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RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
RNA and Protein Synthesis
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RNA and Protein Synthesis

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  • 1. RNA & Protein Synthesis Uracil Hydrogen bonds Adenine Ribose RNA
  • 2. Basic components of RNA  Ribonucleic acid consists of following basic components  1- Ribose sugar  2- Phosphate in diester linkage  4-Nitrogenous base pairs-  Purines- adenine, guanine  Pyrimidines- cytocine, uracil
  • 3. Primary structure of RNA  Although there are multiple types of RNA molecules, the basic structure of all RNA is similar.  Each kind of RNA is a polymeric molecule made by stringing together individual ribonucleotides, always by adding the 5'-phosphate group of one nucleotide onto the 3'-hydroxyl group of the previous
  • 4. Secondary structure of RNA  Single-stranded RNA can also form many secondary structures in which a single RNA molecule folds over and forms hairpin loops, stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds between complementary bases.  Such base-pairing of RNA is critical for many RNA functions, such as the ability of tRNA to bind to the correct sequence of mRNA during translation
  • 5. DNA can replicate or undergo transcription  Replication-it is process by which DNA copies itself to produce identical daughter molecules of DNA. DNA is the reserve bank of genetic information.  Transcription-transcription results in the formation of one single-stranded RNA molecule.
  • 6. DNA RNA Structure Double Stranded Single Stranded Bases- Purines Adenine (A) Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Guanine (G) Bases - Pyrimidines Cytosine (C) Cytosine (C) Thymine (T) Uracil (U) Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose Differences between DNA and RNA: RNA’s JOB= Make Proteins!!
  • 7. Types of RNA 1) messenger RNA (mRNA)- carries instructions from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
  • 8. Types of RNA 2) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- combines with proteins to form the ribosome (proteins made here) 3) transfer RNA (tRNA)- transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it is specified by coded messages in mRNA during the construction of a protein
  • 9. Types of RNA  4 ) snRNA – small nuclear RNA  5) snoRNA- small nucleolar RNA  6) scRNA- small cytoplasmic RNA  7) micro- RNAs,miRNA, small interfering RNAs  Present in eukaryotes only.
  • 10. Protein Synthesis Overview There are two steps to making proteins (protein synthesis): 1) Transcription (nucleus) DNA RNA 2) Translation (cytoplasm) RNA  protein
  • 11.  DNA  Transcription  RNA  Translation  Protein  Conventional concept  Genome  Transcription  Transcriptome  Translation  Proteome  Current concept, Bioinformatics era
  • 12. Proteins.  Everything a cell is or does depends on the proteins it contains.
  • 13. From genes to proteins.  Two steps – Transcription , Translation.
  • 14. Transcription RNA DNA RNA polymerase Adenine (DNA and RNA) Cytosine (DNA and RNA) Guanine(DNA and RNA) Thymine (DNA only) Uracil (RNA only) Nucleus
  • 15. TRANSCRIPTION  It is a process by which RNA is synthesize from DNA. The genetic information stored in DNA is expressed through RNA.  One of the two strands of DNA serves as Template and produces working copies of RNA molecules. The other DNA strand which does not participate in in transcription is referred to as coding strand or sense strand or non-template strand.
  • 16. Transcription RNA Editing: Before the mRNA leaves the nucleus, it is called pre-mRNA or (hnRNA) heterogeneous nuclear RNA and it gets “edited.” Parts of the pre-mRNA that are not involved in coding for proteins are called introns and are cut out. The remaining mRNA pieces are called exons (because they are expressed) and are spliced back together to form the mRNA. Then the final mRNA leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores and enters the cytoplasm headed to the ribosome.
  • 17. Transcription 1) Transcription begins when the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to DNA at a promoter region. Promoters are signals in DNA that indicate to the enzyme where to bind to make RNA. 2) The enzyme separates the DNA strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds, and then uses one strand of DNA as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA.
