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This is a PPT on Bauxite Mining by NALCo at Damanjodi in Koraput district

This is a PPT on Bauxite Mining by NALCo at Damanjodi in Koraput district

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  • 1. Bauxite Mining in Koraput Regionof Odisha: A Socio-Economic and Livelihood Analysis Prof. M. Gopinath Reddy Dr. Prajna Mishra Ch. Nagaraju (RULNR-CESS, Hyderabad) & S.V. Ramana Programme Coordinator MSSRF, Koraput, Odisha 1
  • 2. INTRODUCTION The state of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh has the largest amount of bauxite reserves in the country. The bauxite deposits of Odisha are broadly described under the Southern, Central and Northern groups. Bauxite Deposits of Odisha Group Estimated Reserves Mine Area (Million Tonnes) (Hectares) Southern Group Ballada 12.41 86 Maliparbat 9.80 109 Pottangi 69.03 265 Total Southern 91.24 460 Central Group Panchpatmali 316.98 1445 Kodingamali 91.4 533 Karnapadikonda 17.2 193 Total Central 425.58 2171 Northern Group Baphlimali 195.73 960 Sijimali 86 1300 Karlapat 59 973 Lanjigarh 53 564 Total Northern 393.73 3797 Total Odisha 910.55 6428 Source: Geological Survey of India (1979) 2
  • 3. Research Gap There is little analytical research that focuses on the microeconomic or regional effects of mining. This study is primarily concerned with whether or not bauxite mining operations can produce net sustainable benefits to local communities, and, if so, whether there are policies or processes that can increase positive and reduce negative impact. In order to determine the net benefits, it is necessary to analyse all relevant impacts – economic, social, cultural, health and environmental. The project has evaluated to see whether livelihood status has deteriorated, improved or remain same with the project. 3
  • 4. Research Questions and ObjectivesThe main research questions addressed in this study are:•How does mining influence the livelihoods of the local people? Whatexactly are the benefits/costs of the mining projects?•How can benefit and indeed potential negative outcomes be assessed?The objectives of the study are:i)To assess the socio-economic and environmental impacts and challengesof bauxite mining. i.e. Its possible impact on financial capital (householdincome), physical capital (land, house, livestock and other physical assets),human capital (health, literacy), social capital (displacement, socialnetwork) and natural capital (water, air, noise).k)To specially look at the role of NALCO in restoring livelihood status ofthe project affected population by providing various facilities. 4
  • 5. Methodology, Study Area and Sample Selection There are 12 villages from three blocks surrounded by the refinery and nearly 40 villages from four Gram Panchayat surrounded by the mines. The criteria for selection of villages are: a) larger tribal population, b) affected by pollution, c) crop loss, and d) health hazards etc. There are five-six villages under each area and views of the people representatives were also considered for village selection. The Village Analabadi is selected purposively as people of 13 displaced villages are resettled here. 5
  • 6. Sample Villages Area Zone Villages Total Sample Households HouseholdsMining Area Core Zone Kapsiput 142 38 Buffer Zone Kardiguda 79 21 Control Villages Putraghati 201 53Refinery Area Core Zone Analabadi 607 175 Ambogam 133 36 Buffer Zone Mujanga 259 67 Control Villages Marichamal 77 21Ash and Red Core Zone Goudaguda 73 24Mud ponds Khoraguda 34 8 Champapodar 84 10 Buffer Zone Charangaguda 72 23 Control Villages Kadamguda 34 15 Total 1795 491 Source: Field Survey (2011) 6
  • 7. Project Affected People: Basic Features Displacement Scenario of NALCO Affected Villages 26 Affected Families Tribal 254 (42.55) Dalit 56 (9.38) Others 287 (48.07) Total 597 (100) Land acquired Mines 427.30 (4.25) (acres) Township 2,638.96 (26.24) Plant 6,992.50 (69.52) Total 10,058.76 (100) Govt. Land 2,805.49 Agri. Land 2,834.56 7 Source: Field Survey (2011)
  • 8. Compensation Scenario of NALCO Families Displaced 597 Families Rehabilitated 441 Job Received 352 Compensation per one 2000 acre of land (Rs) Compensation for Tree 100 Compensation for CPR No Source: Field Survey (2011)We covered 10 displaced hamlets, 12 revenue villages in seven panchayats ofKoraput district.Initially we interviewed all household heads (1483) of these hamlets of the selectedvillages. the socio-economic details are given below:In the mining core zone, Kapsiput is our sample village. It has 142 households out ofwhich 141 households belong to the scheduled tribe category.In the mining buffer zone Khardiguda and Putraghati are two sample villages.Khardiguda has 79 households and all belong to the scheduled tribe. Putraghati has 201 8households with mixed population.
