto paddy fields if freshwater is available because of the favourable claycontent of the soil. For the same reason tidal flats are highly attractivefor coastal aquaculture.2.3.3 Regional Diversity – The Coasts of the Provincial Councils The types of coasts and distribution of coastal ecosystems differ amongthe five Provincial Councils of Sri Lanka, Northern, North-western,Western, Southern and Eastern, i.e. they show regional diversity.Therefore, generalizations for the entirety of the country’s coast,although appropriate for national policy, has no practical meaning formanagement. Recognition of this regional differentiation is essentialsince land use planning, a key facet of ICM, is under the jurisdictionof the respective Provincial Councils. The distribution, structure andfunctioning of particular coastal ecosystems is an expression of regionalgeology and geomorphology as well as coastal processes. The technicalmaterial is drawn mainly from Swan (1983) and the National Atlas of SriLanka, 1st & 2nd Editions (Survey Department, 1988; 2008). Ecosystem-based management boundaries could be defined by the respectiveprovincial authorities.Northern Region (Figure 16): Boundary: The Northern Regionextends between the tidal inlet of Kokilai Lagoon on the northeast coastand the outfall of Moderagam Aru in the northwest. It is characterizedby the Jaffna Peninsula, and a broad, shallow continental shelf. Alongthe northeast coast the depth of the continental shelf is 30 m to a distanceof about 20 km. The continental shelf of the Jaffna Peninsula, the PalkBay and the Gulf of Mannar extend to more than 20 kilometers withinthe 20 m depth contour. 67
  • 101. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Rivers and Watersheds: Twenty three (23) watersheds of major and minor perennial rivers are associated with this coastline. The more significant are: Ma Oya, Per Aru, Kanakarayan Aru, Palli Aru, Parangi Aru, Nay Aru, Aruvi Aru and Moderagam Aru. There are no rivers in the Jaffna Peninsula. The subsidiary rivers in this region are relatively short. Their runoff and sediment yield are relatively low. Some prominent barrier- built estuaries, smaller lagoons and bays occur along the northeast coast. Much of the sediment delivered by the rivers becomes trapped within the estuaries and lagoons. Ma Oya delivers its sediment load into Kokilai Lagoon which is progressively getting filled up. The slight indentations that form bays are flanked by low headlands that barely protrude into the sea. Alluvial plumes that occur at river outlets during the Northeast Monsoons both enrich the nearshore coastal water as well as the seagrass beds along the coastline. Because of the relatively wider continental shelf, interconnections between the rivers, barrier-built estuaries and the nearshore waters, the crustacean (shrimp) fishery resource is significant. Coastal Ecosystems and Habitats: A highly productive MCZ, beaches, dunes, estuaries, lagoons and tidal flats in diverse forms exist in this region. The MCZ is enriched by coral reefs, seagrass beds and muddy deposits. The coral reefs are situated off the northern coast of Jaffna, and extend into the Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar. The seagrass beds extend along the north-eastern coast, and expand vastly in the Palk Bay and the Gulf of Mannar. Shore-front deltaic mangroves, not found elsewhere along Sri Lanka’s coast, occur in association with the outlets of Palli Aru, Parangi Aru and Nay Aru, albeit on a diminutive scale. The northern boundary of the Jaffna Peninsula faces shallow water over the continental shelf which is less than 20 m deep. Since this stretch is relatively sheltered it is not affected by medium and long period swells, as experienced along the southern coast. Bays and prominent headlands are absent. The only indentation is the tidal inlet of Thondamannaru Lagoon. Senaratne and Dissanayake (1982) conducted a paleogeographic reconstruction of the predominantly Miocene limestone Jaffna Peninsula using photogrammetric techniques. Application of similar techniques towards understanding the evolution of landforms in coastal areas that are exposed to hazards, could contribute substantially towards identification of suitable mitigation measures. The northwestern flank of the Northern Region experiences low wave energy and enhanced sediment deposition, including alluvium.68
  • 102. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSSenaratne and Dissanayake (1982) provide an interpretation of theevolution of Karaitivu Island and associated lagoons and vegetation.Along this coastline, deltas with shorefront mangroves have developedunlike elsewhere. The mangrove habitats together with the seagrass bedsin this relatively shallow, sheltered area, including Palk Bay and Gulf ofMannar, constitute a highly complex and productive MCZ. This is theonly area in which the threatened dugong (Dugon dugon) exists in thewaters of Sri Lanka.The beaches associated with the tidal outlet of Kokkilai Lagoon atPulmoddai, and extending northward to some extent is enriched byplacer deposits of ilmenite, rutile and zircon. These deposits formpart of a 60 m wide belt, which extends southwards to Nilaveli. Thebeach material consist of 79% of placer heavy minerals, of which 80%is ilmenite. The ilmenite deposits are exploited on a commercial scaleat Pulmoddai by the Sri Lanka Mineral Sands Corporation. Ilmenitedoes not occur in concentrations adequate for commercial exploitation,elsewhere.Raised beaches and the best developed sand dunes in Sri Lanka,progressively increase in height from Mullaitivu and along the easternflank of the Jaffna Peninsula to Point Pedro. Impressive sand duneswhich are mobile exist in Manalkadu. Dune migration in the 1950sresulted in the smothering of the village school and church (Figure 15).The dunes rise to more than 5 m at some points in their undulating form.Dunes also show impressive development along the western coast of theJaffna Peninsula and in the north-west in Mannar island. The mobilityof dunes is associated with their relative immaturity.The prominent barrier-built estuaries include Kokkilai Lagoon, Nayaru,Nathikadel, and Jaffna Lagoon. Jaffna Lagoon is the largest barrier-built estuary in the country and supports diverse uses. Seagrass beds andfringing mangroves occur in these brackish water bodies and providerich nursery habitat for a wide range of fishery organisms. The mostabundant fishery resources in the country occur in this region (John,1951).Land Use and Resource Potential : Large and small settlements areconcentrated in the Jaffna Peninsula. They are relatively sparse along thenorth-eastern and north-western coastal areas of the region. An extensive 69
  • 103. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS motorable road network links most locations in the region. The Jaffna islands are serviced by a ferry and launch system. A highly significant character of the region is its rich coastal and estuarine fishery recognized for its high potential since early post-independence (Government of Ceylon, 1951). This fishery contributed an estimated 40% to the total fish supply in the country in the period preceding the onset of the ethnic conflict in the mid-1980s. It showed resurgence during the brief two-year period of peace (2001-2003) when normal fishing was again allowed (Sharvananda, 2003; 2005b). The region is known to be rich in ilmenite and miocene limestone used for cement production. High quality silica sand exists in commercial quantity in the sand dunes in the Vadamarachchi area. Hydrocarbon exploration has been carried out in the Gulf of Mannar. Resource extraction that has occurred already include: - Commercial ilmenite extraction from placer deposits extending to the beach at Pulmoddai. - Commercial miocene limestone extraction from terrestrial quarries situated near to the coastline supported cement production on a national scale at the Kankesanthurai Cement Factory. - Dune sand extraction in Ampan and Manalkadu for use in construction. - Salt and salt-based chemical production at Elephant Pass. Coastal tourism was popular in Keerimalai and in the environs of the Maviddapuram Temple. High potential is reported for development of coastal tourism in the area. Numerous archeological sites and places of historic interest are dispersed throughout the islands along the north- western coast (Delft, Kayts, etc). Marine protected areas (MPAs) have not been designated in the region.70
  • 104. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSFigure 16. The coast of the Northern Province showing geomorphology, coastal ecosys- tems and some resources 1 2 11 6 12 3 4 5 10 13 8 9 7 14 15 17 16 Key: 1. Beach, coral reef, tourism 2. Miocene limestone for cement manufacture – Kankesanturai 3. Silica sand from dune: Vadamaarachchi 4. Largest sand dune, sand mining, tourism, settlements. 5. Seagrasses: rich shrimp fishery 6. Groundwater for agriculture (no rivers in Jaffna peninsula), sensitive resource 7. Abundant ilmenite: commercial extraction 8. Lagoons and estuaries: nursery for shrimp 9. Tidal flats: shrimp cultivation potential 10. largest estuary: supports extensive livelihood, drainage for agriculture 11. MCZ: rich coastal fishery 12. Islands: archeological sites, tourism 13. Palk Bay: mangrove deltas, seagrasses, rich fishery 14. Gulf of Mannar: rich fishery, oil exploration, proposed MPA 15. Tidal flats: potential for aquaculture 16. Pleistocene dunes, Miocene limestone, archeological remains 17. Wildlife protected area 71
  • 105. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS North-western Region (Figure 17): The North-western Region extends from Moderagam Aru south to Maha Oya and forms the coastal boundary of the North-western Province. The continental shelf, to a depth of 30 m, begins to decrease in width in the vicinity of the Moderagam Aru, narrows to less than 10 km alongside the Kalpitiya sand spit/dune, and broadens again to about 20 km in the vicinity of the Maha Oya outlet. Miocene limestone underlies the Holocene and riverine alluvial deposits. Beneath the alluvial deposits occur beach and dune deposits situated on the limestone dating back to the Pleistocene period. High limestone cliffs line the coastline rising 10-70 m above sea level and topped by relict dunes. Kudremalai Point was the site of an ancient settlement which subsequently was buried by more recent deposits. Southward, the limestone cliffs continue, topped with shell-bearing beach and dune deposits. These are heavily forested. The Kala Oya and Mi Oya flow through sheltered deltas into Dutch Bay and Puttalam Lagoon. Mangrove habitats occur on these deltas. Limetone at Aruakkalu has been extracted on a commercial scale for almost five decades since the establishment of the government cement factory in Puttalam. Its ownership and operation were transferred to Holcim Ltd. (a multinational company) in the 1990s. The present rate of extraction is anticipated to be feasible for many years into the future. The excavation areas are now being managed for the enhancement of biodiversity with potential for nature tourism with appropriate intervention by the private sector (Ziegler pers comm.). The Puttalam Lagoon is separated from the sea along its western side by a compound sand spit with Kalpitiya peninsula situated at its northern end. This sand spit has complex beach ridges as well as dunes dating back to the Holocene period. Beach rock underlies the beach and dune deposits indicating the effects of the Pleistocene sea level fluctuations. The western border of Puttalam Lagoon continues beyond Kalpitiya peninsula interrupted by a series of sand spits. Karaitivu island constitutes the northernmost sand spit and forms the western boundary of Portugal Bay. Bar Reef Sanctuary situated offshore of Kalpitiya is the sole MPA in this coastal reion.72
  • 106. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSFigure 17. The coast of the North-western Province showing geomorphology, coastal ecosystems and some resource uses 3 11 1 Key: 2 1. Miocene limestone topped by Pleistocene dunes, forest, red earth. Limestone 8 6 supports commercial 7 cement industry (Puttalam Cement – Holcim Lanka). 5 Cliffed limestone coastline 2. Kalpitiya sand spit and dune system, Holocene. Situated on and fronted by beach 10 9 12 rock. Coral reef habitat in MCZ 3. Dutch Bay and Portugal Bay at entrance of Puttalam Lagoon, dynamic sand spits 4. Puttalam Lagoon, a barrier built estuary, main livelihood support for numerous villages in vicinity. Urban employment scarce 5. Mundel Lagoon, a relict part of an earlier extensive estuarine system. Fishery depleted by pollution from shrimp aquaculture on tidal flats in vicinity. 6. Shrimp aquaculture on tidal flats, some previously used for paddy cultivation. Hapahazard development with much pollutant flows into Puttalam Lagoon and Mundel Lagoon 7. Abundant groundwater available because of limestone geological structure 8. Small scale coastal fishing in MCZ. 9. Chilaw Lagoon: barrier-built estuary being progressively clogged by unmanaged mangrove planting by special-interest NGOs. Shrimp culture at periphery with unmanaged pollutant flows into lagoon. Significant anchorage 10. Shrimp fishery – trawling both traditional and modern. Impact on sea bed not studied. Productivity depends upon linkage to Chilaw Lagoon as a nursery. 11. MPA: Bar Reef Sanctuary off the Kalpitiya peninsula. Coastal belt of the Wilpattu National Park is a protected area. 12. Extensive mangrove planting in inter-tidal areas that potentially obstruct hydrology and accelerate sedimentation. 73
  • 107. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS South of Mundel Lake, the swampy extension passes through Udappu towards the deltaic outlet of Deduru Oya. The delta extends further southwards to Chilaw Lagoon. The coastline in this area is dynamic and has receded through erosion. The shallow continental shelf receives alluvial material from the Deduru Oya and Chilaw Lagoon, and provides habitat to penaeid shrimps which pass the juvenile part of their life cycle in the estuary. The MCZ in this region area is highly significant for fishery livelihood. Major coastal tourism development in the Kalpitiya area has been planned by the Ceylon Tourist Board mahindarandorafinalreport.pdf. Western Region (Figure 18): The boundary of the Western Region extends from the Maha Oya outlet to the outlet of Bentota Ganga. The continental shelf, up to the 30 m depth contour, narrows in the vicinity of Maha Oya to less than 10 km and continues in that form along the entire western coast. The crystalline rocks emerge closer to the sea and are reminiscent of old headlands. A prominent sand dune extends from the outlet of Kelani Ganga to the tidal inlet of Negombo Lagoon. Negombo Lagoon is the significant barrier-built estuary in the northern part of this region. It is joined with the Muthurajawela Marsh which had passed through stages of inundation and emergence during its evolution. Sediment discharged by the Attanagalu Oya is almost entirely trapped by the estuary. Alluvial plumes characterize discharges to the sea during the rains. The interaction between the estuary and the nearshore continental shelf is expressed in the seasonal peaks in small pelagic fish stocks as well as penaeid shrimps. Although crystalline rock protrudes transversely along the coastline, their frequency is relatively low. As a consequence bays supported by headlands also occur less frequently despite historical patterns of erosion. There is a dearth of sand supply from rivers in this region, except from Kelani Ganga and Kalu Ganga.74
  • 108. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSFigure 18. The geomorphology and coastal ecosystems of the coastal area of the Western Province 2 3 4 5 6 9 7 Key: 1. Beaches from Maha 8 14 Oya to Kelani Ganga 10 outlets significant for beach tourism. Sensitive 11 to erosion, much 12 investment in protection 15 and stabilization 13 2. Lewis Place beach ecosystem restoration with offshore breakwaters and nourishment. Multiple uses for tourism and Underwater canyon traditional fishing. 3. Negombo Lagoon, barrier-built estuary, significant estuarine fishery, livelihood support. Inlet a high value anchorage for marine fishery. The basin of lagoon becoming shallow from sediment entrapment, decline in fishery output, high prices compensate for lower production.4. Sink for industrial effluent and urban sewage.5. Source of land for property development.6. Nursery for penaeid shrimps. Linked to MCZ.7. Nutrient source for plankton and small pelagic food web development.8. Aquaculture at periphery with pollutant release into estuary9. Muthurajawela Marsh: zoned for protection and for development. First major land creation with ‘dredged sea sand’.10 . Lunawa Lagoon, small lagoon restoration (27 ha). Main driver is urban property development. Sink for industrial effluent.11. Bolgoda Lagoon and Panadura Estuary. Supports small scale fisher livelihood. More significant in property development.12. Beaches for tourism, Moratuwa to Bentota.13. Significant investment in beach protection, some interventions haphazard.14. Kelani Ganga: critical sand source discharging directly to the sea, heavily mined for construction industry15. Kalu Ganga: major sand source for beach nourishment. 75
  • 109. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Southern Region (Figure 19): The Southern Region extends from Bentota Ganga to Kumbukkan Oya. The continental shelf is narrow and rarely exceeds 10 km, up to the 30 m depth contour, until the outfall of the Walawe Ganga. It widens to about 15 km from Walawe Ganga to the outlet of Kumbukkan Oya. Dunes of varying elevation occur in this region with the most prominent extending eastwards from Hambantota. Figure 19. The coast of the Southern Province showing geomorphology and coastal ecosystems 12 6 7 5 11 8 1 3 Underwater canyon Key: ED: Extensive and scattered distribution, therefore not marked. 1. Narrowest continental shelf to 30 m depth (ED). 2. Significant national communication infrastructure along coastline, extensively protected by engineering structures 3. Beaches to Tangalla mainly situated as pocket beaches between headlands. Highly significant tourism resource (Figure 1, Weligama Bay etc.) 4. Some lagoons support livelihood marginally. Production declined by way of impacts from flood protection and drainage works constructed in the 1960s. 5. Madu Ganga developed as a site for a multipurpose coastal visitor center. Contributes to livelihood 6. Rekawa Lagoon and Kalametiya Lagoons support small scale livelihood. 7. Significant beach seine fishing in MCZ. 8. Fishery harbours in bays, Beruwala, Hikkaduwa, Dodanduwa, Galle, Weligama, Devinuwara, Tangalla, Hambantota, Kirinda. 9. Beaches backed by low dunes until Matara. Dunes more prominent in the more southern coastline. 10. Dune sand mining for ‘garrnet’ contributed to weakening as a hazard barrier. Breached at weakened sites. 11. Hambantota: Pleistocene dunes serve as significant hazard barrier, high risk because of population density 12. Yala & Ruhuna National Park boundary76
  • 110. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSThe coast in this region extending to Dodanduwa is endowed withattractive beaches supplied partially with sediment from Bentota Ganga.Numerous pocket beaches exist suspended between headlands andbacked by weathered country rock. The beaches in the south-west arestable with efficient anchoring by the headlands. South of Balapitiya thebeaches extending past Hikkaduwa are affected by erosion and requirefrequent stabilization by engineering interventions.Coral mining extending back to the sixteenth century, for constructionof the Dutch Forts, and continuing since Independence for theconstruction industry, was halted by the CCD under its managementinterventions. Much of the coastal erosion during the South-westMonsoons along this coastline has been attributed to coral mining(CCD, 1990; 1997).The coast from the outlet of Gin Ganga to Kumbukkan Oya ischaracterized by numerous bays situated between headlands, of lateriticand crystalline rock. The largest bay occurs in Galle. The coastlineis also backed by lagoons of varying size. Barrier built estuaries areconspicuous by their absence. Most lagoons have lost productivitybecause of drainage and flood protection schemes that have attenuatedtidal linkages. Associated groynes and water control structures havecontributed to beach erosion since planning was driven by ‘single sector’interests and not integrated to retain multiple functions and uses.Eastern Region (Figure 20): The Eastern Region extends from theoutlet of Kumbukkan Oya to the tidal inlet of Kokilai Lagoon. MaOya which marks the boundary between the Eastern and NorthernProvinces discharges into Kokilai Lagoon. The continental shelf, up tothe 30 m depth contour, in the vicinity of Kumbukkan Oya is less than10 km but widens in some segments, particularly between the tidal inletof Batticaloa Lagoon and Muttur. The continuity of the continentalshelf is broken by the Trincomalee Bay. North of Trincomalee Bay thecontinental shelf again widens.All seven classes of coastal ecosystems exist in the Eastern Region.Formal settlements do not exist in the segment from Kumbukkan Oya toPanama since this area is the seaward boundary of the Yala and RuhunaWildlife Protected Areas. The coastline and beaches are backed bydunes of varying elevation. From Potuvil to Batticaloa, settlements are 77
  • 111. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS concentrated in the relatively narrow coastal land strip situated seawards of the waterspread of estuaries and lagoons, and cultivated areas. The coast is indented to form numerous spectacular bays situated between headlands of weathered rock, as at Arugam Bay, Kalkudah, and Vallaichenai. Koddiyar Bay situated at Trincomalee differs from all other bays along the eastern coast as well as elsewhere in the country. At Trincomalee the Vijayan Zone (base rock) proceeds transversely to the coast and protrudes as cliffs into the sea. Koddiyar Bay is situated between a sequence of such headlands. It ranks as the deepest bay in the Indian Ocean. North of Koddiyar Bay the landform descends to the coastal plain. Further northward, the land undulates with steep descents to the coast at some locations. Small indentations constitute bays in this area. Significant sand dunes along this coastal stretch occur between successive tidal inlets and river outfalls. The beaches along the eastern coastal region generally are broad and tend to grow outward. Nevertheless, the pocket beaches situated in embayments north of Kalkudah are threatened by erosion because of coral mining at the fringing reefs. Except at a few sites, coastal erosion is not regarded as a serious problem. The Eastern Region is regarded as relatively more exposed to cyclones and storms originating from the Bay of Bengal. During the 2004 tsunami, the Eastern and North-eastern Coasts ranked as the most severely affected (MENR/UNEP, 2005a). During the cyclone of 1978, this coast was severely affected mainly from the impact of wind. The barrier built estuaries and lagoons along the Eastern Province, particularly in Ampara and Batticaloa Districts, perform a critical role in drainage of a large extent of paddy lands that constitute the ‘bread basket’ of Sri Lanka. The efficacy of drainage is generally satisfactory, and there is a free flow of water during the North-east Monsoons. Fortunately, this free flow has not been impeded by engineering construction works gone awry as in the Western and Southern Regions. Where sand barriers form at tidal inlets the farmer organizations intervene and remove obstructions. The general nature of the barrier built lagoons and estuaries in this region is the entrapment of sediment and silt. This feature is particularly conspicuous in Batticaloa Lagoon.78
  • 112. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSFigure 20. The coast of the Eastern Province showing geomorphology and ecosystems Key: ED: Extensive and scattered distribution, therefore not marked. 1. Attractive beaches, bays, surf, 14 coral reef patches with high tourism potential - ED 2. Broad beaches supplied by 16 littoral drift from south - ED 3. Numerous small, medium and large estuaries and lagoons – supports livelihood - ED. 4. Tidal inlets important for 13 drainage and flood protection - ED. 5. Numerous low-lying flood 15 prone sites - ED 6. Dunes of varying age and size 4 situated among tidal inlets - ED 7. Tidal flats with potential for aquaculture - ED 4 8. Extensive paddy fields – highly dependent upon natural drainage through tidal inlets 4 - ED 9. Coastal belt highly exposed to hazards arising in the Bay of Bengal - ED 11 10. Numerous archeological sites - ED 15 11. Broader MCZ relative to south and southwest coastal – rich coastal fishery - ED 12. Tidal inlets highly sensitive 4 to interference by way of engineering works – susceptible to waterlogging - ED 4 13. Trincomallee Bay – strategically significant deepwater port 14. Commercially exploitable ilmenite resources Underwater canyon 17 15. Potentially high resource potential for offshore sand mining – ED. 16. Pigeon Island – MPA 17. Wildlife protected areas – Ruhuna National Park 79
  • 113. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS The ribbon-like form of Batticaloa Lagoon extends to a distance exceeding 30 km from Kalmunai to Manmunai. Along its trajectory it receives discharges from many minor rivers and distributaries of two major rivers, Mundeni Aru and Maduru Oya which traverse an intensively cultivated tract of paddy land. Although much of the sediment and silt loads become trapped by the irrigation tanks and Maduru Oya dams, the remaining part carried by the stream flow, deposits in Batticaloa Lagoon. 2.3.4 Distribution and Extents of Coastal Ecosystems The distribution of coastal ecosystems in the Provincial Council coasts are given in Figures 16 to 20. The collective extents of some classes of coastal ecosystems and the estimated extent of the MCZ are given in Table 6. Table 6. The aggregate extents of beaches, dunes, estuaries lagoons, tidal flats (termed habitats in the CZMP) and the MCZ, bays (termed ecosystems in the NSAP) adapted from CCD, 2004. See text for explanations. Ecosystem Extent- ha (CCD, 2002; Remarks Class 2006) Estuaries: This is an underestimation since Puttalam Barrier-built 90,965 Lagoon and Jaffna Lagoon (both barrier-built or basin, 2,110 estuaries) total 165,000 ha. and riverine Size ranges from 3 ha -7,589 ha. Eight are larger Lagoons 36,000 than 1,000 ha. Tidal flats are the sites listed as Salt Marsh in Tidal Flats 23,800 CZMP 2004 (CCD, 2006) The beaches are segmented into more than 103 units. Each unit occurs between successive Beaches No information river outlets and tidal inlets. A beach unit is subdivided by distributaries. Each unit is mappable for individualized management. As for beaches. Each dune unit situated between two river outlets or tidal inlets is Dunes No information mappable according to precise criteria for individualized management Bays No information Not included in CZMP 2004 Estimated as 800,000 The MCZ is mappable using hydrographic Marine (coastline of 1,600 km charts, bathymetry and on the basis of Coastal Zone and an average width of traditional use boundaries. The MCZ is (MCZ) 5 km to the 30 m depth segmented by underwater canyons (Figure 4) contour)80
  • 114. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS2.3.5 Coastal Ecosystems – Size Matters!The functional longevity of ecosystems is a scale effect arising from size,and maturity. Large ecosystems retain their structure and functioningfor long periods despite relentless internal and external change(Odum, 1971). Conversely, small ecosystems change rapidly as theirstructure is exposed to more stresses and are altered with greater easeby external forces such as sedimentation. Sri Lanka’s coastal ecosystemspredominantly are in the ‘small’ category, especially the estuaries andlagoons, both in terms of surface area and their shallowness. Thereforethey require intensified management if their productivity and socialvalue are to be made sustainable. The ‘smallness’ is an outcome ofgeomorphology - Sri Lanka, although consider a large island possessesonly a narrow strip of land where coastal ecosystems physically candevelop (Cooray, 1982).The MCZ is the largest class of coastal ecosystems. It has a totaladministrative area of about 800,000 ha (estimated thus: 1500 kmcoastline with an average width of 5 km, up to the 30 m depth contour).It is segmented into eight sub-MCZs, situated between successivemarine canyons, ranging in coastline length from about 20-500 km. Itis also an open system being coterminous with the sea overlying thecontinental shelf. Therefore, it is resilient and bounces back after a rangeof disturbances such as storm surges, sand dredging or even a tsunami.However, because of the meagre surface relief (Swan, 1983), any activitythat depletes the bottom topography undermines fishery productivity.MCZs are situated also in bays. These are more impacted by land usethan the MCZ in the open sea. MCZs situated in bays are resilientbecause of their openness and being connected with the sea.The estuaries and lagoons are the smallest and therefore least resilientamong ecosystems that support fishery (Figure 21). The tidal inlets ofestuaries are the gateways for nutrient exchange as well as biologicalmigration. Apparently large estuaries, Jaffna, Puttalam, and BatticaloaLagoon are shallow and heavily disturbed. The nutrient dischargesfrom the relatively small Negombo Lagoon (less than 1/10th the size ofPuttalam Lagoon) during the rainy seasons entrains both planktonicgrowth and small pelagic fish populations - herrings and sardines in theMCZ (Jayakody, 1986). In parallel, the significant shrimp fishery in theMCZ of Negombo is linked to the life cycle of penaeid shrimps which 81
  • 115. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS require the sheltered waters of Negombo Lagoon (Samarakoon and Van Zon eds. 1991). The inference is that small estuaries and lagoons despite their small size and low resilience perform a disproportionate economic function in terms of livelihood. During some years, estuaries yield exceedingly large catches (also see Section 3.0). 2.3.6 Coastal Habitats: The Need to Reform Perceptions A distinctive feature of the ecosystem classification in the NSAP is that mangroves, seagrass beds, coral reefs and muddy bottoms are not reckoned to be ecosystems (Chapter 1, Section 1.2). Not classifying the mangroves in Sri Lanka as an ecosystem is likely to be contested vigorously by the powerful ‘mangrove lobby’, which strongly advocates protecting and planting them on account of their multiple virtues (Vanucci, 1988; Miththapala, 2008; FAO, 2005). But mangroves exhibit these virtues only in particular geographic contexts not found in Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, diverse organizations (e.g. ADB), NGOs and CBOs obtain funds from international sources for planting mangroves under the rubric ‘mangrove conservation’. International generalizations are insensitive to the destructive behaviour of mangroves in Sri Lanka’s reality of estuaries and lagoons functioning as micro tidal sediment traps. (Samarakoon and Van Zon, 1991; CEA/Euroconsult, 1994; Samarakoon, 2007). Improved ICM (GESAMP, 1996) requires the application of management measures based on strong inference (Kuhn, 1970). However, the perception of and attitude towards coastal entities such as mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses, have been driven by generalizations rather than inference from adequate scientific observations. In Sri Lanka, perceptions pertaining to mangroves have entirely ignored geographic settings. The majority perceive ‘mangroves, their planting and protection’ as a good thing. They are also regarded as ‘bio-shields’ following the impact of the tsunami of 2004. In Sri Lanka mangroves do not exist as shorefront deltas to serve as ‘bio-shields’ except in a restricted area in Palk Bay. There, wave energy is low and alluvial deposition occurs at the coast (Swan, 1983). Elsewhere, mangroves occur entirely within the micro- tidal estuaries and lagoons. Thus, the management attitude to mangroves is driven by ‘false analogy’, a foremost cause of environmental harm (Diamond, 2005).82
  • 116. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSPlanting and protecting mangroves within estuaries and lagoons carries atrade-off. The plants thrive, capture sediment and convert fishery habitatto land: thereby the spread of mangroves causes a loss to the fisheryand reduces income of the poor who depend upon fish catches. Theconsequences of unintegrated mangrove planting are already evident inseveral economically significant estuaries and lagoons (Figure 22). Havingstated that, existing old mangrove stands at the periphery of estuariesand lagoons must be protected where necessary in a manner compatiblewith hydrology for their essential contribution to the detritus-basedfood web both in these water bodies and in the linked MCZ.A precautionary approach is required with respect to new plantingof mangroves. This requires a code of conduct (and policy) whichpenalizes indiscriminate mangrove planting in Sri Lanka without carefulmonitoring and adherence to strict guidelines. Removal of mangrovesthat have been newly planted in sensitive estuaries and lagoons is nowan urgent necessity to arrest siltation within economically significantecosystems such as Puttalam Lagoon, Batticaloa Lagoon, NegomboLagoon and Chilaw Lagoon. Post-tsunami 2004 mangrove plantingunder the misnomer ‘bioshields’ in many estuaries and lagoons alongthe eastern coast is now creating a chronic disaster by way of ‘creepingnormalcy’ by progressively infilling these water bodies with trappedsediment (Samarakoon, Epitawatte and Galappatti, 2009). (Photo: Kumudini Ekaratne) 83