  • 18. Transcription 3) RNA polymerase pairs up free floating RNA nucleotides with DNA template and joins the nucleotides together to form the backbone of the new mRNA strand. 4) When mRNA hits a termination sequence, it separates from the DNA
  • 19. Steps of transcription  Initiation  Elongation  Termination  post – transcriptional modifications  The RNAs produced during transcription are called primary mRNA transcripts. They undergo many alterations- terminal base additions, base modifications, splicing etc. This process is required to convert RNA into active form. Enzyme involved mainly is - ribonucleases.
  • 20. Cell Nucleus
  • 21. Cell Nucleus
  • 22. Nucleus Chromosome
  • 23. Key = Phosphate = Sugar = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine RNA Polymerase 3’ 5’
  • 24. Key = Phosphate = Sugar = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine RNA Polymerase 3’ 5’
  • 25. Key = Phosphate = Sugar = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine RNA Polymerase 3’ 5’
  • 26. Key = Phosphate = Sugar = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine RNA Polymerase = 3’ 5’
  • 27. Key = Phosphate = Sugar = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine RNA Polymerase = 3’ 5’
  • 28. Key = Phosphate = Sugar = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine RNA Polymerase = 3’ 5’ mRNA Strand =
  • 29. Key = Phosphate = Sugar = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine RNA Polymerase =mRNA Strand = 3’ 5’
  • 30. On average rate of RNA synthesis is about 43 nucleotides per second .
  • 31. TRANSCRIPTION-COMPLIMENTARY BASE PAIR RELATIONSHIP  DNA 5’ A T G C A T G G C A 3’ CODING STRAND  3’ T A C G T A C C G T 5’ TEMPLATE STRAND  RNA 5’ …....A U G C A U G G C A………3’
  • 32. The conventional numbering system of promoters Bases preceding this are numbered in a negative direction There is no base numbered 0 Bases to the right are numbered in a positive direction Most of the promoter region is labeled with negative numbers
  • 33. Promoter sites  In eukaryotes promoter DNA bases sequences known as HOGNESS BOX or TATA BOX located on the left about 25 nucleotides away(upstream) from the starting site of mRNA synthesis. Second site of recognition between 70 to 80 nucleotides upstream known as CAAT BOX.  Coding strand 5’ GGCCAATC ATATAA 3’  Template strand 3’ 5’  -70 bases -25 bases (coding region)  Start of transcription
  • 34. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display  Eukaryotic promoter sequences are more variable and often much more complex than those of bacteria  For structural genes, at least three features are found in most promoters  Regulatory elements  TATA box (present in ~20 % of our genes) and other short sequences in TATA-promoters that have a similar function  Transcriptional start site Sequences of Eukaryotic Structural Genes
  • 35.  Factors that control gene expression can be divided into two types, based on their “location”  cis-acting elements  DNA sequences that exert their effect only over a particular gene  Example: TATA box  trans-acting elements  Regulatory proteins that bind to such DNA sequences Sequences of Eukaryotic Structural Genes
  • 36. Signals the end of protein synthesis
  • 37. Usually an adenine  The core promoter is relatively short  It consists of the TATA box  Important in determining the precise start point for transcription  The core promoter by itself produces a low level of transcription  This is termed basal transcription
  • 38.  Regulatory elements affect the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter  They are of two types  Enhancers  Stimulate transcription  Silencers  Inhibit transcription  They vary widely in their locations, from –50 to –100 region
  • 39. RNA polymerases  RNA polymerase I- synthesis of precursors of large ribosomal RNAs.  RNA polymerases II- synthesizes the precursors for mRNAs and small rRNAs.  RNA polymerases III- formation of tRNAs and small rRNAs.
  • 40. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display  Three categories of proteins are required for basal transcription to occur at the promoter  RNA polymerase II  six different proteins called general transcription factors (GTFs or TFs) . They are- TFIID, TFIIA,TFIIB,TFIIF,TFIIE, TFIIH.  A protein complex called mediator. RNA Polymerase II and its Transcription Factors
  • 41. Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • 42. A closed complex Released after the open complex is formed RNA poly II can now proceed to the elongation stage
  • 43. 12-23 Figure 12.7
  • 44. 12-26 Similar to the synthesis of DNA via DNA polymerase Figure 12.8 On average, the rate of RNA synthesis is about 43 nucleotides per second!