  • 9. Demographic Features of Affected Villages Households Category Study Zone Village Panchayat Block SC ST OBC OC Total Mining Core Kapsiput Bhifaarguda Lakhimpur 1 141 0 0 142 Mining Khardiguda Littiguda Koraput 0 79 0 0 79 Buffer Putraghati 26 95 79 1 201 Refinery Analabadi Matalput Koraput 68 267 144 128 607 Core Ambogam Littiguda 2 131 0 0 133 Refinery Mujanga Mujanga Dasamanthapur 143 93 0 23 259 Buffer Marchimal Matalput Koraput 21 0 15 41 77 ARMP Core Goudaguda Charangul Semiliguda 0 0 0 73 73 Zone Kharaguda Podampur Koraput 4 2 14 13 33 Champapod Mujanga Dasamanthapur 11 1 9 64 85 ar ARMP Charangagud Podampur Koraput 30 42 0 0 72 Buffer Zone a Source: Field Survey (2011)• In Refinery core zone, Analabadi has 607 households. This is a rehabilitation colony consisting of eleven displaced hamlets of the refinery. It also has a mixed population.• Second village Ambogam in the refinery core zone consists of 133 households, mostly tribal. This village is almost located in the refinery premises (1.2 km). 9
  • 10.  These villagers are the victim of all immediate environmental impact. In Refinery buffer zone, village Mujanga has 259 households, dominated by scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population. Marchimal is another village in this area with 77 households with a mixed population but no tribal. In the Ash and Red mud Pond (ARMP) core zone, Goudaguda is a village with 73 households. All the households belong to Gouda caste, whose main occupation is taken as livestock rearing. Both Kharaguda and Champapodar in this area are displaced villages. Now they are resettled in one place but they are different villages. Kharaguda has 33 households with a mixed population and Champapadar has 85 households, dominated by other caste. In the ARMP buffer zone Charangaguda is a village with 72 households, dominated by scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population. Most of them have lost land because of the railway track of NALCO. 10
  • 11. Displacement and Compensation Scenario Study Zone Total Affected Assets lost Compensation Received HHs HHs Land House Land House 72 Mining Core 142 72 0 0 NA (50.70) 138 Mining Buffer 280 138 0 136 NA (49.29) 383 Refinery Core 740 141 361 129 344 (51.76) 34 Refinery Buffer 336 34 0 28 NA (10.12) 128 ARMP Core 191 86 103 85 103 (67.02) 38(52.78) ARMP Buffer 72 38 0 36 NA Source: Field Survey (2011) In the mining core zone, 51 percent of households have lost their agricultural land. For this none of the households have received compensation These villagers were practicing podu on top of the hills and hill slopes. After getting the permission to mine that area, NALCO evicted these villagers from cultivating those patches of land. As these displaced households do not have patta for their agricultural lands hence they have not received any compensation. In the mining buffer zone 49 percent of households have lost their agricultural 11 land.