  • 117. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Figure 21. The bathymetry of Puttalam Lagoon, one of the largest but shallow estuaries, illustrates the sensitivity to infilling by sediment entrapmen. Only the shaded area is 3 metres deep. More than 50% is a metre and less (NARA/NARESA/ SAREC, 1998) In the geomorphological structure of the coastal area of Sri Lanka, mangroves, seagrasses, coral reefs and muddy bottoms are parts of ecosystems. Habitat refers to the place (address) where particular plants and animals may be found or where communities of organisms occur (Odum, 1971). For instance, mangroves in Sri Lanka are found on the loose soil of deltas, small sediment shoals and islands, and the intertidal edges of estuaries and lagoons where mixing of seawater and freshwater occurs, and where soil conditions are not suitable for typical terrestrial vegetation (Snedaker, 1984). Where these habitats are removed, mangroves cannot take root, as can be demonstrated experimentally by removing the fresh sediment shoals from estuaries and lagoons. Likewise, where such sediment patches emerge, naturally or artificially, and persist for an adequate period, they are colonized by mangroves. Mangroves as early colonizers of saline soil generally out compete plants that are typically terrestrial (Snedaker, 1984).84
  • 118. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSFigure 22. Instances of unregulated mangrove planting in Batticaloa Lagoon and in Rekawa Lagoon. The former have been planted as bio-shields by an NGO, the latter jointly by an NGO and a CBO. Sediment entrapment and loss of fishery habitat is inevitable. Mangroves should be planted only after removal of sediment shoals. The board reads ‘Mangrove Bioshield Afforestation’. These have been planted in the higly sedimented channel that connects the lagoon to the sea. The view above shows how mangroves have been planted in the most accessible fringes of Batticaloa Lagoon where sedimentation has already decreased the water area that could function as fishery habitat. After some years this area could attract encroachment for housing. Plant mangroves here after removing sediment 85
  • 119. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Rekawa Lagoon: Old clumps of mangroves in the background are fronted by newly planted seedlings. Impeded tidal exchange and reduced salinity enable grasses to colonize sediment shoals. Ideally mangrove planting where allowed should occur after removal of sediment shoals (left: area encircled by broken line). The ecosystem management approach requires that the hydrology should be modeled to enable monitoring of sedimentation impacts. Seagrasses occur as underwater meadows in estuaries, lagoons and in the MCZ. They also require appropriate, loose soil such as freshly submerged silt deposits. Silty or alluvial sediment deposits occur in estuaries, lagoons and in the MCZ where rivers discharge their sediment load. Like mangroves, seagrasses are early colonizers. Their root systems enable them to spread rapidly on loose sediment deposits and to stabilize them. However, if sediment deposition occurs at short intervals colonization by pioneer seagrasses is suppressed by smothering. At such locations extensive mud deposits form. These deposits provide habitat for algae and micro-organisms. Both submerged seagrass beds and muddy deposits provide highly productive habitat for valuable bottom-living organisms such as shrimp. An exceptional situation occurs in the Palk Bay. As the local rivers have small catchment areas the alluvial flow from land drainage is meagre. The alluvial deposits in this region, and along the coastline between Mannar and Jaffna, are composed mainly of material imported from the Bay of Bengal (Swan, 1983). Coral reefs occur, as patches and fringing formations, in the MCZ and in bays where turbidity is low. The corals, and their symbiotic algae, grow on hard substrates (bottoms) such as rock and sandstone. Salt marshes, as per the scientific definition do not exist in the tropics. They are the temperate region counterpart of tropical mangroves. The terrain named as salt marsh in the CZMP corresponds to the definition of tidal flat and is renamed as such in the NSAP.86
  • 120. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSThe coastal ecosystem approach ensures that all habitats are includedin a manner that reflects their interactions and consequences withinecosystems. The coastal habitats such as seagrasses, algal beds, mangrovesand muddy bottoms are highly significant parts of coastal ecosystems anddetermine their productivity and especially the fishery carrying capacity.There is a significant difference in the productivity of a sea bed which isbare, and one that has coral reefs, algal beds, seagrasses, mud deposits,rock outcrops among others. These structures provide heterogeneity andbecome home to diverse minute plants and animals (aufwuchs), whichbecome a part of the food web. For this same reason, a sea bed witha ship wreck becomes a rich fishery resource. Similarly, estuaries andlagoons that have seagrass beds, fringing mangroves, mangrove islands,mud and shell beds, among others are exceptionally productive.Choosing an ecosystem-based ICM approach does not in any waydiminish the importance of coastal habitats. A habitat specialist such asa coral reef ecologist or a mangrove ecologist is an essential contributorto a multidisciplinary view of coastal ecosystems. Only the specialistwill be aware of the subtleties and nuances of the specific subject matter.The challenge is in maintaining a balance between the behaviour ofhabitats and their contribution to the structure and functioning of entireecosystems.This balance is critical in the interrelations in the behaviour of coastalhabitats, for example, seagrasses, mangroves and reed beds, and the twocoastal ecosystems of which they are parts, viz. barrier-built estuaries andlagoons. Where sediment accumulation rates within these ecosystemsare accelerated by the stabilization effect of vegetation, the victim isinevitably water depth, which is essential for fishery habitat. Parallelwith sediment stabilization the hydrological processes become impededand eventually sediment build-up becomes self-reinforcing (Figures 1, 21,22). When a measurable and predictable threshold is exceeded, expensiveengineering solutions become the only option. Therefore, the spread ofsediment stabilizing vegetation within small estuaries and lagoons maybe more properly regarded as systemic ‘invasions’. In a human analogy,they would be termed ‘cancers’. 87
  • 121. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS 2.4 Ecosystem - Catchment Relations: Defining the Wider Environment Ecosystems never exist as isolated entities (Section 2.2.1). Coastal ecosystems are linked and coupled by water to both land and sea. A land catchment (also termed a watershed) is invariably associated with every ecosystem. The catchments of bays, estuaries, lagoons and tidal flats are definable, based on land contours. The most elevated contour defines the boundary of the watershed of one of these ecosystems. Thus the watershed of Negombo Lagoon includes the entire geography within the most elevated land contour of the Attanagalu Oya-Dandugam Oya river system, which covers an extent of 750 sq. km. All the material received in this watershed, e.g. rainfall, and generated within it by land use, travel directly and indirectly into Negombo Lagoon. Material carried by wind and deposited within this catchment also gets washed by rain into Negombo Lagoon. The material generated within the catchment is related to the range of land uses, the size of the human population and the infrastructure. Negombo Lagoon is 30 sq. km. (3,000 ha) in extent and its catchment is 750 sq. km (75,000 ha) that is, the catchment is twenty five times larger than the ecosystem. Therefore, depending on their respective sizes and interrelations, land use impacts arising within the catchment could be of greater management significance. In fact, the pollution and sedimentation impacts from the catchment are driving the most adverse changes in the structure and functioning of Negombo Lagoon. Of course, the problem gets aggravated when the coastal ecosystem such as estuaries and lagoons are shallow (Section 2.4.1), and tidal flushing is weak (Chapter 1, Section 1.9) Relatively small human populations physically inhabit coastal ecosystems except in the case of Negombo lagoon where significant encroachment has occurred. There are temporary settlements such as fishing ‘wadiyas’ and illegal encroachments on beaches within the legal ‘Coastal Zone’. Some encroachments have permanent structures as in the case of Unawatuna Beach. Dune settlements however are substantial and occur mainly in Kalpitiya, Jaffna and along the eastern coastline (Swan, 1983; Madduma Bandara, 1989). Human habitation is sparse on tidal flats. In the North-western Province significant shrimp aquaculture development takes place on tidal flats. Consequently, major impacts on coastal ecosystems arise from land use in the catchment and underline88
  • 122. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSthe significance of integrating catchment land uses into ICM. The MFFstrategic planning and implementation framework recognizes this aspectunder the ‘reef-to-ridge’ programme of work. Sri Lanka’s experience inthis regard with particular reference to private sector participation inthe framework of corporate social responsibility (CSR) indicates seriouschallenges (CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult, 2003).Private sector activities within catchments of estuaries and lagoonsinclude small scale operations such as vehicle service stations whichdischarge waste oil, trading centers that generate substantial quantities oforganic waste, domestic units which dispose raw sewage into waterwaysand medium to large scale industries. Whereas the medium to large scaleindustries have the capacity to adhere to waste management procedureswithin the scope of CSR, the others entities bypass investment in wastetreatment. Many industrial units started operations prior to enactmentof environment regulations in the 1980s, and do not have the capacityto upgrade their production systems. Hence, the intractability of thepollution problem.2.5 Multiple Uses and Development Trends of Coastal EcosystemsCoastal ecosystems and their resources, offer numerous opportunitiesfor investment in economic development in diverse sectors, includingfishery, agriculture, settlements, tourism, ports and navigation, miningand power generation, among others. Coastal ecosystems and resourcesalso offer many lessons, from a wide range of development effortsand their political ramifications, on ‘how to better manage coastaldevelopment’. Figure 1 illustrates the complexity of relationshipspertaining to sustainable development of coastal ecosystems. Stress oncoastal ecosystems emanates from the attributes of the 74 administrativedivisions that constitute the coastal region (Box 6). Annex 2 providesthe policy and legislative regime, and the supporting legislation, for themanagement of the Coastal Zone in particular and coastal resourcesin general. These, however, have only partial relevance to sustainabledevelopment of coastal ecosystems. The important considerations withregard to coastal ecosystems are: • Behaviour of coastal ecosystems is fundamentally influenced by geological, geomorphological and coastal processes. Their 89
  • 123. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS complex influences at the interface between the land and the sea, as in estuaries, can be altered and maintained only with careful planning and with appropriate investment. Piecemeal and unintegrated interventions usually do more harm than good to ecosystem structure and functioning. • Coastal ecosystems are typically multiple-use components of the human environment (Odum, 1971). Single-use development interventions imposed upon coastal ecosystems therefore, result in negative externalities that create winners and losers, where the losers generally are the traditional resource users belonging to the poorer segments of society. • The productive capacity of natural ecosystems remains constant within limits of cyclical fluctuations. Increases are possible, such as with aquaculture, but only with the application of technology in balance with the biophysical limits of the resource unit. • Population increases, and parallel intensification of competition for resources, where limitation of access does not exist (open access resources), result in a diminishing share for each competitor, as the ‘tragedy of the commons’ overtakes and eventually leads to resource collapse. • Some balance between resource extraction and regeneration is maintained where ‘common property resource’ regimes exist and a code of conduct operates to limit access, as in the case of beach seine fishing, and in the estuarine stake net fishery in Negombo Lagoon. • Trends do not provide answers to resource use problems. They show how to search for more integrated and holistic ways of dealing with complex systems. The coastal area of Sri Lanka carries a legacy of development and management dating back to pre-historic times (Indrapala, 2007). During earliest times, strategic locations on the north-western, eastern and southern coasts, served as ports for trading craft plying sea routes from the east as well as the west. The significance and value of some of these ports increased with the onset of colonial rule in the 16th century and the construction of forts. Coral mined mainly from the sea was the material of choice for fort construction. That early legacy of coral mining and the resultant weakening of resistance to monsoonal wave attacks persist to this day along the sensitive south-western coastline. Coastal residents90
  • 124. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSin earlier times simply withdrew to safer locations. Today, such simpleapproaches are not feasible. Box 6. The development attributes of the coastal administrative divisions (Olsen et al., 1992) • Comprises 74 divisions (Divisional Secretary Divisions) lying within 14 of the 25 administrative districts. • Accommodate about 4.6 million people (25% of the population). • Contains nearly half the municipal & urban lands in the country. • Contains 61.6% of all industrial units (situated mostly within 31 of the 74 divisions). • The marine fishery provided 91% of the total fish production in Sri Lanka in 2003, with coastal fishery contributing 64% of this share. The sector (including coastal aquaculture) provides direct employment to 150,000 people & sustenance to at least a million Sri Lankans. Contributed about 2.7% of the GNP (current factor cost prices in 2000). • Tourism the fifth largest income earner that netted US$ 211 million in foreign exchange in 2001, provides direct and indirect employment to 85,000 persons. The coastal region accommodates 70% of all registered tourist hotels. • Agriculture is less important than fishery and industry in the coastal region. Agricultural lands cover only 17% of the land area. • The four major ports Colombo, Galle, Trincomalee and Kankesanturai had 4200 vessels calling on them in 2000. There are 12 fishery harbours in operation. • An ongoing study on “Economic significance of the coastal region” estimates that 44% of the GDP originates in the coastal zone. The estimate has been obtained by disaggregating the National GDP.The beach ecosystems along some of the coastal segments have beeneffectively stabilized by the CCD, at substantial cost to the state.Although, the revetments and groynes constructed with rubble doprotect communication infrastructure, they no longer allow the previousfishing practices. They also interfere with the normal sand movementby coastal processes and may aggravate erosion at contiguous beach sites(CCD, 2004).Diverse development and resources management interventions, in post-independence Sri Lanka, have directly and indirectly impacted all coastalecosystems. The level of wellbeing of coastal populations therefore liessomewhere along a gradient that applies to the entire population in SriLanka (World Bank 2006). As argued in Chapter 1, ICM is a people-centric development process. Similarly, the MFF Programme is orientedprimarily towards the conservation and restoration of coastal ecosystems 91
  • 125. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS as an essential part of development infrastructure that contributes to human wellbeing. Therefore any understanding of the future potential of coastal ecosystems, to serve as ‘development infrastructure’, depends upon the manner in which they have been already impacted by national and regional development interventions in post-independence Sri Lanka. Not all impacts of development on the coastal ecosystems are covered. Only those that have immediate relevance to the Programmes of Work (PoWs) in the MFF Strategic planning and implementation framework are addressed, namely: • Rehabilitation and restoration (PoW #2). • Reef-to-ridge approaches to land management (PoW #3). • Environmentally sustainable livelihood, fisheries and aquaculture (PoW #8). • Long term sustainable financing strategies (PoW #10). • Development of business partnerships among NGOs, private sector, government and communities (PoW #15). Exhaustive treatment of impacts, of the various development plans implemented by different sectors, on coastal ecosystems is not possible in the NSAP. The development sectors briefly examined are: (i) fishery; (ii) agriculture; (iii) aquaculture; (iv) housing and settlements; (v) industry; (vi) tourism; (vii) mining; and (viii) biodiversity, e.g. marine protected areas –MPAs. The impacts from the many uses of coastal ecosystems may be broadly separated into three classes: • Low intensity traditional uses that are small scale, and which have persisted over long periods of time, sometimes centuries, e.g. fishing using non-mechanized methods and mechanization on a small scale such as outboard motors. • High intensity uses, technologically modernized, mechanized uses including modern trawling, purse seining, mineral mining, shorefront constructions, waste discharges, sand mining, etc.92
  • 126. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS • Benign uses, which have apparently neutral impact (or impacts that are self-correcting) on resources and ecosystems, such as integrated tourism and recreationFour planning criteria were used to assess impact, and the resulting trend,of planned interventions by asking the questions: i. Were development opportunities used optimally? ii. Were negative externalities addressed? iii. Did equitable benefit sharing occur, particularly delivery of benefits to the poor? iv. Were safeguards introduced to prevent harm to ecosystem structure and functioning?2.5.1 Coastal FisheriesThe coastal fishery as a large, complex system (Box 1) composed of theMCZ, the linked estuaries and the traditional fishing communities,interacting and evolving together (Joseph, 1993), demonstrates theemergence that impacted the entire political system of the country.Emergence is used as a descriptive term (Box 2) that conveys the mannerin which new skills, assets and leadership developed from within thecomplex system, in an unplanned manner, in response to opportunitiesspanning a period of about 200 years (Land, Hauck and Baser, 2009,Roberts, 1982). This complex system persists under the combinedinfluence of population growth, technology and contradictory policy.It retains its vibrancy despite development efforts designed to discouragetraditional coastal fishing as a livelihood activity (Raghavan, 1961; FAO,1988). Aspects of the coastal fishery bear relevance to planning ICMfor all coastal ecosystems, in as much as they are perceived as complexsystems.Fishery is the most significant coastal resource use in Sri Lanka, in termsof livelihood and food security. It is also the most reliable indicator ofecosystem health. This is because the magnitude of fish catches dependson the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems combinedwith technology. Estimates are incomplete, but available informationindicates there are some 150,000 fishers; 30,000 persons in the secondaryindustry, and 700,000 people indirectly dependent on the fishing 93
  • 127. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS industry for their livelihood (including vendors, mechanics, other service providers). Therefore, some 880,000 (about 12% of the working age population) derive direct or indirect benefits from the sector (FAO, 2006). The coastal sector provides 64% of the total production from the marine fishery (FAO, 2006). The fisheries relevant to coastal ecosystems are those that exploit fishery stocks in the MCZ and linked estuaries and lagoons. The MCZ supports a major segment of the ‘coastal fishery’. The coastal fishery and its relationship to livelihood and coastal ecosystems, is the core of ecosystem-based ICM in Sri Lanka, since it relates directly to ecosystem health and human wellbeing. The traditional coastal fishery, based on indigenous and simple motorized fishing craft, demonstrates its resilience by coexisting with modernized fishing craft, including trawlers and purse seiners, for the past 50 years or so. Resilience of the traditional coastal fishery has been ascribed to adaptations and specialization of fishermen, fishing craft and methods to the physical character of ecosystems and behavioural diversity of the many species of fish captured (Kurian 2004). The small-scale coastal fisherman is a skilled professional, with numerous trade secrets and mental maps of the distribution and abundance of different fish, crustacean and mollusc species. Thus traditional coastal fishery contributes to human wellbeing by maintaining a balance with well functioning coastal ecosystems, which retain both their physical and biological diversity. The MCZ, bays, beaches, estuaries and lagoons, all contribute towards the catches that sustain livelihood in the traditional coastal fishery. Coastal fishermen know the secrets of the sea floor well, where the best fishing exits, and why. They have names for particular submerged spots and refer to them as rocks (gala). They position their fishing precisely by triangulation using landmarks. The beaches serve in net operations, landing of fishing craft and as sites of seasonal settlements. The estuaries and lagoons serve as anchorages. The mutual linkages between estuaries and lagoons as nursery areas and as nutrient sources for fish stocks in the MCZ are well documented (Blaber, 2000). Where the health of coastal ecosystems declines, poverty of coastal communities is unavoidable, unless adequate alternative income opportunities are available. A descriptive model of causal relationships reveals the many variables that contribute to interactions among coastal ecosystems and fisher wellbeing (Figure 23).94
  • 128. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSPrior to colonial rule, the coastal fishery supplied processed fishto the king, under the supervision of a designated minister, in ahierarchical social structure (Pieris, 1949; 1956). In the colonial period,some of today’s ruling political elites emerged from the cultural andanthropological traditions of coastal fishing, particularly beach-seinefishing and associated skills (Roberts, 1982) Some of these lineagescontinue to retain their power and position today. Wealth accumulationby way of beach seine fishing and the application of boat-making skillscreated novel opportunities (e.g. making carts used for transportation).This enabled some leading families to acquire upward social mobilityand access to political power, consolidated by high levels of education(Roberts, 1982; Jayawardena, 2000).Fishing, behaviourally and culturally, symbolizes private endeavourat a high level of free competition. A good fisherman keeps his tradesecrets, where, when and how to fish, and returns with the best catchpossible. The highly perishable product is traded in the open marketand the vagaries of supply and demand will determine the mood of theoperator. At the national level the skill and enterprise of the coastalfisher contributes to food security.A minister of fisheries, in successive cabinets, has guided policy anddevelopment support for the fishery sector, for six decades since 1948.The decline of the coastal fishery and the increasing poverty amongthe coastal communities that depend upon coastal fishery for theirlivelihood (FAO, 1988; 2006) is a damning statement of the inadequaciesof the framework of policies, incentives and regulatory mechanisms thathas been in operation over the years. The minister’s role in impartingsustainability to the coastal fishery and its foundation – coastalecosystems – is a matter of continuing debate and discussion.The significance of fisheries to national wellbeing was recognized sinceindependence. The initial intervention for the planned developmentof fisheries was in 1948 under the Minister of Industries, IndustrialResearch and Fisheries (Government of Ceylon, 1951). That legacy andvalues have continued. The Ministry of Fisheries and Ocean Resourcesstates its purpose thus ( 95
  • 129. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Vision: Sri Lanka becomes a leader in the South Asian Region in sustainable utilization of fisheries and aquatic resources. Mission: Directing the utilization of fisheries and aquatic resources for the benefit of the current and future generations. Policy Objectives: • To improve nutritional status and food security of the people by increasing the national fish production • To minimize post-harvest losses and improve quality and safety of fish products to acceptable standards • To increase employment opportunities in fisheries and related industries and improve the socio-economic status of the fisher community • To increase foreign exchange earnings from fish product exports • To conserve the aquatic environment It is evident that conservation management of the coastal environment converges with the overall purpose of the MOF. Fishery status at independence (1948) in the MCZ In the early post-independence period the fishing effort was entirely traditional, non-mechanized, and confined to the MCZ and was made up (John, 1951; Kesteven, 1951) as follows: Fishing craft: Catamarans (log rafts) - 6,000 Outrigger canoes - 4,350 Beach seine boats - 1,900 Total: 12,250 Gear: Seine nets - 3,500 Drift nets - 5,400 Around 40,000 people (0.6% of a population of about 7 million) were involved in the fishery. The total annual production was 38,000 metric tons. Beach seine fishery accounted for 80% of this production. To meet the demand, the government imported 23,500 tons of dry and salted fish,96
  • 130. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS2,800 tons of Maldives fish and 300 tons of canned fish. The estimatedmaximum requirement at that time was 71,000 tons of fish to supply 15kg/person/year (35 lbs/person/year).Fishing in the MCZ was seasonal as it was not safe to use traditionalcraft and operate gear during the monsoon seasons. When the sea wasrough the marine fishers resorted to fishing in estuaries and lagoons fortheir food and income.Estuaries and Lagoons:Estuarine and lagoon fishing (brackish water fishery) was mainly asubsistence activity until international markets opened for shrimp andornamental fish. A variety of gear was used including rod and line, netsand kraals among others. Few statistics were collected during earliertimes for brackish water fishing. Brackish water fisheries attracted theattention of planners when the scope for aquaculture was recognized(Pillay, 1965). Community-managed fisheries based on limitation ofaccess and territorial rights existed in some barrier-built estuaries,e.g. Negombo Lagoon, Chilaw Lagoon, Puttalam Lagoon, BatticaloaLagoon, etc.Post-independence PlanningDiverse plans were formulated to develop marine fisheries with advicefrom international experts. Statistical information was inadequate forproper planning based on scientific data. Experts from the Europeancountries, drawing on their experience, recommended investing inmodern trawlers, up to 10 units. At that time Sri Lanka had access toboth the Wadge and Pedro Banks for operation of trawlers, while therest of the continental shelf is too narrow and rough for trawling.Although the recommendations focused mainly on introduction ofmodern technology, even at that time, the coastal fishery was regarded as‘saturated’ and approaching a ‘depletionary’ condition. Therefore, someexperts recommended diversification of fishing methods, accompaniedby improved management (Kesteven, 1951).The expert from India, more realistically, recommended that investmentbe confined to two trawlers (John, 1951). He predicted ‘Thus theentire position crystallizes down to one fundamental fact, namely, that 97
  • 131. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS the development of inshore fisheries is the only practical method for increasing the fishery resources of the country. It will not only help to solve the food problem in the quickest and the surest possible manner but also stimulate the economic prosperity of the fishing community. In other words any encouragement given to inshore fisheries is “like the quality of mercy”; it blesses not only the recipient but also the giver’ (John, 1951). He recommended development of the inshore fishery by way of diversification of methods aimed at optimal utilization. Figure 23. The causal relationships that link drivers, stressors, ecological effects, attributes and measures into interacting and interdependent relationships, within an estuarine ecosystem, is depicted in the upper half of the figure. The lower part of the figure shows the linkage with relationships in the MCZ. Attributes and measures are not shown comprehensively. Construction of models of causal relationships enables identification of measures and monitoring indicators that contribute to effective integrated management for ecosystems. The key at the bottom explains the symbols.98
  • 132. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSThe Government of Sri Lanka opted for investment in trawlers.However, trawling, as practiced in Europe, failed despite severalattempts. In the 1980s, the Law of the Sea Agreement and the declarationof territorial use rights by signatory countries resulted in exclusion of SriLanka from the trawling grounds in the Wadge and a part of Pedro Bank(Pieterz, 1978). This situation starkly reveals the problems of planningfor an uncertain future, where priorities and agendas are discordant withthe interests of the people. It also brings out the sagacity of the commentof John (1951). A redeeming feature, however, is that the decision wasmade about three decades prior to the Law of the Sea Agreement.Modernization of the FisheryThe modernization of the marine fishery in general was initiated in 1958with the launching of the first 3 1/2 ton wooden boats with inboardengines, introduction of synthetic fishing gear, and ice supply for fishpreservation. During the following two decades further technologicalchange occurred with the introduction of small fiberglass boats fittedwith outboard engines. These boats continued to fish mainly in theMCZ. Thereby, traditional fishing craft and gear had to compete withmodernized fishing methods for the same stocks (Figure 24).The objectives of fishery development during the advent ofmodernization were similar to those stated in 2007, particularly inregard to the wellbeing of fishers and supply of fish protein (MOFAR,2007 The exception was addition of“management and conservation of the coastal environment” (Pierterz,1978). Nevertheless these objectives did not give consideration to thestock positions and impacts on fish habitats. The relationship betweenthe MCZ carrying capacity i.e. the optimal number of fishing units thatcould be supported by the fishery stock at a particular level of wellbeingfor fishermen, and the regulation of new entrants into the fisherywere not seen as important considerations. However, even in 1951 the‘depletionary’ state of the coastal fishery was already acknowledged(Kesteven, 1951).Two decades after the onset of fishery modernization, in 1978, duringa review of the status of the fishery and development prospects, theSecretary, Ministry of Fisheries (Piertersz, 1978) commented “Theimprovement and expansion of the coastal fishery are selected as the first 99