  • 45. ‘promoter’ Protein coding Difference in gene structure between - prokaryote - eukaryote core ‘promoter’ An important difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that eukaryotes’ genes are not split into intons and exons. In eukaryotes is the DNA coding protein are, Therefore, exons eventually end up in the mRNA intron exons
  • 46. Pre-mRNA Transcription start, elongation, termination and RNA processing in eukaryotes : coding protein : non-coding protein: ‘leader’ and ‘trailer’ CAP CAP (poly A tail) The longest gene in human genome is more than 1.500.000 base pares (bp) and the mRNA is ~ 7000 nt. ‘promoter’ intron exons GENE mRNA AAAAAAAAAAA
  • 47. TERMINATION  Transcription stops by termination signals. Two types of termination identified.  Rho depended- specific protein Rho factor, binds to the growing RNA, acts as ATPase and terminates transcription and releases RNA.  Rho independent – formation of hairpins of newly synthesized RNA.this occurs due to presence of palindromes. It is word that reads alike forward and backwards, like madam, motor. Presence of palindromes in DNA base sequence work as termination zone. Newly synthesize RNA folds to form hairpins due to complimentary base pairing, and termination occurs.
  • 48.  coding sequences, called exons, are interrupted by intervening sequences or introns  Transcription produces the entire gene product  Introns are later removed or excised  Exons are connected together or spliced  This phenomenon is termed RNA splicing  It is a common genetic phenomenon in eukaryotes  Occurs occasionally in bacteria as well post transcriptional RNA modification
  • 49.  Aside from splicing, RNA transcripts can be modified in several ways  For example  Trimming of rRNA and tRNA transcripts  5’ Capping and 3’ polyA tailing of mRNA transcripts y RNA MODIFICATION
  • 50. RNA Editing
  • 51.  Introns are removed and extrons are spliced
  • 52.  The spliceosome is a large complex that splices pre-mRNA  It is composed of several subunits known as snRNPs (pronounced “snurps”)  Each snRNP contains small nuclear RNA and a set of proteins. Or small nuclear ribonucloprotein particle. Types of snRNPs are U1,U2,U3,U4,U5,U6. Pre-mRNA Splicing
  • 53.  The subunits of a spliceosome carry out several functions  1. Bind to an intron sequence and precisely recognize the intron-exon boundaries  2. Hold the pre-mRNA in the correct configuration  3. Catalyze the chemical reactions that remove introns and covalently link exons Pre-mRNA Splicing
  • 54. Intron loops out and exons brought closer together
  • 55. Intron will be degraded and the snRNPs used again
  • 56.  One benefit of genes with introns is a phenomenon called alternative splicing  A pre-mRNA with multiple introns can be spliced in different ways  This will generate mature mRNAs with different combinations of exons  This variation in splicing can occur in different cell types or during different stages of development Intron Advantage?
  • 57.  The biological advantage of alternative splicing is that two (or more) polypeptides can be derived from a single gene  This allows an organism to carry fewer genes in its genome Intron Advantage?
  • 58.  Most mature mRNAs have a 7-methyl guanosine covalently attached at their 5’ end  This event is known as capping  Capping occurs as the pre-mRNA is being synthesized by RNA pol II  Usually when the transcript is only 20 to 25 bases long Capping: marking 5’ends of mRNAs
  • 59.  The 7-methylguanosine cap structure is recognized by cap-binding proteins  Cap-binding proteins play roles in the  Movement of some RNAs into the cytoplasm  Early stages of translation  Splicing of introns Function of Capping
  • 60.  Most mature mRNAs have a string of adenine nucleotides at their 3’ ends  This is termed the polyA tail  The polyA tail is not encoded in the gene sequence  It is added enzymatically after the gene is completely transcribed The 3’ end of a mRNA: Tailing
  • 61. Cell Nucleus
  • 62. Cell Nucle
  • 63. RNA Polymerase RNA Polymerase binds and unwinds the DNA double helix.