  • 133. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS priority in the development strategy in view of the fact that the coastal fishery contributed about 90% of the total fish catch and offers the best prospect for a rapid expansion of the fish supply. It is the main source of employment and income in the coastal areas. As compared with other sectors, it has the lowest input cost per ton of fish produced and the minimum foreign exchange cost per job created”. At that time, the local fish production was estimated as 137,000 metric tons of which 90% was taken from within the MCZ. Production loss was estimated to be about 50,000 tons from underutilization of existing capacity (Pietersz, 1978). The FAO (1988) Fishery Sector Study provided insights into the status of coastal fisheries, in the decade following liberalization of Sri Lanka’s economy in 1978. During this period total fish production peaked at 220,000 tons in 1983 and declined to an average of 176,000 tons in the following years. During this decade the number of fiberglass boats with outboard engines increased sharply, while motorization of indigenous craft also was stepped up. Liberalization of imports was an important driver in the expansion of fishing capacity mainly in the coastal seas. The expansion in craft and gear was supported by expansion of fishery infrastructure, fishery harbours and anchorages. Some anchorages were located within estuaries and lagoons. The total size of the fishing fleet in 1988 was 26,400, including, 4,000 indigenous craft operating in brackish water bodies, (Table 7; FAO, 1988). Even in 1988, the vast majority of fishing craft operated in the coastal waters extending to the edge of the continental shelf, except those boats in excess of 10 m. This is roughly the same area in which 12,250 fishing craft operated in the 1940s (Government of Ceylon, 1951). The significant point here is that the traditional fishers operating indigenous craft and beach seines acquired a diminishing share of the available stock as they competed with motorized boats (Table 8). Increased poverty within the ‘traditional’ category of fishing households was predictable. Poverty among traditional fisher households surveyed in Mirissa, a traditional fishing village, increased since the onset of fishery modernization (Marga, 1981). The causes were complex, but they could be traced directly and indirectly as stemming from fishery modernization and the manner in which it was implemented.100
  • 134. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSTable 7. The existing status of the marine and coastal fishing fleet, including beach seine fishing (FAO, 2006). Note: *An estimated 50% operate in estuaries and lagoons while the other 50% operate in coastal waters. **A minimum of two persons engage in an operation, sometimes three. Monetary values are US$ 2002 equivalents. No. Catch & Value (US $) Fishery No. Vessels Fishers Category 2002 2002 1997 1992 2002 Commercial 22,000 Multiday 87,360 tonnes; 62,000 tonnes; 1,614 9,684 tonnes; boats $ 17,400,000 $ 15,400,000 $12,000,000 Not available Longline n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. (n.a.) 22,000 87,360 tonnes; 62,000 tonnes; Sub-total 1,614 9,684 tonnes; $ 17,400,000 $ 15,400,000 $12,000,000 Small scale coastal fishery (artisanal) FRP 18’ & 90,330 tonnes; 23’ boats 8,334 16,668** n.a. n.a. $ 60,000,000 (OBM) Traditional 15,044 (50% 35,132 tonnes; 38,088 n.a. n.a. craft* motorized) $ 20,000,000 Beach 19,920 tonnes; 1,328 39,840 n.a. n.a. seine $ 10,000,000 145,382 Sub-total 25,405 105,027 tonnes; n.a. n.a. $90,000,000 232,742 tonnes 62,000 tonnes; 22,000 tonnes Total 27,019 114,711 $ 107,000,000 $ 15,400,000 $ 12,000,000FAO (1988) commented that the continuation of the shrimp fisheryin estuaries and lagoons using cast nets, traps and trammel nets, andexpansion of the trawl fishery in the sea (MCZ) for a component ofthe same penaeid shrimp stock, had created problems of interactive andcompetitive fishing. This has caused damage to the resource. Improveddata collection (research) was identified as a requirement for enhancedmanagement to prevent further damage. However, global demand forshrimp and attractive prices, compensated for depleting catches anddrove intensified effort. 101
  • 135. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Table 8. Composition of the fishing fleet in Sri Lanka in 1988 including 4,000 indigenous, non-motorized craft operating in brackish water bodies (estuaries and lagoons). Non- Fishing Craft Motorized Mechanized Total motorized Indigenous craft (including 4,000 13,500 2,820 -- 16,320 craft in estuaries and lagoons) Introduced craft 5.2-6.2 m boats -- 7,230 -- 7,230 8.0-10.2 m boats -- 2,750 -- 2,750 10.4 m boats (11t drift netter) -- -- 70 70 10.4 m boats (11t trawler) 9 9 14.0 m boats (trawler/purse seiner) 12 12 19.5 m boats (trawler/drift long-liner) 2 2 Total 13,500 12,800 93 26,393 A decline in lobster production was also noted. Six species of lobsters are fished wherever reefs and rock areas exist in the MCZ. Lobster fishing is done with nets and diving to a depth of 20 m. Owing to overexploitation in response to strong tourist and export demand, production declined from 2,559 tons in 1977 to 608 tons in 1986. The quantity exported declined from 385 tons in 1977 to 64 tons in 1985 (FAO, 1988). The fishery sector assessment (FAO, 1988) concluded that: • Despite the weaknesses in relevant data, the inshore coastal fishery (in the MCZ) is approaching the upper limit of the economically sustainable yield level, while some areas and species are already overexploited; • Fishery policy must aim at managing the fishery so that production levels and net benefits can be maintained in the future; • Incentives which have been offered in the past to expand fisheries must be discontinued. Based upon the above conclusions one of the underlying principles for future policies was identified as: • Fishery resources, which include both living resources and their habitat, have to be conserved and protected against over- exploitation and destruction.102
  • 136. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSFigure 24. Stemming from modernization of the coastal fishery without balanced management, motorized craft with modern, more efficient trawls, and indigenous outrigger canoes with traditional trawls now compete for the same shrimp stock in the MCZ in Chilaw, sparking frequent conflicts (Weerasooriya, 1977). The modern trawls are known to cause damage to the sea bottom structure. 103
  • 137. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS The recommended strategy of particular relevance to the MCZ includes: • The introduction of a licensing system for motorized fishing to provide the means of controlling further increases in fishing effort. • Application of economic disincentives in the form of substantial licence fees for purse seining and mechanized trawling, and of taxes on imported inputs. • Strengthening of existing traditional management, and creating of new ‘territorial use rights for fisheries – TURFs’ for beach seine, stilt, lobster fishing and shrimp trawling. • More attention be given to securing the genuine participation of fishing communities in development planning and resource management. Conclusion: The persistence of the coastal small-scale fishery during the past six decades has been an expression of the resilience of the MCZ. The coastal fishery, (i) provides livelihood to a significant coastal community dispersed in every administrative division, and (ii) is the mainstay of affordable fish protein supply to the national population. Policy driven by multinational financial agencies, bilateral donors and the minister in charge of the subject has been one of management by default. Policy has even sought to encourage the small scale fisher to seek alternative occupations (FAO, 1988). The trend reveals a distinct disparity between official policy supported by technical advice and the reality of the coastal fishery (Table 9). What does the status of estimated production in 1948 mean in relation to 2002? What are the ecosystem implications in the regional context? Deep cultural anthropological study in the regional (provincial) context is warranted, based on relevant theoretical concepts and ecosystem indicators, to understand the nature and evolution of the complex coastal fishery system. The brief historical review, spanning 60 years, enables some understanding of the trend in the coastal fishery and their impacts on coastal ecosystems, particularly in the MCZ and barrier-built estuaries, to determine if mismatch exits between the societal values and goals pertaining to the ecosystem-based coastal fishery. A recent assessment of the situation of the marine and coastal fishery is presented in (Box 7).104
  • 138. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSTable 9. The composition and performance of the coastal fishery, in 1948 and in 2002. 2002 1948 (National population: 20 million) (National population: 7 million) Fishery Production Category No. Production No of No of fishers (metric Vessels (metric No. Craft fishers tones - (craft) tones) estimated) FRP 18’ & Did not Not Not 23’ boats 8,334 16,668** operate applicable applicable (OBM) About 15,044 12,250 Traditional Not 8,000 (50% 38,088 35,132 (none craft* available (20% of motorized) motorized) total) About Beach Not 32,000 1,328 39,840 19,920 3,500 seine available (80% of total) Sub-total 25,405 105,027 55,052 15,750 40,000 40,000 Box 7. Present Status of Sri Lanka’s Marine Fishery “Total reported fisheries catch in volume for 2002 indicate approximately 232,000 tonnes taken by 150,000 fishers and some 26,000 fishing craft (Table 7). Sri Lanka’s management structure, infrastructure and data systems are being re-constructed to reflect the current situation through assistance from donor agencies. The legislative framework has just been re-assessed and is before Parliament for approval and the ADB and other donors are actively assisting in strengthening the Ministry of Fisheries and Ocean Resources management capacity. Despite the social and economic difficulties of the past two decades, Sri Lanka is taking steps to provide facilities for its fishers, encourage their participation and input into management processes, and implement international management and conservation agreements and principles to which it is a party. Further, Sri Lanka is taking action to establish new and effective management, licensing and conservation schemes for its internal fisheries as well as adhere to international principles and plans of action. Sri Lanka has been taking advantage of the FAO FISHCODE initiatives for training and enhancement of its knowledge base over the past few years” (FAO, 2006; based on assessment by Peter Flewwelling and Gilles Hosch, FAO Consultants, 2003).2.5.2 Special Area ManagementThe concept of special area management (SAM) involves a collaborative,adaptive and flexible approach to resource management within ageographically defined area. It is now, an integral part of nationalcoastal zone management policy. It was first introduced to Sri Lanka, 105
  • 139. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS in the 1980s, to address the adverse impacts of economic growth in environmentally sensitive areas such as coastal wetlands, which require new management tools and greater collaboration with other agencies (across development sectors) and the public (CCD, 2006). SAM, more than any other policy, provides the geographic scope to address complex ecosystems in relation to structure and functioning. SAM plans and processes have already been partially implemented at nine sites (Table 10). Special area management in Sri Lanka, which has been practiced in several different ways, is the approach most confluent with ecosystem- based ICM. Special area planning and management were conceived as practical approaches to addressing development issues where predominantly coastal resources come into play. It is also a practical way to deal with coastal resource problems, where the causes of the problem originate from outside the immediate boundary of the area in which the problem is situated. A familiar example is pollution within an estuary. The cause of the problem is unregulated waste discharge from industries situated in the catchment of that estuary. Clearly, the water quality in the estuary cannot be safeguarded without mitigating waste discharges from external industrial units. An integrated management technique is required in such situations. Sorensen and McCreary (1990) explained special area (also regional) planning and management, of which the distinguishing feature is geographic coverage, as follows. It requires: • Boundary demarcation of a special area, which is larger than a local jurisdiction, e.g. LGA area, and smaller than the entire nation. It has two purposes: (i) to ‘capture’ national resource or development issues that cross states or local government; (ii) to encompass a significant natural resource, an embayment, estuary, watershed or a comparable hydrologic unit. • Special area or regional plans have a multi-sectoral perspective. Sometimes a single sector such as tourism may be the focus, but interconnections are made with the other relevant sectors.106
  • 140. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSSpecial area management (SAM), as practiced in Sri Lanka, falls intotwo different classes: • Special area management (SAM) as advocated by the CCD, which is a deviation from the conceptualization by Sorensen and McCreary (1990), and fits into ‘community based natural resources management – CBNRM (CCD, 1997; White and Samarakoon, 1994). • Sub-regional planning (SAM) more in harmony with its original conceptualization, and includes development issues of national significance (CEA/Euroconsult, 1994; Samarakoon, 1994).The CBNRM variant of special area management in Sri Lanka is highlylimited in scope and therefore cannot become meaningful to the nationaldevelopment process. Clemett, Senaratne and Ranaweera Bandara (2004)based on a comparative study reported “… in general it has not beendemonstrated that SAM is a viable and effective tool for CZM as it has notachieved its desired objectives and has been time and finance consuming”.Perhaps the problem was the political nature of SAM implementationwhere it was assumed that a coastal community can drive a managementprocess (White and Samarakoon, 1994).CBNRM is an alternative to top-down approaches to management ofnatural resources (Community Based Natural Resources ManagementNetwork. It has been highly effective whereenabling conditions have been provided by way of adequate legislation,advocacy and awareness. Philippines is an example where CBNRM incoastal settings has contributed significantly to the sustainable upliftof livelihood as well as maintaining the health and quality of coastalresources by way of appropriate laws and participatory mechanisms(Eisma et al., 2005, Oracion et al, 2005).The notion of “community based natural resource management” is mostappropriate when examining the community level aspects of the micro-macro continuum. The closely related concept of “co-management ofnatural resources” on the other hand, may be more appropriate whenit is necessary to emphasize more evenly the various components of themicro-macro continuum, including non community-based stakeholders.CBNRM does not take place in a vacuum; communities operate withinpolicy and legal frameworks, and can exert some influence upon it. 107
  • 141. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Perhaps, in Sri Lanka the challenge is to establish the enabling conditions for co-management for coastal ecosystems. The most basic and necessary condition for this is equitable law enforcement and a public aware of its legal rights, (UNDP, 2008, also see section 1.7). The CZMP 2004 lists twenty five potential sites for SAM in the coastal area (Annex 3). In the event that implementation processes are initiated for all sites, a major contribution towards development of a more comprehensive knowledge base for ecosystem based ICM, would become possible. The NSAP advocates support for contributing towards implementation of already prepared SAM plans through its small grant (SGF) and large grant funds (LGF). Table 10. Sites at which SAM processes are being implemented (CCD, 2006). District Site References (partial) Colombo Lunawa Lagoon CCD/CRMP, 2003a; CCD, 2005a Madu Ganga Estuary CCD/CRMP, 2003bCCD, 2005b Hikkaduwa National Park & Galle CCD/CRMP, 1995a surrounds CCD/CRMP, 2003c; CCD, 2005c. Unawatuna Bay and Koggala Estuary Coastal stretch in Hambantota Mawella Lagoon Hambantota Kalmetiya Lagoon CCD, 1994, 2005f. Rekawa Lagoon CCD, 1995b Samarakoon & Van Zon, 1991; GCEC/ Negombo Estuary & Muthurajawela Gampaha Euroconsult, 1991; CEA/Euroconsult, Marsh 1994; CEA/Arcadis, 2003; CCD, 2005d Puttalam Lagoon & Mundel Lagoon NARA/NARESA/SIDA, 1997 Puttalam Bar Reef CCD, 2005e The earliest SAM planning and implementation initiatives revealed the diverse facets of public-private partnership building. These underlying tensions need to be addressed adequately if the appropriate balance between the social component and the biophysical processes is to be achieved. Lessons from early experience are covered more exhaustively in reports and documents dedicated to the particular processes (e.g. Negombo Lagoon & Muthurajawela Marsh: CEA/Euroconsult, 1994; CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult, 2003). Experience suggests that studies in cultural anthropology at SAM sites may set the best foundation for planning for these complex systems.108
  • 142. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSHikkaduwa SAM Process (1991-1997): The CCD sought toprotect and conserve the Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary through itsCRMP/USAID programme based on principles of CBNRM (Lowryet al., 1997). The collaborating organizations were the WildlifeConservation Department and the National Aquatic ResourcesResearch & Development Agency (NARA). During the planningprocess diverse aspects of coastal tourism surfaced, which underminedefforts to build a partnership among civil society, private sector, centralregulatory authorities and the local authority. An important facet of therelationship between the formal private sector hoteliers and the informalservice sector, composed mainly of local residents, emerged during theplanning – commandeering of local resources. The formal sector hoteliersdeveloped the infrastructure utilizing all incentives provided by thegovernment such as tax holidays. Most investors were members of theentrepreneurial class with their roots in Colombo.The informal service sector preceded the advent of formal tourism hotelexpansion. It catered to budget travelers in the 1960s, and had alreadydeveloped low cost infrastructure and a market for such travelers.In parallel with the expansion of the formal sector, supported byinternational advertising, opportunities expanded also for the informalsector. By the 1990s, about 50% of rooms and allied services in theHikkaduwa tourist area were provided by the informal sector. Therelationship between the two sectors was underscored by resentment ofthe formal hoteliers who estimated that a proportion of profits due tothem was being leaked out by the informal sector who undercut tariffs.This tense relationship severely undermined collaboration with regardto implementation of safeguards for the coral reef sanctuary, whichserved as a core tourism attraction.The locals, who engaged mainly in the informal sector activities,included the glass bottom boat operators for coral viewing. The formalsector subsequently encroached into this market segment by introducingits own boats: competition instead of coexistence ensued. As the share ofincome of the original glass bottom boat operators declined they engagedincreasingly in tactics to attract customers, which also were damaging tothe corals. Conflict resolution was seen by the informal sector investorsas biased toward the formal sector, which enjoyed more status andpower. The eventual outcome was the doubling of glass bottom boats inoperation with a concomitant increase of the stress on the coral habitat,as local politicians exploited the situation to their own advantage. 109
  • 143. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS A similar relationship developed, with different political implications, with regard to the establishment of tourism infrastructure at Kalkudah and Passekudah on the eastern coast. The style of operation of the formal sector created deep resentment in the local population. With the onset of the ethnic conflict in the 1980s, the local population were bystanders as the hotels belonging to ‘aliens’ from Colombo were destroyed (Samarakoon, 2006). The major lessons that emerge are: • The sustainability of coastal ecosystems and habitats, on which tourism depends, may not be realized where private sector investors are seen as ‘intruders’. • Private sector investors generally do not pay the full cost of land allocated to them for development, since a major part of that land, which serves as ‘open access resources’, is under government jurisdiction. • Land allocation for development to the private sector sometimes takes the form of expropriation. • Planning and development of tourism, in areas where beach frontage is scarce, may still be feasible with mutually beneficial results to local populations and the private sector, if meaningful participation is practiced. A form of equity participation may become feasible, if measures are implemented to transfer collective property rights over open access resources to local communities. • The important stakeholders must be trained to recognize that compromise is required for sustainable natural resources use, and that others’ gains do not come at their own expense 3.5.3 Agriculture and Livestock Diverse agricultural activities, commercial and subsistence, are carried out where the drainage is adequate. Dunes are desired sites since they generally have accessible freshwater lenses for irrigation In the south- western coastal area, large-scale drainage and flood control programmes for low lying land, caused severe environmental damage, including harm to coastal lagoons.. Commercial dune sand mining carried out illegally is110
  • 144. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSundermining the agricultural livelihood of residents at locations such asKalpitiya ( Agriculture: Coconut and Palmyrah: Coconut is the mostconspicuous agricultural crop in the coastal belt of the Dry Zone,particularly in the Districts of Puttalam, Mullaitivu, Batticaloa,Hambantota and Mannar. Puttalam has the highest extent and Mannarthe least (Table 11). Coconut is mostly cultivated on the stable dunes.Coir production, an industry linked to coconut cultivation, commonlyhas an impact on the brackish water bodies since they are sites for retting(seasoning prior to fiber extraction). In the Jaffna Peninsula, palmyrahpalms replace coconut (Madduma Bandara, 1989).A wide range of cash crops are grown on suitable dunes. The dunesin Kalpitiya have been used for commercial cultivation of gherkincucumber.Goats are the livestock of choice of communities residing on dunes.Dune migration in Ampan and Manalkadu, Jaffna District was partiallyattributed to the denudation of dunes by untended goats. Removal ofcreepers and shrubs binding the sand, and hoof tracks that facilitate winderosion, may have contributed (Swan, 1983).Table 11. Coconut acreage in the main coconut-growing coastal districts District Extent (acres) Puttalam 50,000 Mullaitivu 27,000 Batticaloa 12,000 Hambanthota 10,000 Mannar 4,000Paddy Cultivation - Drainage and Flood Control: Significantimpacts on coastal water bodies, both estuaries and lagoons, havestemmed from major development programmes designed to expandpaddy cultivation in the Wet Zone. Draining land for agriculture isgenerally upheld as a desirable intervention, which produces manybenefits when done in an environmentally sustainable manner (Shand,2002). In south-west Sri Lanka, numerous flood protection and drainageschemes implemented in low-lying coastal areas between +1m and +3m 111
  • 145. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS MSL, in the 1960s with World Bank support, have resulted in impacts opposite to those intended (Tennakoon, 1982). About 10,000 hectares, which were briefly brought under paddy cultivation following drainage schemes implemented in the 1960s, today lie abandoned with water control structures in various states of state of abandonment and disrepair (Figure 25). These lands, privately owned, are unproductive assets in the coastal area. They cannot be converted to capital for productive investment since patterns of ownership and inheritance are not favourable. Furthermore, the existing laws do not allow the conversion of paddy land into other uses. The development of low-lying land for paddy cultivation in the densely populated Wet Zone of Sri Lanka was a post-independence political promise to landless constituencies. The prevailing caste relations placed cultivators in a politically favoured position. As a consequence, the adverse externalities on less favoured constituencies were ignored or received inadequate consideration. The carelessly planned engineering interventions contributed to the progressive collapse of fisheries stemming from hydrological and ecological dynamics. The improper design of salt-exclusion structures was inexplicable. Screw gates were installed where flap gates were required and salt intrusion persisted through these structures. Groynes and revetments constructed to maintain the functional integrity of the salt exclusion structures, partially or entirely failed. In an unanticipated manner these same structures aggravated coastal erosion. The University of Moratuwa (UoM) conducted a pre-feasibility study for rehabilitating 4,510 hectares of land associated with this scheme at Dedduwa, Madampe, Moragoda and Koggala, for ADB support in 1994. This land was to be developed under the newly constituted Southern Development Authority. The UoM pre-feasibility study was reviewed by Euroconsult (1995). The review recommended that the ecological and socio-economic changes since the original intervention were not favourable for re-investment in rehabilitation. However, alternate development possibilities did exist. Discussion with the authorities revealed that political commitment was strong for ‘… doing the same thing over again and expecting a different result’ (see Box 3). The sequence of events: fishery depletion in the associated lagoons and estuaries, inefficiency of engineering structures and eventual loss of soil fertility to salinization and waterlogging, stemmed from a fragmented112
  • 146. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSview of coastal ecosystems. The watersheds were seen as entities thatcould be isolated from the estuaries and lagoons. The possible impactof semi-diurnal tides on water control structures seems to have beendisregarded by irrigation engineers, more accustomed to designingcontrol structures for flowing freshwater. Perhaps, the desired resultmay have been achieved by way of a very high level of engineeringefficiency. Figure 25. A salt exclusion structure at an estuarine tidal inlet in Ambalangoda (left) associated with the major flood control and drainage project of the World Bank in 1960s for development of paddy cultivation in coastal land at + 1 to + 3 ft MSL. The project resulted in waterlogging and abandonment of a vast extent of coastal land with drastic consequences for associated coastal lagoons in the southwest of Sri Lanka (Tennakoon, 1982). 113
  • 147. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Cost-benefit relationship ultimately determines the level of investment. Today the affected estuaries and lagoons languish under both a changed ecology as well as continuing pressure from poor fishers. Additionally, they obstruct drainage and contribute to flooding, resulting in loss of property and ‘creeping’ waterlogging (this chapter section 2.8). The productivity of these estuary and lagoon ecosystems may be improved by way of major investments in ecological restoration. However, restoration for whose benefit emerges as a serious question, given the absence of rigorous anthropological research that may reveal the aspirations of the present generation and their demand for continuing with lagoon fishing and with paddy farming (Section 2.7.4, this chapter)? The actual number of coastal lagoons and estuaries affected by drainage and salt exclusion schemes under the World Bank project, from Udappuwa in the Puttalam District to Tangalla in the Hambantota District, has not been inventoried and adequately mapped. The foundation for any attempt at restoration has to be established by way of mathematical and causal models to enable balanced economic analysis. Eventual decisions must be based upon hydrological models that incorporate the behaviour of tidal inlets, littoral drift, catchment discharges and community needs confirmed through anthropological research. A similar intervention was carried out in Kalametiya in the 1970s, which transformed the Kalmetiya Lagoon into its present state with diminished productivity. The redeeming feature was the richness of the marine fishery in the Kalametiya Bay (CCD, 2004). Interventions to transform Thondamanar Lagoon in the Jaffna Peninsula into a freshwater body were partially implemented. Perhaps, the latter combined with a supplementary freshwater supply from Karagarayan Aru may have been more warranted since agricultural production in Jaffna Peninsula is severely constrained because of the absence of natural rivers (Ministry of Irrigation and Water Management, 2003). The major lessons that emerge, from this development activity, for coastal ecosystem based ICM in Sri Lanka are: • Development activities driven purely by a political agenda, which seek to transform coastal ecosystems, have a high probability of failure.114
  • 148. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS • Anthropological research must confirm the need for investment in restoration of estuaries and lagoons affected by drainage and salt exclusion schemes. • A comparable intervention for drainage and flood control must not be implemented along the eastern coast from Batticaloa to Panama. • A careful assessment is required for all existing drainage and flood protection works in the northern part of Batticaloa Lagoon. • The frequent floods in this area (Eastern Province), which is a significant contributor to food security in Sri Lanka, is suggestive of ‘creeping normalcy’ (Diamond, 2004) that may aggravate in association with predicted increase in rainfall probably linked with climate change. • All existing projects being implemented by the government, iNGOs and NGOs, particularly in regards to mangrove planting, require urgent inventorying and assessment, to ensure that they adhere strictly to drainage requirements of coastal ecosystems based on measurable hydrological indicators.2.5.4 Industrial DevelopmentMajor investment in industrial development in Sri Lanka, was initiatedin the 1960s, by establishing dedicated industrial estates in Ja-Ela andRatmalana. Industrial expansion continued in the 1980s with tradeliberalization and the establishment of Investment Promotion Zonesunder the Greater Colombo Economic Commission (GCEC). In thesucceeding decades, industrial expansion continued under the Board ofInvestment (which replaced the GCEC) with few restrictions on thesiting of industries. A majority of these industries were situated in closeproximity to the coast. Centralized waste treatment was provided inthe investment promotion zone initially set up in Katunayake (vicinityof Negombo Lagoon). Subsequently, little or no regulatory safeguardswere implemented against emissions into open access resources such aslagoons and estuaries. Where regulations existed, their enforcement wasweak and enabled rational behaviour of the private sector to dominate.Environmental regulations, including EIA, did not exist prior to 1989.The consequences were severe contamination of ground water in theimmediate environs of the industrial estates, and pollution of coastalecosystems, e.g. Negombo Lagoon and Lunawa Lagoon. The former 115
  • 149. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS continued to support livelihoods of about 3,000 fisher families in 1990, despite ulcerative skin disease of fish caused by pollution, and severe eutrophication as expressed by blooms of filamentous green algae (GCEC-Euroconsult, 1991). Lunawa Lagoon was a dead water body by the 1970s (CCD, 2005). Comprehensive coverage of the problems of coastal pollution in Sri Lanka is available in a wide range of reports (Olsen et al., 1992; CCD, 2006). The NSAP focuses on the experience directly related to catchment-based approaches to pollution mitigation and ecosystem restoration. Solid waste dumping into coastal wetlands is a serious problem (CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult/MENR, 2003). Collaboration with local authorities and effective partnership building may be a part of the search for the answer, as shown by the experience in Weligama (Pilapitiya, personal communication). Lunawa Lagoon Restoration: Lunawa Lagoon, a relatively small water body with a surface area of 27 ha, and a closed tidal inlet is presently being restored by the Sri Lanka Land Reclamation and Development Corporation (SLLRDC). Dredging was completed under ADB’s CRMP (CCD, 2005). This lagoon is about 1.3% of the size of Negombo Lagoon which is an estuary with a functional tidal inlet. An initial planned output of restoration of Lunawa Lagoon, now rejected, was the construction of a functional tidal inlet - lagoon outfall (Kirthi Jayawardena, personal communication). The actual cost of this intervention indicates the scale of investment required for restoration of other lagoons and estuaries in Sri Lanka. The cost-benefit analysis is positive for this small lagoon situated in a highly urbanized setting where property values are high. It is not based on ecosystem productivity resulting from the restored structure and its functioning. The total estimated investment in 2002 was about US$ 5 million – SL Rs. 500 million (Jayawardena personal communication). On a direct linear conversion, the investment required for Rekawa Lagoon - 270 ha - would be about US$ 50 million (Table 16). The relevance of this estimated cost for a rural setting requires careful assessment. A missing factor is the control of industrial and municipal waste emissions at their source, in spite of a licensing procedure under the Central Environmental Authority. Whereas, the need to address116
  • 150. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSpollution at source is normative (CCD, 2005), little information isavailable on the measures to ensure compliance.Catchment-based Pollution Abatement: The IntegratedManagement Programme (IRMP) in Wetlands, implemented by CEA,addressed the challenge of incorporating the Ekala Industrial Estateinto integrated management of the Negombo Lagoon (CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult/MENR, 2003). The intervention lasting several yearsincluded: • Land use mapping to position industries in a database shared among the community organizations-Environment Protection Committees (EPCs), regulatory authorities and the private sector; • Initiation of the Ja-ela Industrialist’s Forum and linking it to the Cleaner Production Programme of the Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry of Sri Lanka (FCCISL) within the framework of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and connecting them to community-based Environmental Protection Committees of NGOs; • Establishment of a Cleaner Production and Environmental Awareness Center sponsored by an industrial leader ‘champion’; • Linking the Environmental Protection Division of the CEA and Local Authorities to operation and monitoring.The high level of collaboration among the industry leaders, communityleaders and the regulatory bodies suggested the possibility of advancingthe initiative to a more mature state since several private sector partnersalready had ISO Certification as exporters. They were interested inmore effective environmental management in the entire industrial estate.However, continuity withered in 2003 at the termination of IRMP andattempted transfer of the process to CCD under its ADB-supportedCRMP project.The important lessons that emerged were (CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult/MENR, August, 2003): • Both industry and communities are interested in collaboration, instead of confrontation, to manage industrial pollution impacts (e.g. contamination of groundwater, toxic emissions, etc) since 117
  • 151. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS the latter were interested in the positive externalities such as employment, enhanced property values etc. • The regulatory bodies are severely cash-strapped with regard to all aspects of monitoring and implementation of standards. • The non-exporting industries were not interested in investing in cleaning their production process in the absence of appropriate incentives. • The political authorities rarely promoted community interests since the power gap between the private sector and community members is wide. • Communities when organized as EPCs acquired credibility and access to industrial premises in order to understand the production process. • The task of waste treatment to eliminate negative externalities on water quality in Negombo Lagoon will be an uphill task until government commitment is made towards investment in central treatment systems. • Economic valuation may provide persuasive argument for central treatment systems. • Inter-agency collaboration between the CCD and CEA, the regulatory bodies for the coastal zone (downstream catchment) and the upstream catchment, respectively, is partly the key to viable solutions for industrial pollution (CEA/Arcadis- Euroconsult/MENR, 2003; CCD, 1997, 2006). • Winning the cooperation of Negombo Lagoon fishers, the lowest step in the economic ladder, to refrain from destructive fishing practices, encroachment almost impossible, due to their perception that regulatory bodies are unable to address a root cause of ecosystem decline – industrial pollution. 2.5.5 Coastal Tourism Development Impacts of tourism on coastal ecosystems are numerous and diverse. Negative impacts stemmed from unregulated beach-oriented tourism at most locations, including Negombo, Hikkaduwa, Pasekudah, and Kalkudah. The negative impacts arose due to the disregard of one or more of the development planning principles (see Section 2.1). The adverse impact on the beach ecosystem at Negombo was corrected through118
  • 152. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSgrant investment in the 1980s. Similarly, the impact of municipal andhotel wastes on the coral reef ecosystem (Hikkaduwa National Park)was partially corrected with the support of donor assistance in the1990s. Impacts of tourism on coastal ecosystems reveal a trend of mixedconsequences arising from a combination of ineffective planning (e.g.Negombo and Hikkaduwa), effective planning (e.g. Bentota), violationof regulations (e.g. Unawatuna, Habaraduwa), political patronage andinadequate integration with existing SESs, (Box 2) among others. Tensionarising from conflicting demands among the private sector for beachfrontage for large scale hotel development, traditional beach use by localcommunities, and small-scale tourism development erupted starkly inthe period following the Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004, particularly atArugam Bay (Samarakoon, 2007; Klein, 2008).The prevailing relationship between tourism and coastal fisheries issummarized thus (CCD, 2006): ‘Available data and information indicatethat tourism can have several negative impacts on fisheries. For instance,traditional rights of public access to fish landing places on the beachesand lagoons, enjoyed by the local fishing communities, have been deniedto them, at several places, due to various tourist related activities. Thishas led to disputes between fishermen and hoteliers at various places’.Efforts are being made, in recent years, to integrate tourism withenvironmental management through community-based ecotourismwith direct income flows to local communities. A visitor centre wasestablished recently at Madu Ganga within the framework of SAM(CCD, 2005). Previous interventions based on this concept, include: • Establishment of the Muthurajawela Visitor Center as a community supported intervention within the framework of the Conservation Management Plan for the Conservation Zone of Muthurajawela Marsh and Negombo Lagoon (CEA/Arcadis- Euroconsult, 2003a, January 2003) • Harmonization of coral habitat conservation and tourism ventures within the framework of ‘community based natural resources management –CBNRM’ advocated by USAID and implemented as a part of the Special Area Management component of the CRMP for the Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary (Lowry et al., 1997, 1999). 119
  • 153. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Lessons learnt from operating the Muthurajawela Visitor Center (CEA/ Arcadis-Euroconsult/MENR, January, 2003) were, the need for: • political commitment and systematically generated public awareness for development of eco-tourism; • professional management with service conscious staff; • recognizing that donor-based financial arrangements artificially drive down actual costs because of a beneficial exchange rate which undermines cost recovery and sustainability ; • high investment in expensive public education facilities to entice repeat visitation; • stronger support from the private sector with declared commitment to ‘green’ enterprise; • strong service consciousness and dignity of labour in tasks such as ‘visitor guiding’ and ‘presentation’ which induce repeat visitation; • strong government commitment to ‘privatization’ of services. • Regulating visitation rate in keeping with ‘carrying capacity’. 2.5.6 Urbanization and Housing Development Scattered encroachment by poor coastal fisher families of the peripheral areas of estuaries and lagoons, despite the risk of floods, has been a tradition in highly urbanized locations along the south-western coastline. The head of the household supported by family members could rely on a subsistence income from fishing with only a small investment in low-cost fishing gear. With patience, and planned enrolment of support from the sediment trapping behaviour of mangroves (Rhizophora mucronata), the family develops a small platform, with a minor investment in scavenged fill material, on which eventually a lightweight temporary house could be built. Periodically, the house and all belongings will be swept away by floods. The house is usually rebuilt, with assistance from government flood relief, and the household returns and resumes life. Despite the persistent flood hazard, the most basic need of shelter was satisfied. The events in Negombo Lagoon illustrate the manner in which small ‘pin pricks’ become major settlement development programmes with little concern for the health of the ecosystem – politics, poor people’s needs and misplaced science took centre stage. In the 1980s the Prime120
  • 154. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSMinister implemented the vision of a nation-wide housing developmentprogramme. Negombo Lagoon was one of the selected developmentsites. Munnakkare Island in the narrow channel segment of NegomboLagoon was arguably the most densely populated urban site in Sri Lanka.The pattern of housing expansion that occurred during the period 1956to 1993 is shown in Figure 26. Various technical representations madeto divert the housing programme away from the sensitive channelsthat connected the estuary to the sea were brushed aside for politicalexpediency (see Section 1.2). Small-scale land filling for housing in thissensitive area continued in parallel with the large scale housing project.This activity since mid-1980s was greatly encouraged by the ‘mangrovelobby’ that promoted indiscriminate planting of mangroves, indicative ofa lack of concern and understanding of complex ecosystem relationships(CEA/Euroconsult, 1994; Samarakoon, 2006). The hydrologicalrelationships of the Negombo Lagoon ecosystem are now endangered.Mangrove planting by many iNGOs, NGOs, CBOs and multilateralfinancial agencies is continuing unabated in lagoons and estuaries atnumerous locations (see Section 2.3.6; Samarakoon, 2006). This activityhas spread to all estuaries and lagoons in urban settings - including sitessuch as Batticaloa Lagoon and Puttalam Lagoon where some internallydisplaced persons (from civil conflict areas) are forced to eke out a living.Encroachment into ‘mangrove-planted’ areas may soon become theunintended consequence that will threaten the hydrological functioningof these ecosystems. Thereby, the intended objective of plantingmangroves to enhance fishery productivity and income of fishers will benullified.2.5.7 Brackish Water and Shrimp AquacultureBrackish water aquaculture - Commercial scale brackish wateraquaculture in Sri Lanka is limited to shrimp farming. Milkfish culturehad developed to some extent until the early 1980’s, mainly concentratedin the north-western and western areas with seed collected from thewild. Since the early 1980’s, shrimp farming became popular, withthe Government offering various incentives. A number of small-scaleentrepreneurs and a few large multi-national companies ventured intoshrimp farming. Due to its faster growth rate, larger size and exportpotential, the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon was almost exclusivelyused in brackish water shrimp culture. 121
  • 155. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Figure 26. Planned housing expansion into the channel segment of Negombo Lagoon as an outcome of the major low-cost housing programme in the 1980s. (CEA/ Euroconsult, 1994).122
  • 156. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSThe coastal area between Maha Oya and Puttalam/Kalpitiya, in theNorth-western Province, has become the hub of the country’s shrimpfarming industry. The Dutch canal and the lagoons serve both as thesource of water for these shrimp farms as well as ‘sinks’ for their waste/effluents (NARA/NARESA/SIDA/Stockholm University, 1997).The shrimp farming industry in the North-western Province recordeda phenomenal growth after 1990, in terms of the number of farms aswell as the extent of land brought under shrimp culture. This periodalso saw the proliferation of a large number of unauthorized farms, setup in mangrove areas/tidal flats, lagoon and canal reservations, and onany available state land. The total number of farms increased from about60 farms with a total pond area of 405 ha in 1990, to nearly 1350 farmswith a total pond area of around 4,500 ha in year 2000 (CCD, 2006). Thehigh percentage (76%) of small farms, of less than 2 ha, indicates that itis now a predominantly small-scale activity. Nearly 48% of all the farmsare unauthorized or illegal, which means they have not been subjectedto a proper technical appraisal (Siriwardene, 1999).In 1998, a total of over 8,000 persons were engaged in the shrimpindustry: 6,388 in farms, 652 in hatcheries and 1,010 in processingfactories (Hettiarachchi, 2000). In more recent years, export of culturedshrimp has contributed over 50% of the total export earnings from thefisheries sector. The MFOR Statistical Unit database shows that theindustry has consistently earned well over Rs. 2,000 million per year inforeign exchange since 1995, with a peak of Rs. 4,027 million in 1998,equivalent to 60% of the foreign exchange earned by the fisheries sectorin 1998. The shrimp farming industry in the Northwestern Province iscurrently in decline. The impact of illegal farms, pollution of waterwaysand the spread of diseases has been fatal for the industry. The area undercultivation declined by 2002 to 39% of the extent in 1998, and furtherto 17% in 2003. According to Perera (2003), only about 25% of thefarms are operating at present and of the 12 processing plants, only 4are functioning. The average yield per hectare per annum has also gonedown from a peak of 6,175 kg in 1994 to an all time low 650 kg in 2002.Government has started closing down illegal farms; 15 court caseshave been filed. Reportedly in six months, courts have ordered 7 farmsto be closed down. In Batticaloa district (where shrimp farming inSri Lanka originated in late 1970s but was abandoned due to the civilunrest) shrimp farming has recommenced in recent years. Unpublisheddata with the Regional Aquaculture Extension Officer of NAQDA in 123
  • 157. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Batticaloa reveals that over 60 farms, with a total pond area of 155 ha, were in operation at the end of 2002. A major concentration of these farms is situated toward the mid-section of Batticaloa Lagoon. Farm effluent is trapped in the water body. NAQDA is now monitoring and implementing improved adherence to environmental standards. A proposal for improving water quality and reducing the risk of disease included the restoration of a tidal inlet at the southern end of Mundel Lake (Galappatti, personal communication). But, the cost of construction had discouraged this intervention although it is the only viable solution. Meanwhile,,wastes loaded with nutrients are discharged through the Dutch Canal into Puttalam Lagoon which is now eutrophic – having permanent blooms of filamentous green algae (Chaetomorpha sp.). The situation in Batticaloa Lagoon is becoming increasingly serious because of persistent implementation of ‘biodiversity conservation’, ‘bioshield’ and other conservation projects which ignore the sedimentation and nutrient entrapment consequences. Shrimp aquaculture appears to be contributing to this growing problem by way of nutrient discharges. It is timely for the FAO, Green Coast, ADB, IUCN Sri Lanka, and other NGOs to review their own contribution to the growing problem by placing their activities in the context of systemic hydrological relationships as they actually occur in micro tidal brackish water bodies. The following lessons emerge from background knowledge acquired over almost three decades: • Expropriation of open access resources for private sector investment, without adequate compensation and livelihood support for local populations, creates social conflict. • Inequity in development backfires ecologically. Private sector and community based shrimp aquaculture enterprises were initially envisaged, during the 1980s, as parallel and equitable development processes. It was subsequently hijacked by the political leadership (consequent to withdrawal of state support for aquaculture to appease Buddhist religious sentiments) and expanded without participation by residents of the area or local investors. When the local entrepreneurs picked up the technology, suitable land124
  • 158. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS was no longer available. This stimulated illegal encroachment into reservations and sensitive areas causing severe negative externalities including water pollution and flooding. • Restoration of Mundel and Puttalam Lagoons to support shrimp aquaculture as a sustainable export industry in the coming decades, requires carefully planned ICM, based on the ‘ridge-to- reef’ approach. • Potential exists for expansion of shrimp culture in the eastern coastal region. Any attempt to develop it on a large scale must be done with adequate flood protection and drainage schemes (avoiding mistakes made in the south-western coastal region) to safeguard rice cultivation from problems of progressive waterlogging (‘creeping normalcy’ - Section 2.8, this Chapter).2.5.8 Mineral MiningMineral mining in the Coastal Zone of Sri Lanka has been confinedmainly to coral, ilmenite sand and limestone. Limestone, dating fromthe Miocene era, was quarried from the Jaffna peninsula and usedin the manufacture of cement. In the dry zone coastal areas, salt wasmanufactured by solar evaporation of seawater.Miocene LimestoneJaffna Peninsula and islands such as Delft are composed mainly ofMiocene limestone. The reserves at Kankasanthurai supplied theKankasanthurai Cement Factory for many years. The factory has notbeen functioning during the recent past due to the conflict situation.CoralMining of coral reefs for large scale constructions date back manycenturies. Early archeological remains in Jaffna, were constructed withcoral blocks. Clearly, these were either extracted from the sea andprocessed into uniform shapes, or obtained from terrestrial fossil coral.During the Dutch colonial period coral was extracted on a large scale forthe construction of the forts. Major segments of the walls in the Jaffna,Tangalla, Matara and Galle forts were constructed with boulder corals.Some part of this material may have been obtained from terrestrialquarries while the rest was mined from the sea. 125
  • 159. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS A survey conducted in 1984 by the Coast Conservation Department (CCD) in the south-western and southern coastal areas revealed that 18,000 t of coral was supplied annually to the lime industry. A major portion (42%) originates from ancient, inland coral deposits beyond the coastal zone, 16% is mined on land within the coastal zone and another 30% comprises coral debris illegally collected from the shore. The balance 12% is coral illegally mined from the sea (Hale and Kumin, 1992). A survey carried out by the Coast Conservation Department in 1990, from Ambalangoda to Hambantota, revealed that nearly 2,000 persons were dependent on inland and offshore coral mining activities (Ranaweera Banda, 1994). Coral mining in the sea is also reported from the east coast around Kalkudah and Passikudah Bays. Coral mining from the sea has resulted in severe coastal erosion in all these areas, where the government has spent millions of rupees to build coast protection structures. Mineral Sand ( Beach mineral sands represent perhaps the most valuable future resource for Sri Lanka. Concentrations of beach mineral sands are found in the northeast, south, and southwest coastal stretches. The main deposit is located at Pulmoddai some 60 kms north of Trincomalee. This deposit is 6 km in length with an average width of 100 meters and is estimated to contain about 4,000,000 MT of mineral sands with an average composition of 70% Ilmenite, 10% Zircon and 8% Rutile. About 15% of the renewable resource based at Pulmoddai is replenished annually during the Northeast Monsoon season. The reserves are anticipated to last for over 25 years if utilized at a rate of about 150,000 tons per annum at an upgraded plant. This deposit rates among the best known in the world, especially due to its heavy mineral content of 60% to 70%. At present, Lanka Mineral Sands Limited, a State-owned company extracts four minerals. Historically, the Ceylon Mineral Sands Corporation was established in 1957, under the State Industrial Corporations Act of 1957. The Corporation located its plant for processing Ilmenite at Pulmoddai and the first export of Ilmenite to Japan took place in 1962. A new plant was commissioned in 1967 at China Bay, to process the more valuable minerals – rutile, zircon and monazite, using the tailings of the Pulmoddai Ilmenite Plant. In 1976, the Corporation established an integrated Ilmenite, Zircon and Rutile126
  • 160. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSprocessing plant at Pulmoddai. In 1992, the Corporation was convertedinto a Government Owned Company under Act No. 23 of 1987 and re-named Lanka Mineral Sands Ltd. The company also established a facilityfor bulk loading into ships at Pulmoddai. Cod Bay in the TrincomaleeHarbour, is a station for its floating craft of tugs and barges. The salesand marketing office is in Colombo.Ilmenite and Rutile are used to produce titanium dioxide and in themanufacture of titanium metal. Zircon is used in the ceramic industry asa refractory in the manufacture of mouldings.Apart from ilmenite sand, garnet sands have been reported along thesouthern coastline stretching from Dickwella to Hambantota, in varyingquantities, suitable for commercial exploitation ( Some efforts havebeen made to mine the dune sand in Hambantota in the vicinity ofKaragan Lewaya. It is significant that the tsunami in 2004 penetrated thedune precisely where it had been weakened by sand mining and causedseveral deaths.Silica Sand; River Sand Mining & Offshore SandSubstantial silica sand deposits occur in the sand dunes extending alongthe north-east coast of the Jaffna Peninsula. Commercial exploitationof these reserves require extreme care since these dunes have a recordedhistory of instability when disturbed (Swan, 1983). Settlements occuralong the entire length of this dune. Sand is mined from dunes in theVadamarachchi, Ampan and Manalkadu areas for the constructionsector. This activity accelerated during 2002-2005 period when atemporary peace agreement prevailed. It is likely that dune sand miningon a large scale may occur for reconstruction following termination ofhostilities in the civil conflict. A rigorous EIA should precede large scalesand extraction.Numerous efforts have been made to discourage river sand mining alongthe south-western and southern coastal areas of Sri Lanka backed bylegal interventions. Owing to increased vigilance in heavily mined rivers,sand extraction on a commercial scale has shifted to sand dunes at moreremote locations such as Kalpitiya. Both livelihoods of local residentsand dune stability are increasingly threatened at these locations. 127
  • 161. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS 2.5.9 Power and Energy Neither power plants nor hydrocarbon extraction (or test drilling) projects are found in the coastal area. The first large scale coal-based power plant is now being constructed at Norochcholai, a coastal village in Kalpitiya Divisional Secretary Division, Puttalam District. It is expected to be operational about 2010 when the 300 MW coal-fired thermal power plant, with the associated infrastructure, is completed. An EIA has been approved by the CCD. It is premature to predict impact trends that may be entrained. The lead up to construction was beset with hostile public agitation including violence. 2.5.10 Anchorages, Fishery Harbours and Ports Traditionally, the coastal fishers, from some 1,000 fishing villages situated along the coastline, kept their craft at anchor outside of the surf zone, landed them on beaches, or kept them within estuaries, which provided safe anchorage. The estuaries in Jaffna, Puttalam, Chilaw, Negombo, Panadura, and Podawakattuwa were significant in this regard serving a large number of users. Progressively these same sites became anchorages for mechanized fishing craft. From the 1980s onwards, as mechanized fishing craft increased in size and capacity as offshore fishing fleets, they continued to use these same locations to benefit from the already developed infrastructure including marketing, ice factories, fuel stations and repair workshops, among others. Integrated management was lacking and the consequences include severe oil pollution, conflicts with traditional fishers and depletion of estuarine fish stocks. It is estimated that 40,000 liters of dumped waste oil and 13,000 liters of oil from service stations contaminate Negombo Lagoon (FAO, 1988; CCD, 2006; CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult, 2003). The consequences for these estuarine ecosystems from unmanaged use by mechanized fishing craft will aggravate in future because of inimical policy. It flows from a policy decision made in the 1980s, by the Ministry of Fisheries, to halt construction of new fishery harbours (to reduce the cost to the state), and instead develop anchorage facilities within estuaries and lagoons. Fishery harbours with infrastructure are situated at Colombo, Beruwela, Mirissa, Tangalla, Kirinda, Valachenai and Trincomallee. The associated128
  • 162. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSbreakwaters that project into the sea have affected coastal processes invarious ways resulting in unbalanced erosion and accretion. The longterm trends entrained by construction of harbours have not beenmonitored as their construction predated EIA regulations.New major coastal construction projects have been initiated based onEIA approvals, namely: • Colombo Port Expansion (Colombo South Harbour), • Oluvil regional port development, • Galle regional port development, and • Hambantota Sea Port.New trends created by these projects that impact coastal ecosystems,particularly the coastal fishery, may emerge as monitoring proceeds.2.6 Coastal Ecosystems and Natural Hazards: Vulnerability, Exposure and ResilienceCoastal ecosystems situated on land, including beaches, estuaries,lagoons and tidal flats, regularly protect human settlements from floodsby serving as conduits for seasonal storm water flow to the sea and waterretention areas. Unimpeded flow, across beaches and through tidal inlets,determines how effectively these ecosystems provide security to life andproperty. Beaches and sand dunes together provide security to life andproperty against wave action and storm surges. The MCZ and its seabedfeatures also contribute towards reducing the force of waves, swellsand storm surges. Coral reefs, rocky reefs, sandstone reefs (CCD, 1990)and coastal bathymetry in general contribute towards the site specificdiversity of wave and storm surge action, and above all the reduction oftheir severity.The relationship of coastal ecosystems to normal coastal processes andland based influences such as drainage, serve as the reference baseline forassessment of their behaviour during natural hazards. Diverse spatialand temporal aspects should be measured, in order to reproduce thenormal state of these ecosystems as scientifically testable models ofchange under different conditions. This has been attempted to someextent for Negombo Lagoon and for Batticaloa Lagoon (University of 129
  • 163. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Moratuwa, 1994; Santharuban and Manobhavan, 2005). The normal state implies a rate of change that occurs slowly, such that it does not disturb the multiple uses of coastal ecosystems. Impacts of natural hazards generally imply changes that exceed the normal state. Since an essential characteristic of coastal ecosystems is dynamic stability (see this chapter Section 3.1), change that reverses after a period of time, seasons, years and decades, also belongs within the normal state. Therefore, the relationship between coastal ecosystems and natural hazards is best understood in terms of how the latter changes the relationship between people and ecosystems. These relationships include aspects of security to: • life and property • food and other goods • services such as sanitation, flood protection, communications, etc. The terms ‘vulnerability’, ‘exposure’ and ‘resilience’ have been analyzed and debated intensively as attributes of socio-ecological systems (Box 2), because of the worldwide trend in the loss of biodiversity, social consequences, and possible impacts of climate change, including increased frequency of hazards (Gallopin, 2006). These concepts, including the socio-ecological system (SES) were introduced in Chapter 1. The meaning of these terms must be clearly understood to ensure consensus building and appropriate planning: • Vulnerability: This is the potential of a socio-ecological system to undergo change when affected by a disturbance. Vulnerability can be negative or positive depending on its relationship to livelihood associated with the system. For example, a storm surge may transport and deposit sediment at the tidal inlet of a barrier-built estuary and thereby block tidal exchange resulting in the decline of livelihood. This would be negative vulnerability. Conversely, the same storm surge may remove sediment that blocks the tidal inlet of a lagoon to restore tidal mixing and thereby improve fishery productivity. This would be positive vulnerability. • Exposure: This is the duration for which a socio-ecological system is in contact with, or subjected to, a disturbance. For example, a beach ecosystem in the Western and Southern Regions is subjected continuously for about five months to130
  • 164. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS wave attack during the South-west Monsoons and affects fisher livelihood. The beaches in the Northern Region do not pass through a similar interaction during the same period. Exposure is determined by many factors including geography and evolutionary history. • Resilience: This in its simplest form means the ability of a SES to bounce back to the normal state after a disturbance.The relationship between natural hazards and ecosystems, therefore,is meaningful when examined in the context of actual disturbances.Natural hazards exist and cannot be wished away. In Sri Lanka, floodsare the most frequent natural hazard, cyclones and storm surges are lessfrequent; the 2004 tsunami was a rare and extreme event. Therefore inthe context of the NSAP, the most fruitful approach would be to extractlessons from past hazard experience to manage coastal ecosystems in amanner that provides uninterrupted security.The only scientifically rigorous information available in Sri Lankafor understanding the relationship of coastal ecosystems to naturalhazards, in terms of vulnerability, exposure and resilience, is from the‘Rapid Assessment of the Impact of the Tsunami of 2004 on the CoastalEcosystems (also known as the Rapid Green Assessment – RGA:MENR/UNEP, 2005a; UNEP/MENR, 2005b; Samarakoon, Epitawatte& Galappatti, 2008; 2009). The RGA provides reliable datasets andbenchmarks because of the method of assessment (Figure 27), namely: • Systematic collection of the same relevant information at intervals of one kilometer along the entire impacted coastline, irrespective of whether the site where measurement was made had suffered damaged or not • The systematic sampling ensured randomized encounter with sites of tsunami impact. Because of the extent of coastline assessed five classes of ecosystems, except the MCZ and tidal flats, were included • The randomization of measurements across the form and character of the tsunami wave: direct, reflected or diffracted.The findings provide a foundation to plan for the management of coastalecosystems to face multiple hazards including those arising from climatechange (but not for a future tsunami comparable in magnitude to the 131