  • 64. RNA Polymerase binds and unwinds the DNA double helix. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine
  • 65. RNA Polymerase binds and unwinds the DNA double helix. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine
  • 66. RNA Polymerase binds and unwinds the DNA double helix. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine
  • 67. RNA Polymerase binds and unwinds the DNA double helix. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine
  • 68. RNA Polymerase binds and unwinds the DNA double helix. RNA Polymerase
  • 69. RNA Polymerase binds and unwinds the DNA double helix. RNA Polymerase
  • 70. RNA Polymerase binds to the promoter region. RNA Polymerase
  • 71. RNA Polymerase binds to the promoter region. RNA Polymerase
  • 72. RNA Polymerase binds to the promoter region. RNA Polymerase
  • 73. RNA Polymerase binds to the promoter region. RNA Polymerase
  • 74. RNA Polymerase binds to the promoter region. RNA Polymerase
  • 75. RNA Polymerase binds to the promoter region. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine
  • 76. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region
  • 77. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region mRNA Strand
  • 78. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region mRNA Strand
  • 79. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region mRNA Strand
  • 80. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region mRNA Strand
  • 81. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region mRNA Strand
  • 82. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region mRNA Strand
  • 83. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region mRNA Strand
  • 84. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region mRNA Strand
  • 85. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymerase Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region mRNA Strand
  • 86. RNA Polymerase reads the DNA and creates the mRNA strand. RNA Polymeras Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Coding Region mRNA Strand
  • 87. mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. RNA Polymeras Guanine Cytosine Thymine Adenine Uracil Start Codon Stop CodonCoding Region mRNA Strand Termination Sequ
  • 88. mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm.
  • 89. mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. Nuclear Por
  • 90. mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. Nuclear Por
  • 91. mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. Nuclear Por
  • 92. mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. Nuclear Por
  • 93. mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. Nuclear Por
  • 94. mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. Nuclear Por
  • 95. mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm.
  • 96. The Genetic Code Proteins (polypeptides) are long chains of amino acids that are joined together. There are 20 different amino acids. The structure and function of proteins are determined by the order in which different amino acids are joined together to produce them. The four bases (letters) of mRNA (A, U, G, and C) are read three letters at a time (and translated) to determine the order in which amino acids are added to a protein.
  • 97. AMINO ACIDS  Amino acids are organic solvents.  Have two functional groups –NH₂ and -COOH group.  The amino group is basic while carboxylic group is acidic in nature.  Soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents e.g. chloroform,acetone,ether,etc.  All amino acids which make up proteins are L-α- aminoacids.
  • 98. Semi-essential aminoacids. These include Arginine and Histidine.These are growth promoting factors since they are not synthesized in sufficient quantity during growth. SELENOCYSTEINE- the 21st amino acid.
  • 99. The Genetic Code A codon consists of three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid that is to be added to the polypeptide (protein).
  • 100. The Codon Table  Sixty-four combinations are possible when a sequence of three bases are used; thus, 64 different mRNA codons are in the genetic code.
  • 101.  Some codons do not code for amino acids; they provide instructions for making the protein.  More than one codon can code for the same amino acid.
  • 102. All organisms use the same genetic code (A,T,C,G). This provides evidence that all life on Earth evolved from a common origin.
  • 103. Cracking the Code  This picture shows the amino acid to which each of the 64 possible codons corresponds.  To decode a codon, start at the middle of the circle and move outward.  Ex: CGA  Arginine  Ex: GAU  Aspartic Acid
  • 104. Translation Translation takes place on ribosomes, in the cytoplasm.  The cell uses information from messenger RNA (mRNA) to produce proteins, by decoding the mRNA message into a polypeptide chain (protein).
  • 105. Stapes of protein synthesis  1) requirements of the components- amino acids, ribosome, mRNA,tRNA, ATP  2)activation of amino acids  3)protein synthesis proper  4) chaperones and protein folding  5) post – translational modifications.