  • 165. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS 2004 event). UNEP/MENR, (2005b) commented that the RGA ‘ … is recognized by government as the only comprehensive, science-based and official assessment of environmental issues raised by the tsunami in Sri Lanka, upon which all future environmental remediation work will be based’. Some questions emerge. Figure 27. A part of the form of representation of site specific benchmark datasets from the RGA. These datasets could serve as references for preparation of vulnerability and risk atlases for the entire coastal area. Question: Why did the 2004 tsunami not yield lessons to prepare for the next tsunami? Answer: 2004 tsunami was a rare and extreme event generated by a subduction. Experts estimate that more than 400 years must pass before adequate tension is developed at the same line of contact between the Eurasian and Indo- Australian Plates to cause the next subduction. Even if the next occurs at the same line of contact as in 2004, the likelihood that a tsunami wave would radiate in exactly the same directions is too low to warrant planning for it (Sieh, 2006, 2007. In 1882, the Krakatoa Volcanic Eruption occurred, at a point between Sumatra and Java.132
  • 166. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS The tsunami wave propagated by it struck the Calcutta Port (about 80 North of Sri Lanka). In 2004, when the tsunami wave was propagated at a nearer point Calcutta (Kolkata Port) was not impacted.Question: How can it help in planning management measures against more frequent hazards?Answer: Sri Lanka astutely conducted a rigorous assessment of the impacts on ecosystems, measured and mapped them. These can serve as the geo-referenced benchmarks for planning vulnerability and risk-based coastal land use as adaptation to future hazards.2.6.1 Post-tsunami livelihood supportThe tsunami impact on coastal fishers, the relief response and itsconsequences for the ecosystems, are livelihood aspects germane to theNSAP. A total of 4,870 fishers were reported dead while an additional136 were missing. Some 16,434 houses were destroyed while 13,329 weredamaged. Coastal fishing craft destroyed amounted to 16,456 and 5,707were damaged. As human nature took command and expectations ofrelief mounted, the number of boats reported to have been destroyedand damaged far exceeded the number of registered fishing craft (GOSL/FAO, 2007). Aid agencies distributed material assistance supported bya ready flow of funds. Fisheries authorities are concerned that the ‘aidwhirlwind’ led to over-capacity of the coastal fishing fleet, which couldresult in excessive pressure on the MCZ, estuaries and lagoons. Theycontend that eventually the fishing effort will stabilize at the pre-tsunamilevel (GOSL/FAO, 2007). In the interim, however, considerable damagecould be done to the ecosystems.2.6.2 Tsunami-2004 & Post-tsunami TrendsThe RGA (MENR/UNEP, 2005a) revealed that some landforms(ecosystems) at specific geographic locations provided protection. It alsorevealed that community capability to pick up the threads of economicactivity and to weave them into the fabric of survival is interlinked tothe productivity of associated ecosystems. The lessons from the tsunamiepisode suggest that diverse adaptation measures need careful attention 133
  • 167. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS in the face of future hazards including sea level rise impacts which will be generated gradually but progressively (HM Treasury, 2006). In this context, the Regional Mangroves for the Future Programme (RMFF) provides an opportunity for strategic planning, which incorporates immediate and long-term goals within the framework of integrated coastal management (ICM). The emerging challenges in ICM in the tsunami-affected Asian Region are complex (Samarakoon, 2006: follow the link from to forestry/site/35734/en). 2.6.3 Interpretation of Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems and Lessons The diversity of impacts is classified under ecosystem classes (Table 12). It is necessary to note that there were interactions among the ecosystems. The diversity of impacts revealed that the risk factors had combined in various ways resulting in damage or the absence of impact. The foremost lessons that emerged from the RGA for management of coastal ecosystems were the need to prepare: • ‘vulnerability maps’ based on risk factors • ‘risk maps’ which combine the socio-economic factors with risk factors These maps would enable site classification based on risk factors to enable priorities for risk mitigation. Such maps would be indispensable for purposes of adaptation to future impacts of climate change. It is necessary to recognize the difference between risk factors and risk (Annex 4) in order to prepare meaningful maps that could guide policy (Samarakoon, Epitawatte and Galappatti, 2009). 2.7 Societal Dependence on Coastal Ecosystems and Resources: Do Traditional Coastal Communities Exist? The purpose of this section is to explore the dependence of Sri Lankan society on coastal ecosystems. Again diversity is the character of this dependence. The CZMP 2004 in regard to historical changes in the coastal zone states “… this region reveals fascinating layers of the country’s rich cultural heritage, ranging from prehistoric sites and artifacts of134
  • 168. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSmonarchical rule to elegant colonial architecture. Not surprisingly,the varied external influences on the Coastal Zone have had social,cultural and economic implications, as well as undeniable environmentalimpacts. Notably, human settlement patterns during the colonial periodhave resulted in a high population density in some coastal areas, and aconsequential concentration of development activities and urban growth,as well as a varied and cosmopolitan society engaged in diverse economicpursuits that use or have an impact on coastal resources” (CCD, 2006).Table 12. The main impacts that were identified in the RGA. Ecosystem Range of Impacts Class Bays i. Embayments concentrated tsunami wave flow resulting in increased wave height and inundation distance (Hambantota Bay, Thennadi Bay, Passekudah, Kalkudah) ii. Settlements at the periphery were decimated. iii. Damage to life and property was high where ‘risk’ had been already created by inhabitation. iv. Where risk had not been created, damage to the physical structure could be categorized within the normal, seasonal range of change. Beaches i. Damage to beaches across a wide range of situations did not reveal irreversible damage and change exceeding what occurs normally during seasonal influences. ii. None of the highly sensitive beaches situated in small bays were dislodged since the efficiency of headlands was high Estuaries i. Diverse changes occurred at tidal inlets including removal of sand barriers as well as fresh depositions. These changes fell within the range of restorable seasonal changes. ii. Habitats such as fringing mangroves were partially damaged, seagrasses were smothered in patches. iii. The changes that had occurred in relation to existing trends were marginal. iv. The most prominent consequence was the onrush of the tsunami wave through tidal inlets causing massive damage to life and property in high risk areas (e.g. Batticaloa Lagoon). Considerable change occurred at tidal inlets during the outflow, due to the higher speed. Lagoons i. Similar to changes in estuaries. Dunes i. Damage to dunes was highly variable depending upon specific sites Settlements destroyed where the tsunami wave made landfall earliest, Viz. east coast of Jaffna Peninsula, since at that time the wave front was at its highest and overtopped the dune Tidal Flats i. Areas with low gradient or decline inundated. Low risk since inhabitation generally sparse 135
  • 169. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS The term ‘coastal community’ persists in the literature including the MFF strategic planning and implementation framework, e.g. ‘More integrated development and conservation actions which serve to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience among coastal communities’. ‘Coastal community’ has anthroplogical implications. Studies on traditional coastal communities and their customs reveal a style of ‘fixation’ to a place and diverse forms of tenure rights that extend from the land to the sea (Ruddle and Akimichi (eds), 1984; Ruddle and Johannes (eds), 1985, 1989). It is therefore important to explore whether such entities exist in Sri Lanka. Answers cannot be found except through cultural anthropology research to support ICM. Members of permanent and migratory coastal settlements in Sri Lanka have engaged in activities that are directly and indirectly dependent on goods and services available from coastal ecosystems for centuries. For the purpose of planning, populations that have depended economically upon coastal ecosystems for several generations may be assumed to be ‘traditional coastal communities’. Traditional coastal populations depend upon coastal ecosystems for livelihood. However, this label does not in any way imply inter- generational perpetuation of values or spiritual cohesiveness within a changing wider economic environment. Where education is adequate, income from traditional occupations is marginal, and youth migration is significant. Where access to alternative employment is available, the predictable outcome is the departure of successive generations from traditional coastal livelihood. However, it may be argued that two types of traditional coastal communities may be perceived: coastal fishers and coastal farmers. The economic lifestyles of these communities are such that their impact on the coastal ecosystems is characterized by low intensity and by gradualness. Therefore, these traditional coastal livelihoods have persisted for centuries. In contrast, the non-traditional coastal development activities tend to more intensive resource use, accompanied by the application of advanced technology, leading to rapid ecological change. These sectors of society do not depend on coastal ecosystems for livelihood but exploit them at a commercial level. This approach stems both directly and indirectly, from the ongoing process of national development. These traditional and non-traditional dependencies are loaded with conflict, contradictions and also potential harmony.136
  • 170. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS2.7.1 “Traditional” Coastal PopulationsTraditional here means coastal residents who are descendents fromhouseholds, which had livelihoods based on diverse economic activitiesthat depend on the productivity of coastal ecosystems, and who havechosen to continue, entirely or partially, with the same lifestyle bychoice or because of the absence of other economic opportunities(Stirrat, 1988). As national development planning proceeds conflictingdemands emerge for lands that have been customarily used by longterm coastal residents. The demand for these lands generally arise frompotential investors whose interests are not anchored in the productivityof coastal ecosystems. Invetors in coastal tourism certainly require cleanattractive beaches, but they accord slight significance to customarybeach uses. They assume that coastal fishers may choose a more modernlifestyle as employees in the hotel sector. However these assumptionsare generally invalid. Therefore some attention is required to aspirationsof traditional coastal populations.Coastal fishers: The direct coastal resources dependent activities includeextraction of renewable material for food and fibre (fish, plant products),non-renewable material such as fossil coral and shells, and watertransport. These coastal resource users, mainly fisherfolk, may or maynot own homesteads. The ecosystems and associated land on which theydepend are ‘common property resources’ and legally belong to the state.The Constitution, however, provides traditional use rights to them.Coastal farmers: The indirectly dependent population includes thoseengaged in agriculture in lands contiguous with coastal ecosystems andwhose cultivations depend upon effective drainage and protection fromsalinity intrusion. Some members of these agricultural populationsdepend directly and indirectly on coastal ecosystems for food, fibre,trade and services. The majority of the farmers own the cultivatedland. However, some members of the expanding coastal agriculturalpopulations have encroached on state land and cultivate them withoutfreehold use rights. Increasingly coastal farmers who have no accessto land tend to become coastal fishers by way of a small investment infishing gear such as a cast net. 137
  • 171. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS The traditional coastal populations defined in this manner, exclude investors and entrepreneurs who have recently (post-independence) engaged in land uses entirely or mainly for profit, e.g. tourism, shrimp culture, and large scale construction projects, mineral mining among others. The investors may live in cities and commute to the site of commercial activity for purposes of management. The state (government) is frequently involved in such typically private sector activity. These are stakeholders. The coastal ecosystems support a variety of activities of traditional coastal communities. They include: (i) Marine Coastal Zone (MCZ): traditional fishing for income and food security, coral mining, salt production, navigation related to tourism; (ii) Bays: traditional fishing, safe anchorage of fishing craft, coral mining, salt production, tourism related navigation; (iii) Beaches: landing of traditional craft, storage and operation of beach seines, temporary settlements (wadiya), beach sand extraction, mineral sand extraction, tourism, traditional sanitation and waste disposal; (iv) Estuaries and Lagoons: traditional fishing for income and food security, housing and settlements, anchorage of traditional and modern fishing craft, municipal and industrial waste discharge, tourism and recreation, extraction of mangrove products, salt production, drainage and flood protection; (v) Sand Dunes: agriculture, livestock grazing, sand extraction, tourism and recreation, domestic and agricultural freshwater extraction; and (vi) Tidal Flats: livestock grazing, aquaculture, ground water extraction. An important characteristic of these activities is the low intensity of resource extraction, the application of traditional technology, and simple modern technology (outboard motors and synthetic fibre nets) in a manner that does not seriously harm the resource base (Figure 24).138
  • 172. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS2.7.2 Non-traditional Coastal PopulationsThe non-traditional coastal populations are mainly investors and theiremployees who reside in the particular locations where the investmenthas been made. Their direct and indirect interest in the coastal ecosystemsstem from economic opportunity: - Modernized fishing. The interest of this population in three classes of ecosystems, viz. beaches, bays and estuaries is associated with beach landing, anchorage, fishery harbours and infrastructure. A qualification here is necessary. Most participants in the earlier modernization period, from the mid-1950s to the 1980s, were descendents of traditional fisher households who benefited from diverse government programmes that provided incentives (Stirrat, 1988). As the coastal fishery diminished, there was a shift to fishing in offshore waters. Initially the single-day boats stayed longer at sea. Progressively the fishing craft increased in size, parallel with government incentives. Thus the multiday boat fishery is today mainly an enterprise of investors and entrepreneurs, including politicians with ministerial credentials, who do not participate in the fishing activity. The original participants in the modernized fishery are now providing wage labour in multiday boats. - Tourism. The interest of this population is focused primarily on beaches, and sites with access to beaches and eco-tourism. Tourism infrastructure, including hotels, is owned mainly by the private sector. They enjoyed incentives provided by the government, including extended leasehold of ‘state land’ and tax benefits. These lands previously served as customary use lands of traditional fishers. The tourism sector ranked fifth in terms of contribution to the national GDP, until 2006 and provided about 70,000 jobs. Tensions persist among traditional fisher populations who have customarily used the beaches as access to the sea, and the tourism interests (CCD, 2006). - Mining. Three types of commercial mining are associated with coastal ecosystems: beach mineral mining, e.g. ilmenite in Pulmodai, dune mining for garnet sand, and mining for construction material e.g. Hambantota, Kalpitiya, Ampan, Manalkadu, etc (CCD, 2006), miocene limestone in Aruakalu, Puttalam, Kankasenthurai. Both local and multinational corporate interests are involved. 139
  • 173. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS - Shrimp farming. The shrimp farming population is primarily interested in tidal flats and abandoned paddy lands. The majority of investors (individuals as well as corporates) are from outside the local area. 2.7.3 Open Access Resources and Common Property Resources Most coastal ecosystems in Sri Lanka serve as open access resources – meaning that whoever has the means may engage in extraction of resources. This is largely the case with fishing in the MCZ, except where in some locations access is limited by traditional management practices or by intimidation. Some of these ecosystems or parts of them also serve as common property resources. Access to some beaches where beach seines are operated, are regulated by law to licensees. The ‘stake net fishery’ in Negombo Lagoon also operates as a common property resource system. Traditional livelihoods of coastal populations included harvesting of diverse products from open access resource systems both on a subsistence and commercial scale. The traditional coastal populations generally have permanent ownership of residential land, based on ownership deeds. However, they do not have rights of ownership over open access land resources, but may have customary use rights. Karunaratne (pers. com.) asserts that customary use would be held as a legal right in litigation. However, the government has frequently dispossessed traditional coastal communities of open access land resources in diverse allocations for commercial development activities. Thereby, coastal communities have ‘lost’ collective land assets without any opportunity to convert them to capital (De Soto, 1989, 2000). Some extents of these open access land resources have been declared as protected areas by the Department of Wildlife Conservation, and others as forest reserves by the Forest Department and still others as reservations, and marine protected areas. These declarations have been carried out in the public interest and for safeguarding biodiversity. Exclusion of local populations from livelihood resources, rarely includes the provision of alternative sources of income, or compensation. Law enforcement, however, is weak and conflict between the local populations and the government is common.140
  • 174. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS2.7.4 Inferences • Populations that depend upon coastal ecosystems for livelihood are residents in the coastal area mainly because of tradition and economic opportunity combined with cultural, spiritual and resource tenureship bonds (Alexander, 1975, 1977), • Second generation members of these coastal populations readily migrate to locations of alternative economic opportunity in keeping with career and lifestyle aspirations. They maintain lasting links with ancestral households where property interests exist (Roberts, 1982). A considerable part of the political leadership of the country emerged from coastal socio-ecological systems but subsequently severed all links with the original occupational relationships (Roberts, 1982, Jayawardena, 2000). • Second generation members persist in coastal resources dependent livelihood, because of diverse career constraints such as low educational achievements, low trainability in skills with high market demand, early marriage and family responsibility among others (CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult/MENR, 2003). • Serious cultural anthropology research is required to test the validity of assumptions about sustainable livelihood for ‘coastal communities’ based on coastal resources. Interventions based on such assumptions for an estuarine population previously did not produce meaningful results for sustainable management of Negombo Lagoon (CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult, 2003). • In the absence of ‘collective property rights’ coastal communities are not in a position to engage in investment partnership to conserve and sustainably manage ‘open access resources/traditional use resources’.2.8 Ecosystem Change – Problem of Seeing and UnderstandingAn effort has been made in this chapter to reveal the diverse ways inwhich change occurs. Both ecosystems and dependent populationschange (Figure 1, Box 2), sometimes in rhythm with each other butmore frequently in divergent directions that cause harm to the naturalproductivity of ecosystems. Whereas change is persistent, do humanbeings see it? When it is seen do they understand the causes and 141
  • 175. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS consequences of that change? This section addresses the problem of seeing and not seeing change, the failure to sometimes understand the context in which change takes place, and not doing anything in the form of remediation. Clarity on this issue is crucial for meaningful ICM and planning. Change may not be seen for several reasons as explained by Diamond (2005). His examination of the causes of environmental damage in his landmark book ‘Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive’ is revealing. In no way is it implied that the coastal populations in Sri Lanka are faced with societal collapse. Nevertheless the book provides insights regarding the ease with which some societies fail to act in the face of danger. Analyzing environmental damage and the response of diverse societies to impending socio-ecological collapse, Diamond shows that, in many instances, contrary to expectation, “…it turns out that societies fail even to attempt to solve a problem once it has been perceived”. Perhaps, Sri Lanka would find itself in a stronger position to find solutions to problems pertaining to coastal ecosystems if Diamond’s distilled wisdom is given consideration. (a) Failure to anticipate a problem: The collapse of coastal ecosystem productivity has already occurred in Sri Lanka e.g. Lunawa Lagoon (CCD, 2006). But prior experience does not guarantee proper action in future, if that experience has already been forgotten or is ignored. Degradation is now going on in most of the significant coastal ecosystems that provide livelihood support. Nevertheless, while ‘paper solutions’ are available there is no action (CCD, 2004; CEA/Euroconsult, 1994; NARA/SAREC, 1998 among others). (b) Reasoning by false analogy: It is commonly argued that Sri Lanka must plant mangroves as a natural coastal barrier, ‘bioshields’. Since the mid-1980s much money has been spent on mangrove planting in estuaries and lagoons based on their role in enhancing fishery productivity. Following the tsunami, mangroves have again been brought into the environmental limelight as a natural barrier, going by the contribution that mangroves have made in other Indian Ocean rim countries such as Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. In Sri Lanka the river systems, tidal amplitude, and alluvial sediment loads simply do not exist to support large extents of mangroves, as coastal protective142
  • 176. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS barriers, at the shorefront or on deltas that form at the interface of tidal inlets and the sea. Thus the case for shorefront mangroves (USAID/University of Moratuwa, 2007) as a natural barrier against hazards in Sri Lanka is based on false analogy. Similarly, planting of mangroves by environmental NGOs such as Mandru, Sewalanka, Sarvodaya and others ( MANDRU-an-Environmental-NGO) within estuaries and lagoons in Sri Lanka as bioshields is based on misplaced analogy.(c) Failure to perceive a problem in the wider perspective: The failure to understand problems in an integrated manner, both in the short and long term, can result in wrong actions being undertaken. Several factors contribute: - Imperceptible progression. Origins of some entrained problems are literally imperceptible: In the event that proper drainage is not ensured for paddy fields, water logging may very slowly and gradually increase. This happened in the case of the World Bank supported ‘Flood protection and drainage project’ for the South- west of Sri Lanka (Tennakoon, 1982). - Distant management. Ineffectiveness of decisions being taken at the centre, without the participation of local populations affected by particular problems (Table 4) e.g. salt exclusion drainage canal implemented for Kalametiya Lagoon. - Creeping normalcy. Frequently (as in the case of climate change) slow trends are concealed by noisy fluctuations. Take the case of declining fishery in some estuaries and lagoons: the year to year decline in fish catches takes place in small steps, but in some years the decline is reversed, e.g. shrimp catches in Negombo Lagoon in 2008 ware exceptionally high, thereby creating an illusion that the ecosystem is functioning well while in reality the average catches are declining year on year. This gives the illusion that the situation is ‘normal’. As a result the decline may be allowed to proceed until the pollution and sedimentation crosses a threshold of irreversible change eventually causing fishery collapse. This situation prevails in Batticaloa Lagoon and Negombo Lagoon. - Landscape amnesia. This is a factor related to ‘creeping normalcy’. This involves forgetting how different the landscape looked in the past. Again two examples from water logging serve to illustrate 143
  • 177. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS this. Most people looking at the Muthurajawela Marsh north of Colombo or the marshy tracts of land in Udappuwa (Puttalam District) and Tangalla (Hambantota District) situated between 1- 2 meters MSL would not remember that they were the result of human blunder. Brohier (1982) and Tennakoon (1982) describe these situations as planning gone awry. (d) Rational behaviour: Diamond (2005) emphasizes that ‘rational behaviour’ arising from clash of interests among people in a society is the most significant cause of failure to solve environmental problems, even when they are perceived. ‘Rational behaviour’, so termed by economists and social scientists, refers to how some people advance their own interests by behaviour harmful to other people. The behaviour is termed rational by scientists because it employs correct reasoning motivated by self-interest, even though it may be morally reprehensible. “The perpetrators know that they will often get away with their bad behaviour, especially if there is no law against it or if the law is not effectively enforced. The perpetrators feel safe because they are highly concentrated (few in numbers) and highly motivated by the prospect of reaping big, certain and immediate profits, while the losses are spread over large numbers of individuals. That gives the losers little motivation to fight back, because each loser loses only a little and would receive only small, uncertain, distant profits even from undoing the minority’s grab.” Examples abound such as those including government subsidies in fisheries and agriculture. One recent example in the coastal area of Sri Lanka is the uncontrolled development of shrimp culture in the North- western Province, stemming mainly from the ‘rational behaviour’ by Colombo-based investors which resulted in a massive loss of coastal ecosystems and land degradation. This situation also illustrates the ‘tragedy of the commons’ when the local population encroached into available land regardless of whether they were required as environmental safeguards. An impending post-tsunami problem could be coastal tourism in Pottuvil-Arugam Bay area and in the South-western coastal area. Conflict of interest involving rational behaviour also arises, when the interests of the decision-making elite in power, clashes with the interests144
  • 178. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSof the rest of society. This is a situation which has been intensivelyresearched, explained and presented by De Soto (1989; 2000) with regardto non-egalitarian law enforcement by bureaucrats who have knowledgeof relevant regulations, while that same knowledge is denied to localcommunities. Such potential clash of interests is reflected in recenttransactions of a meeting among the Tourist Board, local communitymembers and Sewalanka, an NGO, with regard to Pottuvil and ArugamBay held on 17th May 2005 at the Committee Room of the Sri LankaTourist Board. At this meeting, a 100 meter law is referred to withoutgiving the specific reference to a Gazette Notification of the law. Thuscoercion may proceed under the illusion of legality. Similar emergingconflict of interest is suggested by the publication captioned “A People’sProcess for Post-tsunami Rebuilding”.(e) Irrational behaviour. Some examples above illustrate situations where a society fails to solve a perceived problem because prolonging that problem is good for some people. In contrast to the so-called rational behaviour, failing to attempt to solve problems could involve what social scientists term ‘irrational behaviour’. Such irrational behaviour arises when each of us, individually, is torn by a clash of values. Space and time does not allow a lengthy explanation but an example may suffice. During the period of ‘ethnic conflict’, the tourist hotels in Passekudah-Kalkudah were destroyed. The skeletal remains still stand as a reminder of the local reaction to a development investment by ‘outsiders’ (mainly investors from Colombo). During the destruction of the hotels the local communities were mute bystanders. They silently witnessed the elimination of symbols of outside exploitation, which perhaps matched strongly held ethnic and cultural values, even though the destruction of hotels resulted in the loss of some employment and economic benefits.This information serves as a reminder of the ease with which mistakesare made when dealing with ecological and environmental problems andthe manner in which such mistakes may eventually lead to conflict andsocial unrest. When natural resources at the local level are pre-empted,and used by non-local interests without clear legal provision for adequatesharing of benefits, conflict must arise and even become violent to theextent that it undermines national security. 145
  • 179. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS 2.9 Global Change and Sea Level Rise Sri Lanka as an island nation makes little or no significant contribution to global change in terms of green house gases as a driver of climate change. Nevertheless, it must face the full consequences of global warming and the entrained sea level rise. There are seven almost incontrovertible facts concerning global warming (IPCC, 2001; Stiglitz, 2007), namely: (i) Surface temperature of the earth increased by about 0.60 Celsius over the last century. (ii) Even small changes in temperature can have large effects. (iii) Present rate of warming is unprecedented, even going back millions of years. (iv) Sea levels rose by 10-20 centimeters during the last century. (v) Even small changes in the sea level can have large effects - a one meter rise may inundate up to one kilometer of low lying areas. (vi) The concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been increasing especially over the last 20,000 years. The present rate of increase is estimated to be the highest in at least 20 million years. (vii) Small increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases could accelerate the rise in temperature leading to even larger changes in climate than in the recent past (positive feedback). Projections made, with a very high level of confidence, for the coastal areas in the IPCC Report 2008 include ( IPCC_Fourth_Assessment_Report#Coastal_Systems): • Coasts will be exposed to increasing risks such as coastal erosion due to climate change and the rise in sea level. • Increases in sea-surface temperature of about 1-3 °C are projected to result in more frequent coral bleaching events and widespread mortality unless there is thermal adaptation or acclimatisation by corals. • Many millions more people are projected to be flooded every year due to rise in sea level by the 2080s. Other projections made by the IPCC (2008) also have relevance to Sri Lanka’s coastal zone.146
  • 180. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDSFresh water: It is projected with a high level of confidence that: • Dry regions will get drier, and wet regions will get wetter. By mid-century, annual average river runoff and water availability are projected to increase by 10-40% at high latitudes and in some wet tropical areas, and decrease by 10-30% over some dry regions at mid-latitudes and in the dry tropics. • Drought affected areas will become larger. • Heavy precipitation events are very likely to become more common and will increase flood risk.Ecosystems: It is projected with a high level of confidence that: • The resilience of many ecosystems is likely to be exceeded this century by a combination of climate change and other stressors. • Carbon removal by terrestrial ecosystems is likely to peak before mid-century and then weaken or reverse. This would amplify climate change.Food: It is projected with a medium level of confidence (about 5 in 10chance to be exact) • that globally, potential food production will increase for temperature rises of 1-3 °C, but decrease for higher temperature ranges.In planning for the coastal zone it would be prudent to give considerationto these projections, particularly since the changes will occur gradually.Sir Nicholas Stern (HM Treasury, 2006) in the analysis of the economicimplications of global change recommends that adaptation measuresneed to be included in planning now in order to avoid unbearable costburdens in the face of a crisis entrained by postponement of action. TheMFF NSAP provides an opportunity to begin addressing adaptation toglobal warming.2.10 Problems to be Addressed in the NSAPThe problems to be addressed in the NSAP (Chapter 3) have their rootsin the trends that have been partially described in this chapter. Therelevant trends are summarized in Table 13. 147
  • 181. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS 2.11 Coastal Ecosystem Change Trends - Synthesis The main coastal ecosystem trends, their direct and indirect causes (if known), and the relevant planning option are summarized in Table 13. Trends are generally classified into four classes which suggest the planning options available for addressing them (Box 8). All trends have multiple causes and cannot be reduced to simple cause-effect relationships. Table 13. The coastal ecosystem trends that need to be addressed in the strategic action plan (Key: MIOI – Multiple, inter-sectoral, organized intervention). Ecosystem - Change Trend - Issue Planning Options SES Attribute Geomorphology Open access competition intensifies among Multiple, inter- traditional and small scale mechanized fishing. sectoral, organized A period of respite and recovery ensued in the interventions Northern and Eastern MCZs because of civil (MIOI) including conflict. In 2003-2004 when a temporary peace law enforcement, prevailed and normal fishing resumed, before property rights, the tsunami, production in the North and East changeover from bounced back to a level higher than during the open access nature, pre-conflict level. Resilience of the MCZ thus etc, regulated MCZ was demonstrated. Already by 1988 (FAO, 1988) land use by way of the coastal fishery had reached the maximum processes such as sustainable level. Overcapacity in small scale ICM. Research & fishing craft occurred following 2004 Tsunami. modeling where Consumer price escalation compensates for the causes are unclear. diminishing returns on the unit fishing effort. Interventions Fishery management continues to lag. Some form require support from of common property resources use rights are strengthened law under discussion. enforcement Open access competition persists. Bays that serve Bays as anchorages face pollution problems from waste As above. oil as well as material from land drainage. Erosion along the Southern and South-western MIOI. Consultation coasts increasingly under control (ADB, 2006). and research to Conflicts between fishers and tourism interests identify options for Beach are increasing. Eruption of conflict occurred at beach sharing for some locations such as Arugam Bay following the multiple uses. Better 2004 Tsunami. law enforcement.148
  • 182. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Ecosystem - Change Trend - Issue Planning Options SES Attribute Mapping and Illegal sand mining from better endowed and zoning of dunes for remote sand dunes reportedly on the increase optimal use withoutDune as in Kalpitiya. Sand mining in Ampan-Manalkadu destabilizing e.g. area increased during 2003/2004. Limits of Jaffna. Research, extraction not known. MIOI Hydrology increasingly threatened by sedimentation, pollution, land fill, misconceivedEstuary mangrove planting, diminishing fish catches. MIOI. Research. Periodic spikes in shrimp productivity, masked progressive decline.Lagoon As above, aggravated by closure of tidal inlet. MIOI, Research Unregulated expansion in shrimp cultivation in Wayamba Province resulting in serious pollution MIOI. in linked water bodies (Mundel, Puttalam, Dutch Implementation ofTidal Flats Canal). Sensitive tidal flats associated with existing strategies, brackish water bodies in the Southern and Eastern law enforcement. Provinces require zoning. Demography The population directly and indirectly dependent Research on coastal fishery resources has increased in – mainly cultural proportion with the three-fold increase in the anthropology. TheCoastal Fishers country population from 7 to 21 million in six available studies decades. Catches have declined. Loss of income is (e.g. Stirrat, 1988) compensated by rise in market prices. Migration are limited and need and change in family structure is occurring. widened scope. MIOI Both male and female emigration has increased mainly to Europe (especially Italy) and GulfMigration As above countries. Significance in relation to MCZ carrying capacity unclear. As above coupled with Poverty among estuarine and lagoon fishers, and urgent measures traditional coastal fishers has increased owing to to promotePoverty, depleted catches. Decline in wellbeing has been employment andVulnerability mitigated by remittances from female members income generation. of households who have obtained foreign Research required employment. to analyze poverty as resulting from deprivation. 149
  • 183. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Ecosystem - Change Trend - Issue Planning Options SES Attribute Tourism MIOI, consultation Potential for win-win coexistence between with private sector Land use and traditional coastal land use and tourism exists. on modalities of conflict Appropriate models have not been developed. P-P partnerships. Research. Fishery Increasing emphasis on the export-oriented sub- sectors including deep sea fishing (multiday boats), Food security, shrimp aquaculture and ornamental fishery. Too MIOI. Research income little attention to integrated ecosystem-based fishery management. Agriculture Abandonment of low-lying coastal lands resulting Food security, from misplaced development efforts continue. MIOI. Research. income Optimization of land use including P-P partnerships little explored. Waste Management Decline in coastal fishery and deteriorating Pollution and health trend linked to water pollution, improper MIOI, research, health sanitation, excessive groundwater extraction, modelling depleted catchment Global change: climate aberration & sea level rise Application of techniques Impacts will aggravate over decadal and longer developed during periods. Prioritization of hazard impact sites 2004 Tsunami not initiated. Mapping based on risk factors and Adaptation assessment. vulnerability indices is required supported by Research. mathematical modelling. Aggravation of chronic Establishment of disasters an uncharted territory. risk maps to enable access to insurance.150
  • 184. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS Box 8. The four classes of general trends and suggested planning options to respond to such trends Proposed planning options to manage ecosystem change trends: (i) Maintaining the existing situation: if the ecosystem trends do not diverge from environmental values and development expectations, measures may be planned to ensure continuation of the existing situation with safeguards provided by appropriate policies, monitoring of key indicators, and by proactively addressing imbalances. (ii) Restoring equilibrium: if the ecosystem trends diverge from environmental values and development expectations and the causes are known, corrective measures may be implemented by way of organized societal behaviour, technology and appropriate institutions. (iii) Knowledge acquisition: in the event that ecosystem trends diverge from environment values and development expectations, but the causes are not known appropriate research may be included to generate the required scientific understanding. (iv) Environment impact assessment (EIA): New development projects will be planned and implemented as the nation seeks to reconstruct after the immense damage to life and property after three decades of civil war. Therefore it will necessary to anticipate unforeseen and new ecosystem change trends that may occur which diverge from environmental values and societal expectations and to incorporate precautionary safeguards. The legal mechanism is available through EIAs.Responding to trends where divergence between societal values andenvironmental quality is recognised, and where the causes are known,requires organized intervention among multiple sectors (multiple-sectororganized intervention – MSOI). As an example, estuary degradationhas to be addressed through collaboration among fishery, industrial,housing and biodiversity sectors. Adverse impacts arising from eachof these sectors are generally known. Addressing them in search of aviable compromise requires organized consultation, collation of relevantinformation, and identification of win-win situations. This requiresadherence to standards and codes of behaviour by the participatingsectors to ensure sustainability, supported by monitoring, incentives andpenalties.2.12 Future ResearchThe challenge is urgent for building a coherent and scientificallytestable knowledge base about the coastal ecosystems and their role indevelopment. Geomorphological and paleogeographic histories of the 151
  • 185. COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS – EXISTING SITUATION AND TRENDS seven classes of ecosystems and individual entities are sorely needed to build on available information (Swan, 1983; Cooray, 1982: Senaratne and Dissanayake, 1982: Katupotha, 1995b). This knowledge combined with findings from cultural anthropology and ecosystem trends can serve as the foundation for prioritizing management interventions and efficient application of financial resources. Interested members of the scientific community may need to step away from their own specialities and begin to collaborate in the task of testing and verifying the available knowledge in a ‘holistic’ perspective of integrated development. This may be done in the style of paradigm testing in the search for improved solutions to persistent problems (Kuhn, 1970). From the foundation thus established may emerge an outlook more precise and compassionate that closely matches reality. (Photo: Dr Ranjith Mahindapala)152
  • 186. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP)3. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP)3.1 The Structure of the National Strategic Action Plan (NSAP)The NSAP has been founded on the policies set out below. These policiesand related actions are based on the facts, inferences and trends regardingcoastal ecosystems, which were explained in Chapters 1 and 2. The planis presented in the MFF Framework format (Annex 1). Justification,inter-linkages and mechanisms for integrating these policies and strategicactions to other national processes are explained in Sections 3.6 and PoliciesThe NSAP policies are oriented towards managing coastal ‘ecosystems’as development infrastructure so that the effective structure andfunctioning of the ecosystems would be safeguarded because of benefitsderived. Generally, the policies underlying the NSAP and the CZMP2004 (CCD, 2006) are in harmony with regard to habitat and specialarea management SAM (section 3.9); only a few, very specific tocoastal ‘habitats’, are in conflict. Appropriate shifts in the CZMP 2004and NSAP policies are required to make them compatible and, morespecifically, to orient them towards ecosystem-based management.Compatibility between the NSAP and the CZMP 2004 is addressed inSection 8.1. The NSAP policies, categorized under different subjectareas, are as follows:Implementation of SAM PlansPolicy 1. Support the implementation of existing and future SAM plans in collaboration with CCD, with incentives provided through the MFF Small Grant Fund (SGF) and the Large Grant Fund (LGF). 153
  • 187. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Sedimentation and Pollution Policy 2. Stop, discourage and penalize any land use, and activity in estuaries, lagoons and their watersheds that facilitates and/or increases existing sedimentation rates. Policy 3. Encourage and provide incentives to any individual and/ or group that undertakes physical removal of sediment from estuaries and lagoons, including vegetation (e.g. filamentous algae, grasses and reeds, mangroves) that contributes to sediment stabilization and spread of stabilized shoals. Policy 4. Stop, discourage and penalize the haphazard discharge of sewage, municipal waste and industrial effluent, directly and indirectly, into estuaries, lagoons, bays and the MCZ, and generally in the wider environment of coastal ecosystems. Policy 5. Encourage and promote incentives for sanitation and waste treatment in the wider environment of all coastal ecosystems. Fishing Policy 6. Switchover from open-access fishing in the MCZ, bays, estuaries and lagoons to ‘closed fishing’ based on a combination of licensing and tenure rights supported by meaningful incentives for co-management and alternative employment for those excluded (closure implicitly recognizes that ‘tradable licensing’ cannot work in an environment where alternative employment is not readily available). Policy 7. Stop, discourage and penalize the use of mechanized trawls in the MCZ in waters shallower than 30 meters (extending to about 10 kilometers from shore) – to enable meaningful enforcement of existing laws and regulations. Policy 8. Stop, discourage and penalize methods of ‘artificial aggregative’ fishing within 10 kilometers from shore, e.g.154
  • 188. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) ‘light course fishing’ – to enable meaningful enforcement of existing laws and regulations.Land developmentPolicy 9. Progressively zone and demarcate all coastal land with the goal of enrolling coastal communities, who are losing economic opportunities in ‘traditional practices’, to benefit from new opportunities based on community tenure rights to common property resources (CPRs).Participation in DevelopmentPolicy 10. Promote participation of coastal communities in development decisions based on their own economic interests, and sharing of coastal resources by way of political advocacy and lobbying, without becoming dependent upon political and corporate patronage that fragment coastal ecosystems.Education and AwarenessPolicy 11. Educate and create awareness at all levels about coastal ecosystems based on their actual geographic character, vulnerability and low resilience, and potential contribution to local economic growth.Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)Policy 12. Promote commitment to achievement of the MDGs at the level of Provincial Councils with particular focus on MDG 7: Ensure environmental sustainability.Disaster Management and Hazard MitigationPolicy 13. ‘Vulnerability’ and ‘risk’ assessments and maps must set the foundation for land use interventions related to hazard mitigation and adaptation to impacts of global climate change, and be clearly directed at enhanced resilience of local communities. 155
  • 189. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Policy 14. All interventions that seek to mitigate hazards must be accountable for long-term consequences and receive certification by the CDM and local authorities so that ‘risk’ will not be increased as an unintended consequence (negative externality). 3.3 Strategic Action Plan (SAP) The national priorities identified through a process of studying trends and collective analysis of consequences established the foundation for the NSAP (Table 14). The contributions from the national and regional processes are presented in Section 3.6. Table 14. Strategic action plan (SAP) in the MFF Strategic Framework format- Programmes of work, actions/outputs and contribution to results. Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work Results ACTIONS TO BUILD KNOWLEDGE 1. Improving the 1.1 Redefine and map coastal ecosystems using R Developing knowledge base for geological (paleogeographic) criteria to reveal regional networks coastal planning, ‘habitats’ as parts of ecosystems: on processes policy and - Build awareness through media addressing which demonstrate management existing decline in productivity of coastal integrated habitats as an economic and socio-cultural ecosystem- Sri Lankan reality: based coastal problem. Limited knowledge development about the actual (e.g. Kung 1.1.1 Prepare an ‘Atlas of Coastal Ecosystems’ state of ecosystem Kraben Bay Royal linked to a GIS database by way of inter- trends. Development disciplinary study including: Three boundaries: Study Center, Problems: Thailand, others). A. Misconception - Area encompassed by the definitive character Acquiring greater of ecosystem of an ecosystem (e.g. water surface area of an participation from development and estuary); the SAARC ICM evolution & CZM - Wider social environment (immediate impact Centre. practiced more area where a majority of resource users as conservation dependent upon natural productivity reside); N1.3 Realistic rather than a - Watershed. appreciation of development Demography: the limitations process. Livelihood - Population density, trend, migration. and opportunities aspects discounted. - Land use and ownership: for coastal - Especially land ownership by the state in the development. wider social environment.156
  • 190. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work ResultsB. A heavy burden Developmental history: C2.1 Coastalof unintended - Engineering, other interventions, their intended communityconsequences and unintended consequences. understanding of(negative opportunities for Development opportunities:externalities) attracting private - Indicative sites associated with the ecosystemof fragmented sector investment for diverse classes of investment.development and economic - Indicative positive and negative externalities;undermining uplift.ecosystem Hazard risk – based on quantitative coastalstructure and vulnerability and risk atlases P1.2 Privatefunctioning. Institutions and regulatory framework; sector awareness Climate change implications. of investmentC. Mismatch opportunities 1.2 Establish an interactive website linked to thebetween actual in coastal GIS database of the ‘Atlas of Coastal Ecosystems’structure and development for participatory acquisition of information,functioning of in partnership discussion of development topics, promotingcoastal ecosystems with coastal awareness on land assets and developmentand popular communities opportunities, and building communityperception whose equity awareness on the burden of unintendedresulting from contribution is consequences.confusion with traditional-usedcoastal habitats. 1.3 Establish a website supported with up- land to-date photos for interaction with theD. Absence media to maintain a flow of information onof integrated relevant problems and issues to generateinformation: sustained national attention. This wouldsociology, enable management of coastal ecosystemstopography, to be perceived as a ‘national problem’ sinceeconomics, politics, Sri Lanka is a ‘large island nation’ in whichdevelopmental coastal processes have implications for entireattributes of coastal catchments:ecosystems. - Enable advocacy based on strong technical informationE. Fragmentation ofprojects under the 1.4 Develop animated models (descriptiverubric ‘CZM’ which and mathematical) for key coastal ecosystems,is incompatible supported by research. The models willwith and harmful demonstrate progressive change in structure,to ecosystem functioning and economic value (e.g. topo-structure, chronological models, see Action 2.1). This mayfunctioning and be feasible immediately for Puttalam Lagoon,livelihood, e.g. Negombo Lagoon and Batticaloa Lagoon, whichunintegrated now display persistent and serious signs ofmangrove planting decline (eutrophication). These models are also needed for Programme of Work 3 (Reef-to-ridge decision making). 157
  • 191. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work Results F. Absence of a 1.5 Lobby for establishment of a ‘parliamentary unifying technical select committee’ (or some other mechanism foundation for which includes legislators) which would guide ICM based on policy based on knowledge transferred to the a definition of legislature from Actions 1.1 to 1.4. ecosystems - Create a ‘champion for ICM’ among legislators. 1.6 Initiate an ‘adult education’ short course in a university/universities to disseminate knowledge on ecosystem-based ICM using Sri Lankan case histories (including local language) supported by visual models to demonstrate long term trends. - Ecosystem change is always long-term – “creeping normalcy” requires to be addressed (section 2.8) 2. Designing 2.1 Review all development and restoration R1. Develop ecologically and work, completed or underway, and assess their a network socio-economically impacts: for regional sound coastal - on the definitive characteristics and comparison of ecosystem productivity of the ecosystem. e.g. in the case coastal ecosystem rehabilitation and of estuaries and lagoons, the assessment rehabilitation management. must focus on the long-term impact on the using actual case hydrological volume, tidal prism, tidal inlet histories (e.g. Problems: width, surface area, depths; Segara Anakan A. Gap in Cilacap, Indonesia, - in relation to scientific principles; perception etc,). - contribution to livelihood enhancement between of community and the next generation community C1.1 More (community perception); recognition of environmentally - applied governance principles including equity, significance of sustainable transparency, accountability, inclusiveness, coastal ecosystems livelihood among subsidiarity among others: to livelihood and aware coastal - potential for competitiveness of restored national coastal communities, productivity in globalized markets; managers/planners. dependent - relate actual costs e.g. Lunawa Lagoon Ecosystem on estuarine restoration to potential costs for other rehabilitation for fishery stock, estuarine ecosystems such as Negombo, whom? by preventing Puttalam, Batticaloa, Kokkilai, Nanthikadal, misplaced Jaffna before rehabilitation is attempted. rehabilitation 2.2 Conduct research (3 months) that can link to (particularly Action 1.1.1 and to 1.4, and provide analytical mangroves), which case histories for selected coastal ecosystems diminish fishery deserving of rehabilitation. The case histories stock. would reflect topographical change with time (topo-chronological models) and causes of change:158
  • 192. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work Results3. Provide decision 3.1 Establish a GIS database for coastal water R1. Developsupport for ridge- bodies and their catchments in the Eastern a networkto-reef approaches Province incorporating (see 1.1.1): for regionalto land resources - coastal geomorphology, comparison ofmanagement. - coastal development activity; coastal ecosystem - catchment land uses; managementProblems: - drainage pathways; using actualA. Increasing - pollution loads; case historiesfrequency of - flood scenarios; to demonstrateflooding in the - classification of sub-catchments based on risk, ‘ridge-to-reef’Eastern Province using participatory techniques to identify weak approaches (e.g.(perhaps linked to links; Segara Anakanclimate change?), - long-term predictive rainfall scenarios Cilacap, Indonesia;impeded drainage associated with climate change; Kung Kraben,and crop damage, Thailand, etc)increased social 3.2 Inventorize, map and classify all coastal and to assist inconflict predicted management (rehabilitation) projects within designing planningto aggravate particular catchments and sub-catchments, post-conflict based on implications for hydrological volumes N1.3 Including allinvestment in of associated estuaries and lagoons. political authoritiesdevelopment - Identify activities that impede drainage, assist (Provincialescalates. with redesigning and correcting inappropriate Councils, LGAs) interventions. and districtB. Failure torecognize land use - Identify engineering interventions required for administration& downstream maintaining drainage pathways and entrapment bureaucracies in of sediment. formulating policyobstructions to effectivelyto drainage 3.3 Promote and implement diverse manage theas interlinked interventions to enhance coral reefs as weakest links.and significantcontributors recreational viewing and ornamental fish C1.3 Inclusion ofto flooding of collection sites, in bays along the Southwestern rice farmers incropland. and Southern coastline, while engaging in land sub-catchments use planning in the catchments to mitigate most sensitive negative externalities that threaten coral health, to flooding and and to add value. linking them with land use planning 3.4 Develop land zoning and mitigating measures decisions. for reducing immediate land use impacts such as from coastal tourism on coral reef habitats in a P1. Enrolling manner mindful of carrying capacity. the support of private sector ‘rice industry’ interests in maintaining drainage infrastructure 159
  • 193. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work Results including adaptation to climate change. 4. Integrating 4.1 Develop ecosystem valuation models for coastal ecosystem diverse ecosystems. An appropriate model is economic values urgently required for a larger estuarine system, in development which accounts for impacts on linkages within a planning and catchment: appraisal. - sink value for catchment land uses (domestic Problems: and industrial effluent); A. The coastal - nursery function for the marine shrimp fishery; ecosystem - nutrient source for entrainment of small goods and pelagics; services acquire - flood protection; relatively marginal - amenity for urban property development; importance in - infrastructure for marine fishery; national economic - partnership building for shrimp culture, planning since tourism, etc. impacts of negative - etc. externalities are not included. 4.2 Land titling, land identification, and land allocation for landless coastal communities is B. Absence of ‘regarded’ as a necessary planning intervention valuation of coastal to address poverty. Valuation of land zoning, in ecosystems in the context of upmarket urbanization, may reveal the context of the manner in which economic drivers may be local government used to address poverty. authority (LGA) & Divisional Secretary Division (DSD) economies where significance is higher. C. Coastal resources dependent communities have acquired financial security through windfall profit from land sale associated with urbanization rather than from harvesting natural productivity.160
  • 194. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work Results5. Learning from 5.1 Evaluate development consequences of:the evaluation ofenvironmental (i) Beach ecosystem management (CCD/DANIDA;effects of coastal CCD/ADB/Dutch Aid);management (ii) Special area management (CCD/USAID; CCD/initiatives, including ADB/Dutch Aid)post-tsunami (iii) Muthurajawela Marsh-Negombo Lagoonresponse. IRMP (CEA/Dutch Aid)Problems: A key requirement for this evaluation ofA. The official coastal management, implemented over threeCCD outlook on decades, is more precise understanding of theCZM during the relationships to sustainable livelihood benefitspast two decades stemming from the management of coastalwas confined to a ecosystems, with particular regard to theirnarrow coastal belt contribution to:which excludedconsideration - empowering institutional aspects;of causes of - participation in development decisions;ecosystem - integrated land use and property rights;consequences. - entrainment of corporate social responsibility;The ‘big picture’continues to be 5.2 Develop guidelines on project planning andmissed. formulation for ecosystem-based ICM, whichB. Absence target contributions to livelihood enhancementof models for with clearly quantified baseline socio-economicecosystem-based indicators and predicted outcome from the(SES-based) ICM project.which incorporatelivelihood 5.3 Develop measures to integrate coastenhancement of protection and other engineering works,local communities implemented by CCD and other executingas planned, long- agencies of the MOF, into ecosystem-based EIA.term developmentoutcomes.C. Lack ofassessment of CZMas a developmentprocessincorporatinglivelihoodenhancement.Little learning fromexperience 161
  • 195. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work Results D. Absence of information on best economic allocation of resources in CZM. ACTIONS TO STRENGTHEN EMPOWERMENT 6. Promoting civil 6.1 Promote a nationwide media campaign on society awareness regional development opportunities linked with and participation coastal ecosystems and potential for economic in coastal decision growth supported by the MDGs, and accelerated making satisfaction of expectations of the 2004 tsunami victims. The campaign would highlight land use Sri Lankan reality: problems in sensitive watersheds, inappropriate Unorganized coastal land use and impeded drainage. The media communities campaign may promote a systematic long-term whose relatively study of flooding risk, based on probabilities small numbers are and consequences associated with climate ignored within the change, to build confidence on security to life existing political and property. This would link with Action 1.5 to power structure demonstrate the need for integration among except in urban national, provincial, LG authorities and relevant settings. bureaucracies focusing on policy. Problems: 6.2 Conduct studies on flooding risk for most A. Development sensitive catchments in the Eastern Province, planning based to highlight long-term adaptation measures on inadequate associated with increased flooding frequency understanding linked to climate change, identification of the of diversity, weakest links, safeguarding food security and the constraints and role of women. opportunities, and thereby fails 6.3 Conduct studies on integration of labour to acquire public force and land reforms (to mitigate land participation. fragmentation) to support economic activity based upon ecosystem-based ICM. Land reforms B. Inadequate may be based on the feasibility of collectively recognition of the owned property rights. Existing national policy relative smallness promotes labour migration (e.g. temporary of some of Sri foreign employment), while the civil conflict Lanka’s watersheds stimulates Tamil emigration. and coastal linkages, leading 6.4 Promote public awareness campaigns within to a fragmented coastal communities linked to development national outlook opportunities, to enable group organization, on coastal activism and lobbying to establish dialogue with management. LG authorities and national agencies.162
  • 196. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work ResultsC. Absence of 6.5 Generate a process of advocacy and activismpredictive studies related to multiple uses of coastal ecosystems.and management 6.6 Explore ways and means of promotingrecommendations gender rights especially along high riskon flooding risks (hazard vulnerability) areas – learn fromfor sensitive the marginalization of women in relief,catchments. reconstruction and rehabilitationD. Diminishing 6.7 Promote learning from ‘best practices’ inlabour force to ecosystem utilization by way of study economicactivities based onecosystem basedICM.7. Building the 7.1 Initiate a university-based trainingcapacity of programme for imparting skills in ecosystem-professional coastal based planning and adaptive management. Thismanagers for would include mainly ‘training of trainers’ withintegrated coastal the support of regional expertise. The trainedmanagement. coastal managers would possess:Sri Lanka has a - a understanding of ecosystem structure andsubstantial number functioning;of internationally - skills to apply adaptive managementtrained coastal techniques;managers, - field mapping skills including techniques ofespecially in the quantitative field survey techniques;CCD. - skills to apply GIS to decision making; - modeling (descriptive and mathematical);Problems: - research.A. Inadequateskills among the 7.2 Establish Coastal Planning & Research Unitsprofessional coastal (CPRUs) at Eastern, Southeastern, Ruhuna,managers to Colombo, Sri Jayawardenapura, Kelaniya andapply ecosystem- Jaffna University to serve in collaborative trainingbased planning and as the sources (public domain repositories)and adaptive of technical information for central and regionalmanagement planning.techniques. 7.3 Build capacity of coastal community leadersB. Lack of a to access public domain information, andmapped knowledge professional coastal managers in promotingbase for training sustainable development through lobbying andprofessional coastal political activism.managers (seeProgramme ofWork No. 1) 163