  • 106. Source: http://www.coolschool.ca/lor/BI12/unit6/U06L01.htm
  • 107. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Cytoplasm
  • 108. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon
  • 109. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon
  • 110. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon
  • 111. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA
  • 112. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA
  • 113. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA
  • 114. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Amino AcidtRNA
  • 115. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Amino AcidtRNA
  • 116. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Amino AcidtRNA
  • 117. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Amino AcidtRNA
  • 118. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Amino AcidtRNA
  • 119. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond
  • 120. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Start Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond
  • 121. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine tart Codon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond
  • 122. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine odon Codon Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond
  • 123. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine n Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond
  • 124. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Codon Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond
  • 125. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Codon Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond
  • 126. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine on Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond
  • 127. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine on Stop Codon Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond
  • 128. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond Amino Acid Chain
  • 129. Key = Uracil = Adenine = Guanine = Cytosine Ribosome Anticodo Amino AcidtRNA Polypeptide Chain Peptide Bond Final Protein in Tertiary Structure
  • 130. translation  Initiation codon AUG  Termination codons or non-sense codons or stop signals UAA UAG UGA
  • 131. Messenger RNA (mRNA) 1) The mRNA that was transcribed from DNA during transcription, leaves the cell’s nucleus and enters the cytoplasm.
  • 132. Transfer RNA(tRNA) 2) The mRNA enters the cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome at the AUG, which is the start codon. This begins translation. 3) The transfer RNA (tRNA) bonds with the correct amino acid and becomes “charged.” (in the cytoplasm) 4) The tRNA carries the amino acid to the ribosome.  Each tRNA has an anticodon whose bases are complementary to a codon on the mRNA strand. (The tRNA brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome.) Ex: The ribosome positions the start codon to attract its anticodon, which is part of the tRNA that binds methionine.  The ribosome also binds the next codon and its anticodon.
  • 133. The Polypeptide “Assembly Line” 5) The ribosome moves along the mRNA and adds more amino acids to the growing polypeptide or protein  The tRNA floats away, allowing the ribosome to bind to another tRNA.  The ribosome moves along the mRNA, attaching new tRNA molecules and amino acids.
  • 134. Completing the Polypeptide 6) The process continues until the ribosome reaches one of the three stop codons on the mRNA, and then the ribosome falls off the mRNA. 7) The result is a polypeptide chain or protein that is ready for use in the cell.
  • 135. mRNA binds to the ribosome and the code is read.
  • 136. mRNA binds to the ribosome and the code is read.
  • 137. tRNA has the anticodon and amino acid attaches. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil
  • 138. Amino acids bind to each other through peptide bonds. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil
  • 139. Amino acids bind to each other through peptide bonds. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil
  • 140. Amino acids bind to each other through peptide bonds. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil Thr
  • 141. Amino acids bind to each other through peptide bonds. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil ThrGlu
  • 142. Amino acids bind to each other through peptide bonds. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil ThrGluThr
  • 143. Amino acids bind to each other through peptide bonds. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil ThrGluThrAsp
  • 144. Amino acids bind to each other through peptide bonds. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil ThrGluThrAspCys
  • 145. Amino acids bind to each other through peptide bonds. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil ThrGluThrAspCysLeu
  • 146. Amino acids bind to each other through peptide bonds. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil ThrGluThrAspCysLeuThr
  • 147. Amino acids bind to each other through peptide bonds. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil ThrGluThrAspCysLeuThrSTOP
  • 148. Ribosome hits the stop codon, and protein synthesis is complete. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil ThrGluThrAspCysLeuThrAsp Stop Codon
  • 149. Ribosome hits the stop codon, and protein synthesis is complete. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil ThrGluThrAspCysLeuThrAsp Stop Codon
  • 150. Ribosome hits the stop codon, and protein synthesis is complete. Guanine Cytosine Adenine Uracil ThrGluThrAspCysLeuThrAsp Stop Codon
  • 151. Amino acid chain coils into a complete protein.
  • 152. Amino acid chain coils into a complete protein.
  • 153. Source: http://www.biochem.arizona.edu/classes/bioc471/pages/Lecture1/Lecture1.html

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