  • 197. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work Results 8. Supporting 8.1 Initiate an awareness and motivation environmentally campaign, to re-orient career expectations sustainable and urban migration of the youthful segment livelihoods of coastal communities, and urge them to among coastal seek sustainable livelihood based on effective communities management of coastal ecosystems. This would include: Problems: A. Mismatch - engaging in political activism to induce the between parental government and its corporate partners to career expectation strengthen interventions for achieving the for their children, MDGs (also see Action 6.3); youth expectation - analysis of livelihood rights issues, particularly and assumptions in relation to land. of coastal planners 8.2 Promote research through the CPRUs to fill (national and information gaps (see Action 7.2). international). 8.3 Inventorize regional examples and case B. Absence histories on policies and measures that have of research arrested the exiting emigration trend from information coastal (rural) settings to locations with lucrative on career employment. How may economic choices expectations of be influenced in an economically globalized coastal community environment. members. 8.4 Formulate a process to licence fishing, C. Absence closing access to the MCV and transferring of planning collective property rights to coastal fishers, information on the despite interventions that have resulted in a vast land opportunities, increase in coastal fishing effort through post- investment tsunami relief and rehabilitation. requirements, infrastructure, 8.5 Establish land use zoning, collective policies and labour property rights to tidal flats and investment in force expectations infrastructure to develop coastal aquaculture that would by way of P-P partnerships, in keeping with make livelihood corporate social responsibility (CSR). sustainable. 9. Improving 9.1 Complete the analysis of data collected community during the MOENR/UNEP ‘Rapid assessment resilience to natural of the impact of the 2004 tsunami on coastal disasters ecosystems’ and prepare a preliminary ‘Atlas of Coastal Vulnerability – Negombo to Keerimalai’. This would provide a scientific basis for constructing Coastal Vulnerability Indices (CVIs) and risk maps.164
  • 198. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work ResultsProblems: 9.1.1 Then train communities located at sites with higher CVIs to explore the 4 factors thatA. Absence contribute to resilience:of scientificinformation - robustness of infrastructure;on the relative - resourcefulness;exposure of coastal - rapid recovery – doing things quickly to getcommunities to back on their feet;multiple hazards. - absorb lessons learnt including shifting to safer locations.B. The lack ofself-confidencewithin an ‘at risk’coastal communityto bounce backthrough organizedself-help10. Identifying 10.1 Implement land titling and other propertysustainable rights programmes that would preventfinancing expropriation of coastal common propertymechanisms for resources (CPRs) now belonging to the state.coastal ecosystemconservation 10.2 Establish a legal assistance entity to enable public interest litigation to safeguardProblems: common property resources and to prevent landA. Coastal expropriation.communities lackassets to enter into 10.3 Support land surveys to identify andP-P partnerships demarcate common property resources forto engage in inclusion in the Finalized Village Plans (FVPs).sustainable 10.4 Train coastal communities to preparefinancing bankable business plans for sustainablemechanisms such development of coastal resources, where a longas eco-tourism term lease of common property land resourcescenters (CPR) would be their equity contribution.B. Coastal land usedecision making ispredominantly withthe state althoughthe constitutionprovides for‘traditional use’community rightsof commonproperty resources(CPRs). 165
  • 199. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work Results ACTIONS TO ENHANCE GOVERNANCE 11. Supporting 11.1 Assess regulatory institutions and their N1.1 Clarity in national interrelations, especially to identify the ‘weak the institutional integrated coastal links’ in law enforcement, supported by actual weaknesses management case histories to demonstrate positive and that need programmes negative consequences. This would reveal: strengthening to support balanced Sri Lankan reality: - sectoral conflicts; and transparent Exclusion of coastal - deficiencies in the law; law enforcement. communities - relationship among power structures; from meaningful - mechanisms for acquiring transparency and N1.2 Strengthened developmental accountability. alliances and decision making procedures 11.2 Raise awareness at the coastal community coupled with biased to improve level, to reveal the consequences of weak law law enforcement. environmental law enforcement, and of the steps to be taken Problems: enforcement and individually and collectively to safeguard against compliance. negative externalities on coastal ecosystems. This A. Regulatory and should lead to: C1. Organized law enforcement - public interest litigation leading to development political activist mandates cells that can link of case law; fragmented with media to gain - prevention of land expropriation; among separate public attention - public attention on livelihoods. government agencies and out of 11.3 Support for media campaigns based on the step with ecological technical aspects of ecosystem decline stemming processes from weak law enforcement and improper land use. 12. Strengthening 12.1 Land reforms and collective property rights the integration and to tidal flats for coastal aquaculture. enforcement of environmental and social safeguards in coastal land use planning 13. Building Based on regional national systems of intervention marine and coastal protected areas that contribute to a regional network 14. Promoting 14.1 Comprehensive participatory assessment of N2.1 Increased adaptive coastal the past interventions (Irrigation Department’s technical and management that salt exclusion and drainage ecological projects, methodological includes ongoing CCD/SAM processes, CEA/IRMP, NGO/iNGO support for166
  • 200. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Programme of Contribution to Actions/Outputs Work Resultsecological and interventions, ongoing ADB/ECCDP, post-tsunami practice of ICMsocio-economic rehabilitation projects) with the objective of: at all governanceassessment and levels.monitoring - synthesizing existing and new knowledge; - exploring alternative options; C2. StrengtheningProblem: - making explicit predictions of outcomes; the role of coastalRepetition - selecting ‘best practices’ for implementation; communitiesof similar and in participatoryinterventions - participatory monitoring to assess any CM without mismatch between predictions and outcomeslearning from past in order to make timely adjustments to futureexperience (doing plans.the same thingover and overand expecting adifferent result)15. Encouraging 15.1 Inventorize, map, identify ownership P2.1 Support forenvironmentally and classify all private sector entities (SMEs) ‘greening’ businesssustainable that are located in close proximity to coastal practices to bebusiness practices ecosystems, with the eventual objective of jointly managedin coastal areas acquiring adherence to the ‘triple bottom line’ with regulatory and application of corporate social responsibility. bodies.Problem: This would reveal the financial, technological and investment obstacles to comply with C2. EnhancementInability of majority environmental standards. of ‘watchdog’of SMEs to adhere responsibilityto environmental 15.2 Establish a funding mechanism, in of coastalstandards and collaboration with the respective business communities.retain profitability. chambers, to support business entities to comply with environmental standards. 15.3 Organize coastal communities to lobby against non-compliance by SMEs.3.4 Relationship between Planned Development and Coastal EcosystemsChapters 1 and 2 explained the process of changing over to ecosystem-based coastal resources management, the problems of coastal ecosystems,and their trends. The inferences were summarized at the conclusion ofChapter 2. Some major impacts on coastal ecosystems have stemmedfrom implementation of planned development while others flowedfrom unplanned, chaotic development (e.g. urbanization). Planningfor sustainable development implies adherence to four principles (Box 167
  • 201. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) 9). The coastal habitats and ecosystems are recognized as being in a state of decline (CCD, 2006). The relationship between outcomes of some planned development and the planning principles is examined in Table 15. Non-adhgerence to one or more is revealed. Nevertheless, development opportunities also continue to exist. By implication then, the four planning principles need to be applied with care in order to achieve optimal development results. Faced with this reality, the legitimate question for planning is “… can anything be done to improve the situation …”? The answer is “… many things need to be done…”. The challenge for planning is to choose what is possible. In regard to choices, three (3) questions require answers. Box 9. Planning principles for sustainable development Four planning principles have been applied in ecosystem based integrated coastal management in Sri Lanka (Samarakoon & Van Zon, 1991; 1997) based on an extensive literature (Friend and Hickling, 1988; Faludi, 1987), namely: • Optimal utilization of development opportunity; • Equitable distribution of benefits from plan implementation; • Minimization of negative externalities; • Preventing adverse impacts on ecological structure and functioning. 3.4.1 Some Planning Questions and Answers Certain doubts and questions emerged during the discussions leading to the development of the NSAP. These are pertinent questions that warrant answers. The questions and answers are: Question 1: What can the country gain by investing in changing over from management of coastal habitats to management of coastal ecosystems, when there are other priorities? Answer: The change over will safeguard future development opportunities that would otherwise be lost forever. Question 2. Can the country afford it? Answer: The country is not in a position to invest on the scale required for comprehensive restoration and rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems. But it must find ways and means to stop their continuing decline (i) to retain present and168
  • 202. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) future developmental opportunities, (ii) to safeguard livelihoods of households with limited options. The country cannot afford not to make this investment.Question 3. By investing in coastal ecosystems can natural hazards be prevented, especially another disaster like ‘Tsunami 2004’?Answer: Sri Lanka cannot prevent adverse impacts of natural hazards by investing in coastal ecosystems. But it can certainly minimize the loss of life and property by integrating useful interventions that reduce exposure, vulnerability and risk by way of coastal ecosystem management. However, management measures must ensure that ‘risk’ is not increased as an unintended consequence of human behaviour, particularly interventions by external agents, based solely on good intentions. Strong technical arguments must support all interventions. In regards to the probability of the next tsunami arising from a Sumatran Megathrust Fault subduction see section ValidationThe answers above are briefly validated in relation to emergingdevelopment opportunities and actual costs incurred in ecosystemrestoration (Table 16). A feasible option for Sri Lanka is to focus onpreventing the further decline of coastal ecosystems to ensure that theirresources retain development potential for the present and the future.3.5 Development OpportunitiesMany opportunities exist and they are recognized in national developmentplans, e.g. fisheries, aquaculture, tourism (MOF, 2007; Ceylon TouristBoard, 2007). Coastal tourism and aquaculture offer immense scope fordevelopment, and both sectors depend on the sustainable functioningof the relevant coastal ecosystems. Private sector participation inpublic-private-community (P-P-C) investment programmes is feasiblebased on appropriate incentives and environmental safeguards againstthe downward spiral that is usually associated with global markets.Appropriately planned, location specific integrated ICM is the key. 169
  • 203. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Table 15. The present condition of the coastal ecosystems as an outcome of planned development in the past. The existing potential for development is indicated under remarks (Key: X – the observed state; Y – continuing availability). State of the Ecosystem and its Development Potential Coastal Ecosystem Intense Decline Development Improved potential Decline Stable Remarks on Relationship to Planning Principles & Development Opportunities Productivity declined since the mid-1960. Poverty of populations dependent on traditional fishing increased. Post-tsunami relief aggravated existing stresses. Planned MCZ X Y rationalization of resource use is feasible based on tenure rights. Fishery modernization ignored equity, prevention of negative externalities and adverse environmental impacts. Balanced planning required for optimal results in future. Broadly as in the case of the MCZ. Entrapment of pollution Bays X Y from land-based sources including tourist infrastructure, and inadequately managed fishing infrastructure. Erosion along the most sensitive coastlines is now under control. Erosion caused mainly by negative externalities and absence of equity. Competition for unintegrated beach development for tourism is likely when peace returns. Beaches X X X Y Contribution to human wellbeing and MDGs feasible with P- P-C partnerships. Most tourism infrastructure development ignored equity, prevention of negative externalities and adverse environmental consequences. Balanced planning could optimize development opportunities. All planning principles ignored. Productivity decline from pollution severe. Potential exists for small scale aquaculture combined with improved hydrodynamics. Tidal inlet Estuaries X X Y management as in Negombo Lagoon could contribute to improved flusing of pollutants and sediment. Linkage to MCZ requires safeguards. Planning principles ignored. Productivity increases possible only with massive restoration. Unpredictable consequences Lagoons X X Y for sustainable hydrodynamic improvement. Tourism and aquaculture opportunities exist on the basis of P-P-C partnerships. Can ‘Lunawa Restoration’ be replicated? Settlements on dunes ignored planning principles. Sand extraction from dunes in Jaffna feasible based on sound management. Mineral mining in dunes may be possible. Dunes X X Y Dune tourism holds promise. The mature dunes (Pleistocene & early Holocene) are effective barriers against hazards. Incipient and immature dunes increase risk. Illegal sand mining on the increase. The decline is confined to Northwestern Province. Planned development based on planning principles has potential Tidal X X X Y to contribute both to the national economy and to rural Flats poverty reduction. Equity considerations and participatory planning needed.170
  • 204. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP)The existing socio-economic position of essentially rural, coastalpopulations in Sri Lanka (World Bank, 2007) justifies the need forsafeguarding the productivity of ecosystems on which their livelihoodpartially depends. Since the general decline of coastal ecosystems isacknowledged the feasibility of investing in ecosystem restoration andrehabilitation is commonly suggested. However, the economics ofrestoration are not given serious consideration when suggestions aremade (Table 16). Unrealistic optimism prevails.3.5.1 Ecosystem Restoration & RehabilitationThe extent of coastal ecosystem restoration and rehabilitation possiblemay be assessed from actual experience (Table 16). Significant investmentsin coastal ecosystem restoration and rehabilitation in Sri Lanka havebeen made with bilateral aid, or multilateral bank loans co-financedwith bilateral aid. The scale on which bilateral aid was previouslyavailable may not be forthcoming in the future (Reality of Aid, 2004).A very rough calculation of investment required for restoration andrehabilitation of lagoons and estuaries based upon the actual per hectarecost for Lunawa Lagoon (27 ha) is possible (ADB, 2008). Lunawa cost isRs. 130,000 per ha. The investment required on this basis for restorationof three coastal ecosystems (viz. Batticaloa Lagoon - about 40,000 ha),Negombo Lagoon - about 3,000 ha, and Puttalam Lagoon – about 40,000ha) may exceed the total amount of foreign assistance (multilateralbank loans and bilateral aid) received by Sri Lanka in 2002 (CentralBank, 2004). Therefore investment in ecosystem restoration is a highlyillusive proposition. However, numerous well planned, site-specific,interventions are feasible to slow down the existing decline trends untilfavorable conditions return for increased investment on a cost recoverybasis. 171
  • 205. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Table 16. Indicative costs of a range of interventions related to ecosystem-based ICM, spanning a period of three decades Ecosystem Cost-Rs Period Activities Remarks Class million Positive MCZ -- No experience -- externality from DANIDA project Bays -- No experience -- Beach restoration, offshore Bilateral aid Beaches 1986-1988 breakwaters, sand 200 under DANIDA. nourishment at Negombo. Strategic ecosystem-based Dutch bilateral plan preparation for aid. Muthurajawela Marsh and GOSL 1989/1991 Negombo Lagoon, including 3.8 logistics and mapping and technical infrastructure studies, Kerawalapitiya land support development Estuaries (barrier-built Participatory conservation estuaries) management planning for Muthurajawela Marsh - Dutch bilateral 1993-2003 Negombo Lagoon Conservation 225 aid Zone plan implementation (CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult, 2003) SAM implementation for ADB loan/Dutch 2002-2006 200? Negombo Lagoon (ADB, 2007) aid co-financing Special area management Bilateral aid 1991/1997 ? (SAM) for Rekawa Lagoon (USAID) Lagoons Madu Ganga Lagoon, etc. (ADB, ADB loan/Dutch 2002-2006 ? 2007) aid co-financing Lunawa Lagoon restoration 2002-2008 500 ADB loan (not tidal inlet) Dune stabilization through Dunes 1970s afforestation: Hambanthota, ? Manalkadu (Jaffna) Tidal Flats -- No experience -- 3.6 Background to the National Strategic Action Plan The NSAP was developed from three independent but inter-related activities (Table 17). The national and regional contributions are summarized in Table 18.172
  • 206. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP)Table 17. The NSAP development process (i) National study and consultation • An analysis of the existing situation and trends pertaining to Sri Lanka’s coastal ecosystems; • A consultation process to assess and prioritize the findings. (ii) Regional studies and consultation The regional studies focused mainly on • Gaps in knowledge required for coastal management; • Simple ecosystem valuation tools; • Training needs; • Sustainable funding mechanisms; • Institutional mechanisms required for sustainable governance; and • Role of and expansion of protected areas. (iii) Integration Combining findings from (i) and (ii) above in consultation with the NSC.Table 18. The fifteen (15) MFF Programmes of Work (PoWs) and the requisite contributions at the national and regional levels. PoW National Priority Regional Contribution Remarks 1. Improving the • Redefine coastal • Exchange • Media knowledge base ecosystems programmes to support is a for ICM • Develop guiding better understand cross-cutting framework to support ‘reef-to-ridge’ priority for all integrated ‘project’ land management aspects of ICM planning (e.g. Kung Kraben, • Capacity building with Thailand); ecosystem knowledge restoration (e.g. • Action, supported Segara Anakan by science, to arrest Cilacap, Indonesia) degradation • Strengthen CCD • Clear benefits to poor as focal agency for communities ICM awareness & • Knowledge education development at local level for ‘income’ enhancement • Strengthen CBOs with livelihood- based knowledge • Strengthen awareness among legislators • Media support 2. Designing • Free ICM from the • Exchange ecologically & ‘business as usual’ programmes to socio- project approach observe ecosystem 173
  • 207. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) PoW National Priority Regional Contribution Remarks economically • Categorize project restoration (also sound targets into short, under PoW1) rehabilitation medium and long term for coherent ICM • Media support • Regional exchange 3. Promoting programmes to decision support better understand for ‘reef-to- ‘reef-to-ridge’ land ridge’ land management (see management PoW1) • Strengthen • Exercise community 4. Integrating existing capacity political power to ecosystem with standardized promote incorporation economic valuation tools in the of ecosystem values values into Sri Lankan context, into development plans development enable calibration • Prevent expropriation planning & and standardization of CPRs by elites appraisal of values from • Media support individual studies 5. Learning from • Assessment of all • Develop assessment • Vulnerability environmental ecosystem-based CM models for climate and risk effects of interventions of CCD change related atlases are CM including and CEA hazards already being post-tsunami • Support fine tuning planned response of vulnerability and based on risk atlases tsunami- impact, geo- referenced baseline data 6. Promoting • Provide adequate • Communication civil society longevity to ICM strategy meaningful awareness and institutions, at all levels in local context participation in • Exercise community coastal decision- political power to making promote incorporation of ecosystem values into development plans • Prevent expropriation of CPRs by elites 7. Building • Strengthen law • Exchange capacity of enforcement and programmes for professional ‘moral competence’ of learning from actual174
  • 208. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) PoW National Priority Regional Contribution Remarkscoastal bureaucrats case studies (alsomanagers for • Provide adequate under PoW1)ICM longevity to ICM institutions, at all levels • Strengthen ‘rule of law’ through balanced law enforcement8. Supporting • NSC to ensure • Strengthen SGF and • Gender issuesenvironmentally incorporation of larger projects clearly are wellsustainable livelihood aspects aligned with poverty addressed andlivelihoods • Promote tenure rights reduction and MDGs supportedof coastal to CPRs withcommunities • Provide adequate legislation or longevity to ICM incorporation institutions at all levels into ICM.9. Improving • Disaster management • Strengthen Disastercommunity measures incorporated Management Centerresilience to into ICM and linked agenciesnatural disasters in hazard prediction and knowledge dissemination10. Sustainable • Develop financing • Enable best value tofinancing mechanisms for the be obtained frommechanisms for long term (including seed money investedICM community equity) by GOSL for P-P • Conduct audits to partnerships ensure transparency at • Mechanisms for national, regional and establishing business local levels partnerships with community tenure rights as equity investment11. Supporting • Media support • Support for CCDnational ICM in inter-agencyprogrammes collaboration in ICM, including law enforcement for safeguarding ecosystem structure and productivity 175
  • 209. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) PoW National Priority Regional Contribution Remarks 12. • Zoning of ecosystems • Support for Strengthening • Mapping to reveal institutional integration and externalities (positive integration in enforcement of & negative) to support ICM including environmental integrated land use law enforcement and social • Incorporate for safeguarding safeguards in archeological sites in ecosystem structure coastal land use land use plans and productivity planning • Link available • Strengthen civil information at Survey society as ‘coastal Department to environmental community-based land watchdog’ management as CPRs • Promote tenure rights to CPRs 13. Building • Potential MCPA national systems definition based upon of MCPAs that coastal ecosystems in contribute Sri Lankan context to regional networks 14. Promote • Provide adequate adaptive CM longevity to ICM that include institutions, at all levels ongoing • Media support ecological and socio-economic assessments 15. Encourage • Media support as • Support Sri Lanka environmentally ‘watchdog’ to showcase sustainable achievements in business building private practices in sector partnerships coastal areas in coastal environmental management 3.6.1 National Studies Chapter 1: Introduction and Chapter 2: Existing Situation and Trends, provide the national background to the NSAP. The NSAP is designed to be read and understood independently of Chapter 2, as explained in176
  • 210. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP)the Introduction. However, comprehensive understanding rests uponthe real evidence from the field and the technical reasoning provided inChapter 2. The issues addressed in the NSAP are cross referred to therelevant sections in Chapter 2. The Executive Summary would facilitateunderstanding the NSAP. It includes the planning caveats containedin the Introduction. The planning caveats themselves are drawn fromrelevant field experience in Sri Lanka and from international experience.The drafting of the NSAP was supported by highly experiencedspecialists who guided the development of the draft at a NationalWorkshop convened on 19th November 2007.3.6.2 National Workshop – 19 November 2007The initial draft of the NSAP was discussed at the national workshopconvened on 19 November 2007. The list of participants is provided inAnnex 5. They focused attention on Chapter 3: The NSAP. The analysisof the draft NSAP was preceded by a presentation which drew onthe contents of Chapter 2: Existing Situation and Trends. Little or nomajor disagreement emerged in relation to the content of this overviewpresentation which focused on: • ICM as a development process • The emergence of winners and losers in the major coastal resources-based development projects, implemented in diverse sectors during the past about four decades, and the rarity of coastal communities being the long-term winners • The significance of the very high level of professional skill and technical knowledge of ICM in Sri Lanka and its potential contribution to balancing decisions between the public interest and demands of politically motivated decision-makers.3.7 ImplementationThe NSAP is oriented to national needs pertaining to the structureand functioning of coastal ecosystems. The strategic content of Table14 must be interpreted and translated into tactical action plans forimplementation through participation at the provincial and ecosystemlevel. 177
  • 211. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) 3.7.1 Participation Participation and transparent decision making are the most important factors that will contribute towards meaningful ecosystem-based ICM. The guiding principles at the tactical level are: • Do no harm • Ensure there are no losers • Adhere to the ‘subsidiarity principle’ The Sri Lankan coastal communities have been progressively dulled by the many proffered promises by diverse political leaderships, government agencies, NGOs and CBOs (CEA/Arcadis-Euroconsult, 2003). Therefore every effort to engender participation is met with cynicism and the practical question ‘what’s in it for me’. Commitment to the common good is rare and difficult to draw on. Special interests tend to dominate in the guise of genuineness. Therefore slow progression based on awareness and education is desirable. The responsibility for ecosystem-based development must be made the responsibility of the stakeholders. A carefully planned process of stakeholder identification is a practical first step for the implementing agencies (Figure 28). Figure 28. The planning process from the strategic to the tactical level,,leading to implementation. Planning at the tactical level has to be precise and linked to results and indicators by way of logical framework analysis. Studies - Trends STRATEGIC LEVEL Policies Strategies Adaptation to Regional Diversity (Provincial) TACTICAL LEVEL Designing for Ecosystem Sites Ecosystem Wider Environment Institutions Regional Global178
  • 212. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP)Participation requires a combination of interventions, includingmobilization of financial resources and commitment by local populationsto management of coastal ecosystems, in their own self-interest as wellas shared interests. This process requires cooperation among facilitatingand funding agencies as well as catalysts (Figure 29). Good governancerequires that the principle of subsidiarity be upheld – the idea that alarger and greater body at the center should perform only those tasksthat cannot be performed at a more immediate and local level. Decisionsthereby become anchored in consultation and consensus – the foundationfor committed action.3.8 Monitoring & Evaluation Strategy: Learning and AdaptingMonitoring and evaluation of the consequences of the management ofcoastal ecosystems, and the manner in which decision makers and coastalmanagers use that information, will determine success or failure of theNSAP. The information from monitoring and evaluation may pass intoa document that remains unused and thus become useless history. Or thesame information may be used as an opportunity for extracting lessonsfrom actual experience, and for applying them towards improvingfuture endeavour. The latter constitutes learning and adapting and servesas a tribute to the continuing effort of human beings to enhance theirwellbeing (see Annex 1, MFF Programme of Work No. 14).Selecting appropriate indicators is key to meaningful monitoring andevaluation (Table 19). Carefully selected and measured indicators revealthe manner in which coastal ecosystems contribute, as developmentinfrastructure for human wellbeing. The most appropriate approach toselect indicators is to prepare ‘causal models’ for the site targeted for theNSAP activities. Chapter 2 provides an example of a causal model (Figure23) which enables identification of the key indicators for monitoring.Brief reflection on the ICM learning cycle (Figure 30) sets the foundationfor the NSAP monitoring and evaluation strategy. When the ICMlearning cycle is in harmony with the corresponding policy cycle (Figure30), the purpose of learning, and implications for coastal governancebecomes clearer (Olsen, 2003). The distinction between governance,government and management becomes necessary here: 179
  • 213. 180 Figure 29. The process and content of participation in developing an ecosystem based ICM plan. The participation of government institutions provides cohesion. Initiation of NSAP implementation may be supported by grant funds from the MFF Programme. The ‘subsidiarity principle’ will be essential based on awareness and training and multi-sectoral integration supported by maps and models. FACILITATING & ICM PROCESS – ISLAND ECOSYSEM CATALYSTS FUNDING AGEN- CIES PARTICIPATION Resources: Will + Organization + Capacity* Provincial Council; local authority, line agencies (CCD, DFAR, NAQDA, MFF Small Grant GSMB, TB, CEA, UDA, etc.) funds, THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) & Large Grant Awareness building on ecosystem-based ICM & benefits technical skills, community Fund; IUCN Private organization, maps, training, goal Sector Programme setting, strategizing, facilitating, – process initiation negotiating, legitimizing, planning, Engagement of all ecosystem organizations in problem analysis gender issues; modeling coastal processes and climate-related scenarios Organizational representation at key decision making fora – draft plan GOSL, CCD, & development development Public Interest Issues partner funding •Map-based negotiation •Cadastral maps Advocacy and lobbying – public interest issues: expression of power •CPR boundaries – linking to provincial council & parliament •Property/tenure rights to CPR •Litigation – case law Other External •MDGs Agents: State Mobilization of financial resources: Provincial Administration •NAPA, institutions; •Learning and adapting NGOs; aid •Group insurance •Action research, Solutions: search for best practices
  • 214. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP)Governance: Governance is the process by which human societiesnegotiate the purpose, the rules and procedures by which they regulatetheir activities and distribute power, access to resources, and wealth. Allgovernance systems are driven by the values that reflect what a societybelieves to be important (Olsen, 2003). In its simplest form, governanceis the process of decision-making (Lamy, 2006). The participation of allstakeholders including civil society, not only government, is needed toachieve balanced governance of coastal ecosystems.Government: Government pertains to the administration and enforcementof laws, rules and regulations. Thus, government may or may not beequitable depending on the manner in which decisions are made by thosein positions of responsibility. Decisions may or may not be inclusive.Management: Management is the process by which human and materialresources are harnessed to achieve a known goal within a knowninstitutional structure. Governance sets the stage in which managementoccurs by defining or re-defining the fundamental objectives, policies, lawsand institutions by which societal issues are addressed (Olsen, 2003). Figure 30. The learning cycle associated with ecosystem-based ICM that establishes the foundation for adaptive management is best viewed in relation to the ICM policy cycle. The sequence of numbers reflect comparable behavioural attributes that may be associated with decision makers, coastal managers and stakeholders responsible who participate in each step (Olsen, 2003). Learning is inextricably linked to monitoring and evaluation. See text for explanation. 181
  • 215. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Table 19. Indicators that require monitoring, evaluation and measurement in an ecosystem- based ICM process (adapted from Olsen, 2003) Step Indicators Step 1: Issue • Principal environmental, social and institutional concerns and their identification implications assessed. and assessment • Major stakeholders and their interests identified • Issues upon which the ICM initiative will focus its efforts selected • Goals of the ICM initiative defined • Stakeholders actively involved in the assessment and goal setting process Step 2: Plan • Scientific research on selected management questions conducted preparation • Boundaries of the areas to be managed defined • Baseline conditions documented • Action plan and institutional framework by which it will be implemented defined • Institutional capacity for implementation being developed • Second order behavioural change strategies at pilot scales tested • Stakeholders actively involved in planning and pilot project activities Step 3: Formal • Policies/plan formally endorsed and authority necessary for their plan adoption implementation provided & funding • Funding required for programme implementation obtained Step 4: • Behaviour of strategic partners monitored, strategies adjusted Implementation • Social/ecosystem trends monitored and interpreted • Investments in necessary infrastructure made • Progress and attainment of Third Order outcomes documented • Partcipation of major stakeholder groups sustained • Constituencies, authorities and funding sustained • Program learning and adaptations documented Step 5: Self • Program outcomes documented assessment • Management issues reassessed and external • Priorities and policies adjusted to reflect experience and changing evaluation social & environmental conditions • External evaluation conducted at junctures in the program’s evolution • New issues or areas for inclusion in the program identified 3.9 Compatibility with CZMP 2004 The MFF Strategic Framework and implementation programme in Sri Lanka supports the inter-sectoral mechanisms for integrated coastal zone management through the Coast Conservation Department182
  • 216. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP)( The NSAP execution is by the NationalSteering Committee (NSC) convened by the Ministry of Environmentand Natural Resources (MENR). The Coast Conservation Department(CCD) is a pivotal member of the NSC. The NSAP was developed inconsultation with the CCD and in harmony with CZMP 2004 (CCD,2006). The intervention areas and actions that constitute the CZMP2004, and their compatibility with the NSAP are presented in Table 20.Close collaboration of the partners implementing the projects supportedby the Small Grants Fund (SGF) and the Large Grants Fund (LGF), willensure that the activities support the goals and objectives of the CCD.An important principle under which the NSAP operates (Policy 1) isintegration with existing and future SAM processes.3.10 ConclusionThe NSAP has established the primary foundation for embarkingon ecosystem-based integrated coastal management (ICM). Chapter1 portrayed the high level of complexity of Sri Lanka’s coastalecosystems. Accordingly, it stressed the need to depart partially fromthe habitat-based approach of the CZMPs (CCD, 2006) and outlineda broad framework to address the complex socio-ecological issues,including aspects of climate change. Chapter 2 defined the structure andfunctioning of the coastal ecosystems and their use trends. Chapter 3proposed policies and strategies that are required to begin the journey insearch of sustainable development of coastal ecosystems as developmentinfrastructure. Implementation of strategies in the NSAP, which are inharmony with CCD’s CZMPs, would be only the beginning to slow thecontinuing trends of damage. Implementation requires careful planningat the local level with the fullest participation of local communities,based on principles of subsidiarity and good governance. 183
  • 217. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Table 20. Compatibilty of the activities in the CZMP 2004 Action Plan (CCD, 2006) and the Programme of Work of the MFF NSAP (Key P - priority: H- high, M - moderate, L - low; T - time schedule: L – long term, M – medium term, S – short term). Remarks: Agencies Area Activity P T Compatibility Responsible with MFF NSAP 1. Coastal Erosion Management (Activities 1.2 – 1.10 omitted because of low relevant to the NSAP) 1.1 Study and identify the erosion trends and the critical erosion prone areas/sites Aims at long term H L CCD,; F&CC * and recommend appropriate protection stability measures Advocates 1.11 Collect and analyze data on climate monitoring risk MENR; CCD; change parameters to predict impact of M M factors, vulnerability Met. Dept. sea level rise on the coastal zone mapping and updating 2. Coastal Habitats 2.1 Identify causes of coral reef damage through research and investigation Views coral reefs as NARA; CCD; and implement mitigating measures to H S component of the IUCN; Unis preserve the reefs through inter-agency MCZ collaboration 2.2 Study the impact of water develop Included in ‘ridge-to- diversion/irrigation on estuaries and Irrigation M L reef’ programme of lagoons and develop mechanisms to Dept.; CCD work. integrate with watershed management Included as maintenance of 2.3. Survey and demarcate boundaries of DS; Survey hydrology, tidal estuaries and lagoons, set up reservations H S Dept.; CCD; volume, etc. & prevent encroachment, reclamation LB; F&CC Preparation of Ecosystem Atlas. Included within 2.4 Formulate and implement suitable ecosystem FD; CCD; management measures … conservation management H L IUCN; DS; and rehabilitation of mangrove areas, salt considering role in F&CC marshes and seagrass beds sedimentation. Salt marsh = tidal flats Attention drawn 2.5 Regulate development activities in to diversity in CCD, UDA, critical dune areas within framework of H M dune stability and LB, DS, F&CC 2004 setback boundaries precautions for mining184
  • 218. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Remarks: Agencies Area Activity P T Compatibility Responsible with MFF NSAP2.6 Manage, regulate – exploration & As above includingextraction of minerals and mineral sand GSMB, DS, H L mining trends infrom barrier beaches, spits and sand CCD, LB beach minerals.dunes Captured under2.7 Form management groups, protection interventionssocieties among dwellers on beaches DWLC, CCD, M M for communityetc., to prevent pollution & biodiversity NARA, IUCN empowerment forprotection ICM Indirectly addressed2.8 Conserve areas important as nesting DWLC, CCD, through communitysites of sea turtles in collaboration with M M NARA, IUCN empowerment forline agencies and communities ICM Fundamental2. Conduct awareness programmes CCD, NARA, programme offocused on coastal habitats targeting on H S IUCN, ED, work for buildingall stakeholder groups NGO knowledge base 3. Coastal Pollution3.1 Establish a coastal water quality Captured under CCD, CEA,data base to monitor water quality in environmentally M M MPPA,coastal waters and capture high pollution sustainable business NARA, Unis.incidents practices3.2 Promote formulation of effluent CCD, CEA,disposal standards and ensure M M - As above - NARA, Unis.compliance by developers3.3 Prepare plan for relocation ofpolluting industries, abatement of MI, CC, CEA, M L - As above -pollution, introduction of cleaner UDA, LB, DSproduction technologies3.4 Approval of new development CEA, CCD,activities will be based upon ambient M M - As above - NARA, Unis.water quality of the site Not directly3.5 Regulate disposal of solid waste MENR, CCD, addressed, includedencouraging the use of environmentally H S CEA, LB in sustainablesound and economically gainful ways business practices.3.6. Reduce pollution of ground water WRB, CCD, H S - As above -with inter-agency collaboration NWSDB 185
  • 219. THE NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN (NSAP) Remarks: Agencies Area Activity P T Compatibility Responsible with MFF NSAP Fundamental CEA, CCD, 3.7 Conduct education and awareness on programme of M M NARA, pollution and abatement work – building Unis,ED knowledge base 4. Archeological and Scenic Sites 4.1 to 4.5 Not addressed except indirectly where they constitute components of ecosystems 5. Coastal Fisheries & Aquaculture (Activities 5.4, 5.6 omitted because of low relevant to the NSAP) Incorporated as DFAR, NARA, highly significant for 5.1 Measures to reduce threats to NAQDA, MCZ and brackish biodiversity & damage to habitats, and H L CCD, F&CC, water bodies with environmental and resource user conflicts NGO, CBO focus on fisheries and livelihood Both directly and 5.2 Provide alternative livelihood, income DFAR, CCD, indirectly addressed enhancement, etc when adversely H L F&CC, PC as a cross-cutting affected by management measures area Captured under 5.3 Adequate infrastructure facilities at MFOR, DFAR, environmentally fish landing sites to minimize problems of H M CFHC, NARA, sustainable business pollution LB practices NAQDA, Addressed under CCD, MFOR, tidal flat ecosystems 5.5 Integrated programme for NARA, & sustainable rehabilitation of shrimp farming on an H S CEA, NEPC, business practices, environmentally sustainable basis in NW shrimp model building for farmers EPC MFOR, 5.7 Introduction of sustainable shrimp NAQDA, H L - As above - farming to new areas NARA, CCD, CEA, PC 6. Special Area Management 6.1 – 6.5 Support for special area management (SAM) is a priority, cross cutting theme across several programmes of work. MFF small grants and large grant projects are encouraged to integrate with CCD’s SAM site activities. Collaboration with SAM Development Committees and multiple agencies including private sector186
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  • 236. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHYSri Lanka Survey Department (1982) The National Atlas of Sri Lanka.Sri Lanka Survey Department (2007) The National Atlas of Sri Lanka (2nd Edition).Stiglitz, J (2004) Globalization and Its Discontents. Penguin, LondonStiglitz, J (2007) Making Globalization Work. Penguin, LondonStirrat, R L (1988) On The Beach: Fishermen, Fishwives and Fishtraders in Post-Colonial Sri Lanka. Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Delhi.Swan, B (1983) Coastal Geomorphology of Sri Lanka. Museum Publications, Colombo.Swan, B (1987) Sri Lanka Mosaic: environment, man, continuity and change. Marga Publications, Colombo.Tennakoon A (1982) South West coast drainage and land reclamation project: An assessment of results. Research Study No. 54. Agriculture Research and Training Institute, Colombo.Thiele, M T, R B Pollnac & P Christie (2005) Relationships between coastal tourism and ICM sustainability in the central Visayas region of the Philippines. Ocean & Coastal Management 48:378–392.UNDP-Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor (2008) Making the Law Work for Everyone. ( legalempowerment/ report/index.html).Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Chapter 9: Changes in Ecosystem Services across the Scenarios ( documents/document.333.aspx.pdf).UNEP/MENR (2005 a) Sri Lanka National Report on the Tsunami Impact. UNEP Geneva.UNEP & MENR (2005b) Sri Lanka: Post-Tsunami Environmental Assessment. UNEP (Geneva, Switzerland) in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, ColomboUniversity of Moratuwa (1994) Sedimentation in the Negombo Lagoon Outlet. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa. 203
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  • 238. ANNEXES Annex 1 The Mangroves for the Future (MFF) Strategic Implementation Framework GOAL Conserve and restore coastal ecosystems as key assets which support human well-being and security in the Indian Ocean Region OBJECTIVESStrategic Level Strengthen the environmental sustainability Promote the investment of funds and effort of coastal development in coastal ecosystem management RESULT AREAS Regional National Private sector Community cooperation programmes engagement action PROGRAMMES OF WORK Build Knowledge Strengthen Empowerment Enhance Governance 1. Improving the knowledge 6. Promoting civil 11. Supporting national base for coastal planning, society awareness and integrated coastal policy and management participation in coastal management programmes decisionmaking 2. Designing ecologically 12. Strengthening the and socio-economically 7. Building the capacity integration and enforcementImplementation Level sound coastal of professional coastal of environmental and social rehabilitation anagers for integrated safeguards in coastal land coastal management use planning 3. Providing decision support for “reef to 8. Supporting 13. Building national systems ridge” approaches environmentally of marine and coastal to land and resource sustainable livelihoods protected areas that management among coastal contribute to a regional communities network 4. Integrating coastal ecosystem economic 9. Improving community 14. Promoting adaptive coastal values into evelopment resilience to natural management programmes planning and appraisal disasters that include ongoing ecological and socio- 5. Learning from evaluation 10. Identifying sustainable economic assessment and of the environmental financing mechanisms monitoring effects of coastal for coastal ecosystem management initiatives, conservation 15. Encouraging including the post- environmentally sustainable tsunami response business practices in coastal areas PROJECTS Strategic and implementation framework 205
  • 239. ANNEXES Annex 2 Laws Affecting Coastal Zone Management Main Status (CCD, 2006) Core statutes: • Coast Conservation Act No. 57 of 1981 (CCA 1981) • Coast Conservation (Amendment) Act No. 64 of 1988 (CCA 1988) Other key statutes: • Marine Pollution Prevention Act No. 59 of 1981 which provides for prevention, reduction and control of pollution in Sri Lankan waters and has provision for penal action for any form of marine pollution to live marine resources and wildlife. • The Fisheries and aquatic Resources Act No. 2 of 1966 which promotes measures for the integrated management, regulation, conservation and development of fisheries and aquatic resources in Sri Lanka, and enables declaration of fisheries reserves. • The National aquaculture Development Authority of Sri Lanka Act. No 53 of 1988 which set up the National Aquaculture Development Authority (NAQDA) to develop aquaculture and inland fisheries in Sri Lanka. • The National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency Act No. 54 of 1981 which set up the National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA) for research and research application work on all living and non- living aquatic resources for the development and management of the fisheries and ocean resources sector. • The fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance No. 2 of 1937, and subsequent amendments including Act No. 49 of 1993 which provides for six categories of Protected Areas – among which are a Marine Sanctuary and a Nature Reserve. The Act also has a provision to protect certain categories of animals and plants wherever they are found, including threatened species of corals, fish, turtles and all marine mammals in Sri Lanka’s waters.206
  • 240. ANNEXES• The National Environment Act No. 47 of 1980, and the amended Act No. 56 of 1988 which empowers project approving agencies to obtain an EIA from any developer for prescribed development projects.• The State Lands Ordinance No. 8 of 1947 and its two amendments.• The Forest Ordinance No. 16 of 1907 and its subsequent amendments.• The Urban Development Authority Law No. 37 of 1978 that provides for the development of environmental standards and schemes for environmental improvement in areas identifies as UDA areas. 207
  • 241. ANNEXES Annex 3 Existing Special Area Management (SAM) Sites and Potential SAM Sites in the Coastal Area Existing SAM Sites District Site Colombo Lunawa lagoon Madu Ganga Estuary; Hikkaduwa Nature Reserve and environs; Galle Unawatuna Bay and Koggala Estuary Hambantota Coastal stretch in Hambantota; Mawella Lagoon; Kalametiya Lagoon Gampaha Negombo Estuary and Muthurajawela Marsh Puttalam Bar Reef Potential SAM Sites Special area Management Site Special area Management Site District – Level I – Level II • Periya Kalapuwa & Korai • Kalmunai fishing area Kalapuwa (lagoons) • Konawatte Lagoon a& Oluvil Ampara • Panama dunes; Arugam Bay & fishing area Arumugam Kalapu (lagoon) • Komari Lagoon • Batticaloa Lagoon • Punnaikudah, Kaluwankerni • Upper Panichankerni Estuary Bays (Vakarai) Batticaloa • Kaththankudi thona coastal • Kalkudah-Passekuday Bays; area Vandeloos & Thennadi Bays; • Verugal Aru Valaichenai Estuary Colombo --- • Dehiwela-Mt Lavinia beach • Beruwela coastal stretch & Bentota estuary • Kosgoda Lagoon Galle • Dodanduwa Lagoon (Ratgama • Madampe Lake Lake) • Rekawa Lagoon, Kalametiya Lagoon, and Lunama Lagoon • Rekawa, Kalametiya & Hambantota complex Ussangoda cluster • Ussangoda headlands • Rekawa-Kalmetiya beach208
  • 242. ANNEXES Special area Management Site Special area Management Site District – Level I – Level II • Manalkadu DunesJaffna • Jaffna Estuary (town area) • Thondamannaru Lagoon • Kankasanthurai and Keerimalai • Vadamarachchi coast coastal stretch • Thiruvadinilai-Sankanai • Mandativu, Delft, Nainativu coastal area islands • Palitivu Island • Karainagar (including CasuarinaJaffna beach) coastal area(Contd.) • Navali coastal areaKalutara -- • Kalu Ganga Estuary • Peria Kadai coastal area • Gulf of Mannar • South Bar coastal area • Thalaimannar coastal area • Erukulampidi coastal areaMannar • Silavathurai, Arippu and Aruvi • Manthai West coastal area Aru coastal areaand Bay of • Pesalai coastal area Kondachchi • Vankalai coastal areaMatara • Weligama Bay • Polhena beach • Nathikadal LagoonMullaitivu --- • Nai aru estuary • Puttalam Estuary • Chilaw EstuaryPuttalam --- • Mundel Lake and Puttalam corridor channel • Trincomalee Bay • Kuchchaveli, Puduvakattu • Nilaveli beach; Pigeon Island (including Pirate’s Coves)Trincomalee • Periyakarachchi & coastal area Sinnakarachchi Estuaries • Thambalagam Bay • Clapenburg Bay • Pulmodai coastal area 209
  • 243. ANNEXES Annex 4 Glossary of Terms Accretion: The built up of land over a period of time. On a beach this is usually by deposition of material carried by water and by air (wind). Accretion may be natural or it may be induced by humans. Aquaculture: Production of plants and animals that involves intervention at some stage of their life cycle other than at harvest, and where ownership of the stock is legally ensured. Aufwuchs: The encrustations of micro-organisms, animals and plants that encrust the surfaces of submerged objects. Barrier-built estuary: An estuary which is partially separated from the sea by a sand barrier which may include beaches, sand dunes and beach rock (e.g. Negombo Lagoon). Bay: Partially enclosed indentation of the coast with a broad connection with the sea. The coastal processes in a bay are basically similar to those along an open coastline. Beach: The unconsolidated material that extends landward from the low water line to the place where there is marked change in material or physical landform, or to the line of permanent vegetation. Beach rock: A consolidation of beach sand by secondary deposition of calcium carbonate at about the level of the sea waterline. Beach rock is generally associated with coasts where sea level fluctuation occurs.210
  • 244. ANNEXESBenthos: Plants and animals that are associated with the bottom of water bodies.Brackish: Salt containing water formed by the mixing of sea water and freshwater.Coastal: Land associated with the interface between land and the sea. A strip of land of indefinite width that extends from the shoreline inland to the first major change in the land form (terrain) features.Coastal stabilization: Interventions that prevent changes in the landforms at the coast.Coastal vulnerability index: A numerical product of measured variables that have an impact on the coastal area including tides, waves, elevation, geomorphology, sea level rise, bathymetry among others. These measured variables are also termed risk factors in hazard management.Continental shelf: The gently sloping submarine extension of the land to a point where it abruptly drops sharply to the ocean floor. Generally the sunlight penetrates to the floor of the continental shelf.Crustaceans: A group of animals without a backbone, but with an outer hard covering such as shrimps and prawns.Current: A flow of water within and relative to the larger body of water through which it passes.Current – longshore: The inshore current moving essentially parallel to the shore, usually generated by waves breaking at an angle to the shore. 211
  • 245. ANNEXES Detritus: Decaying parts of animals and plants that have a significant role in ecological food chains. Disaster: Harm caused by a hazard (natural and human-made) to life and property. District: A land unit with a legally demarcated boundary within which the government conducts its administration under an officer termed District Secretary. Divisional Secretary: The government administrative officer in charge of the Divisional Secretary Division to whom diverse regulatory powers have been devolved for the purpose of efficient law enforcement. Division: A legally demarcated sub-unit of the District administered by the government through an officer termed Divisional Secretary. Dune: A wind blown accumulation of sand that is distinctive in relation to the adjacent landforms. A dune generally occurs landward of the beach influenced by waves. Ecological linkage: Processes, living and non-living that connect ecosystems (ecological units) with the wider environment. Sea water flow at high and low tides, and freshwater from the land connect the sea to an estuary as well as land to that same estuary. Ecosystem: An entity formed by interacting physical and chemical components and biological communities (micro-organism, plant and animal groups that interact with each other).212
  • 246. ANNEXESEndemic: Plant and animal species which occur only within a particular country.Epiphytes: Plants and animals that live attached to other plants e.g. such as the plants and animals living attached to submerged seagrasses.Erosion: Erosion is the process of removal of unconsolidated and consolidated material situated along a coastline by forces such as waves and currents. Erosion, such as that of beaches, generally exposes life and property situated landward of it to potential damage.Estuary: A semi-enclosed body of water which has a free connection with the sea and within which sea water is diluted by freshwater from land drainage to form brackish water (e.g. Kalu Ganga estuary).Eustatic: Upward and downward movement of the sea level worldwide.Eutrophication: Addition of nutrients to an aquatic water body resulting in excessive plant production by photosynthesis eventually resulting in the breakdown of the relationship between the plants and animals (that depend upon them generally for food).Exposure: The potential for an area of land to be affected by a hazard.Fauna: Animals.Flood buffer: The ability of a land area to receive and retain water in a manner that prevents flooding in adjoining areas. 213
  • 247. ANNEXES Flora: Plants. Geomorphology: The study of the origin and diversity of landforms that have arisen by way of geological, climatic and other natural processes. Governance: The process of decision making. Generally good governance includes participation of persons who may be affected by such decisions and incorporates mechanisms for transparency and accountability. Groyne: An engineering structure that is placed at an angle extending from the beach seaward. Hazard: Natural and human-made processes (and objects) that have the potential to cause harm to people and property. Holocene (Epoch): The past 10,000 years during which the existing geomorphological systems became established. Hydrology: The science and the study that addresses and treats of water. Impoundment: To confine within a boundary structure such as a dyke. Institution: An interacting collectivity of human and material resources organized for the purpose of achieving specific targets. In institutions the human element is the most important. Institutions may be formal such as government ministries and departments or informal as in the case of unregistered community-based organizations (CBOs). Formal institutions are supported by various laws and regulations.214
  • 248. ANNEXESIntertidal: The land area that is submerged during high tide and exposed during low tide.Littoral: The (sea) shore, the inter-tidal area.Littoral drift: The coastal processes that move material on the sore and in inter-tidal areas.Littoral currents: Water movements that are associated with the shore and inter-tidal areas.Local government (LG): An elected body of representatives who address the needs of a defined group of people living in a specified area. LGs usually address public utilities by way of collected taxes.Longshore drift: The movement of material along the shore by waves and currents.Mangrove: Salt tolerant, woody, seed bearing plants which occur in association with brackish and saline water. They are characterized by special root systems, breathing roots, seed germination while attached to the parent plant. Although mangroves occur on saline soil, often acidic, they have the usual plant requirement of freshwater, nutrients and oxygen. On saline, acidic, dynamic soils such as in inter-tidal areas, they out-compete terrestrial plants.Nutrients: The simple chemical substances required for plant growth released from soil and decaying parts of animals and plants.Offshore breakwater: An engineering structure constructed parallel with the coastline situated some distance away from the shore. 215
  • 249. ANNEXES Plankton: Tiny plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton) that occur in water with limited capability to travel under their own control and therefore are passively transported by currents. Pleistocene: The first 500,000 years of the past one (1) million years constituting the Quaternary Period. Pollution: Material discharged (emissions) into the air, water and the environment in general, which alters quality in an undesirable direction. Noise is also a pollutant. Although it is not in the form of material it can be measured in ‘decibels’ of sound. Poverty: A form of deprivation resulting in the inability of a person to satisfy basic needs. When the meaning of poverty is confined to the level of income it is termed ‘income poverty’. Province: A defined land unit with a legally specified boundary where elected representatives constitute a ‘Provincial Council’ for its governance. Revetment: An engineering structure situated on the beach for its stabilization. Risk: The product of exposure to hazards, the frequency of such hazards (probability) and the potential intensity of damage to life and property. Risk does not exist where people and property do not exist. Risk increases proportionately with the density of population and property.216
  • 250. ANNEXESRisk factors: These are measurable elements associated with the coast and coastal processes such as tides, waves, bathymetry, sea level changes, hazard pathways, hazard frequencies, land elevation, geomorphology among others. These elements may be measured and mapped.Salt water exclusion: Engineering approaches to prevent sea water entering land units where its influence may damage diverse human activities. Generally engineering structures are constructed for the purpose.Seagrasses: Rooted, seed bearing, salt-tolerant plants that occur as underwater meadows ad provide prime living conditions for a wide range of organisms.Shoal: A shallow area formed by settlement of silt, sand and sediment.Siltation/sedimentation: Settlement on the floor of a body of water of fine material (silt), and a range of materials (sediment) transported by water.Special area management: Special area management is the administration of a defined land unity which is smaller than a national governance unit such as a province. The area is demarcated for purpose of addressing, in a more focused manner, issues related with the coast and coastal ecosystems.Sustainable: Sustainable as it applies to management and/or development of natural systems (ecosystems) refers to the balance between demands placed upon a natural resource system, the inputs and extraction of products made by society and the continuing ability of that entity to support the demands. 217
  • 251. ANNEXES Tidal flat: A land area associated with the coast which is influenced by tides, salt spray, wind, prolonged periods of drought and characterized by special vegetation (xerophytes) which are salt tolerant and resist desiccation by wind. Tide: The pull (distortion) of surface water owing mainly to the gravitational attraction between the earth and the moon resulting in the rise and fall of sea level. Vulnerability: The potential (probability) of being damaged or harmed by hazards. That potential may be given as a measured quantity by way of a ‘vulnerability index’.218
  • 252. ANNEXESAnnex 5Participants at the National Workshop Leading to the Preparation ofNational Strategy and Action Plan* Stakeholder Workshop to Review the Draft National Strategy and Action Plan 19 November, 2007 Hotel Renuka, Colombo Name Organization H P K Hewapathirana DFAR Susil Liyanarachchi CARE International A Rajasuriya NARA H P C D Prasanna Green Movement of Sri Lanka A W Amila Chanaka Green Movement of Sri Lanka S C Jayamanne NARA Darshani de Silva UNDP Gayani Wickramarachchi Sewalanka Foundation Nimal Chandraratne NAQDA D M S K Dissanayake Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Sarath Fernando Forest Department H J M Wickremaratne Consultant Ananda Wijesooriya Department of Wildlife Conservation M A A N Hemakumara Central Environmental Authority P Vinobaba Department of Zoology, Eastern University of Sri Lanka R Galapatti Lanka Hydraulic Institute W R M S Wickremasinghe Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Parakrama Karunaratne Attorney-At-Law Jayampathy Samarakoon Free Lance Indra Ranasinghe CRMP R Semasinghe Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources K S Fernando Kaludal Association D S Epitawatte University of Sri Jayawardenapura U W L Chandra DMC Anil Premaratne Coast Conservation Department Dr N Pallewatte University of Colombo * 1. IUCN staff members who attended the workshop are not listed. 2. Several other workshops were held in connection with the MFF Programmes of Work, and the inputs form those workshops too were used in formulating this Strategy. 219
  • 253. MFF builds on a history of coastal management interventions before and after the 2004tsunami. It focuses on the countries most-affected by the tsunami; India, Indonesia,Maldives, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. MFF also includes other countries of theRegion that face similar issues, with an overall aim to promote an integrated ocean wideapproach to coastal zone management.Its long-term management strategy is based on identified needs and priorities that emergedfrom extensive consultations with over 200 individuals and 160 institutions involved incoastal management in the Region.MFF uses mangroves as a flagship ecosystem in recognition of the important role mangrovesplayed in reducing the damage caused by the tsunami, and the implications on livelihoodsbecause of mangrove forest destruction. But MFF is inclusive of all coastal ecosystems,including coral reefs, estuaries, lagoons, sandy beaches, sea grasses and wetlands.Its vision is a healthier, more prosperous and secure future for all sections of the coastalpopulation in Indian Ocean countries. It is a unique partnership-led initiative working infour key areas of influence: regional cooperation, national programme support, privatesector engagement and community action.The initiative undertakes collective actions to build knowledge, strengthen empowerment,and enhance governance through 15 broad programmes of work to address the current andfuture threats, and to conserve and restore coastal ecosystems. These are implementedthrough a series of on-the-ground projects, through small and large grant modalities.MFF seeks more effective and inclusive institutions, policies and mechanisms forcooperation at national and regional levels by prioritising coastal ecosystem managementacross national development agendas, policies and