  • 12.  These villagers have lost land because of the rehabilitation colony, conveyor belt and another road which connects the mining to the refinery site. Here almost all the households have received compensation and only 2 households have not received because of unclear document. The compensation package is Rs 1000 to 1500 per acre for dry land and Rs 2500 to 5000 per acre for wet land. In the Refinery core zone 52 percent of the households are affected by the refinery out of the total (383) affected households. Of which 37 percent (141 households) have lost their agricultural land. Out of the total households (383), 129 households have received compensation and for others it is still pending. On the other hand 94 percent of the total affected households (361 households) have lost their home and homestead area, of which 344 households have received compensation (Rs. 500 to Rs. 5000 according to classification like hut, semi-pucca, pucca etc). These households are also settled in the rehabilitation colony and one job (per house) in NALCO. In the Refinery buffer zone only 10 percent (34) of the total households are affected. They have lost their agricultural land for red mud pond. Out of 34 households, 28 households have received compensation and for others it is pending. 12
  • 13.  In the ARMP core zone out of total 191 households, 67 percent (128) of the households are affected. All households have received compensation except one. In this area 80 percent of the households have lost their home and homestead area In the ARMP buffer zone out of the total 72 households 53 percent (38) of the households are affected (agriculture land). Of which 36 households are compensated. 13
  • 14. Household Main Occupation: Pre and Post Displacement Main Mining Core Zone Mining Buffer Zone Occupation Pre Post Pre Post Farmers 75 (63.6) 193 (81.8) 78 (33.1) 118 (100) Wage Labours 0 43 (18.2) Others 0 9 (3.8) NALCO 43 (36.4) 149 (63.1) Contract/Wage NA Employee Total 118 (100) 118 (100) 236 (100) 236 (100) Source: Field Survey (2011) In the mining core zone, all households main occupation was farming in the pre displacement period. However, in the post displacement period 36 percent are engaged in NALCO as contract or wage employee. They are not permanent employee of NALCO. NALCO has given the contract works to contractors. These contractors will recruit the contract and wage labour. They do not have job security and they received weekly payment. The work category has been divided into four categories are; High Skilled Works, Skilled Works, Semi Skilled Works and Un-skilled Works. 14
  • 15.  According to work category the wage rates are: High Skilled Worker - Rs. 330 per day, Skilled Worker - Rs. 280 per day, Semi Skilled Worker - Rs. 220 per day, Un-skilled Worker - Rs. 190 per day. In the mining buffer zone, farmers dominated the main occupation (82 percent) in the pre displacement period followed by wage labourers. In the mining buffer zone, farmers dominated the main occupation (82 percent) in the pre displacement period followed by wage labourers. However, this percent has reduced in the post displacement period and now NALCO contract and wage labourers are the main category. 15
  • 16. Household Main Occupation: Pre and Post Displacement Main Refinery Core Zone Refinery Buffer Zone Occupation Pre Post Pre Post Farmers 71 (10.1) 165 (54.8) 100 (33.2) 665 (94.5) Wage Labours 27 (3.8) 207 (29.4) 132 (43.9) 172 (57.1) Others 12 (1.7) 33 (4.7) 4 (1.3) 19 (6.3) NALCO 98 (13.8) NA 10 (3.3) Contract/Wage NA Employee NALCO NA 295 (41.9) NA Employee Total 704 (100) 704 (100) 301 (100) 301 (100) Source: Field Survey (2011) In the Refinery core zone farmers dominated the main occupation in the pre displacement period (94.5 percent). However, in the post displacement period majority are NALCO permanent employees. As many households have lost their homestead area in this zone, they have received this job in their compensation package. This is followed by wage labourers and NALCO contract employee. In the refinery buffer zone, in the pre displacement period both farming and wage labour has a major role. However, in the post displacement phase wage labour has outweighed farming. 16 As the extent of displacement is very less here so workers employed in NALCO.
  • 17.  In the Refinery core zone farmers dominated the main occupation in the pre displacement period (94.5 percent). However, in the post displacement period majority are NALCO permanent employees. As many households have lost their homestead area in this zone, they have received jobs in their compensation package. This is followed by wage labourers and NALCO contract employee. In the refinery buffer zone, in the pre displacement period both farming and wage labour has a major role. However, in the post displacement phase wage labour has outweighed farming. 17
  • 18. Household Main Occupation: Pre and Post Displacement Main ARMP Core Zone ARMP Buffer Zone Occupation Pre Post Pre Post Farmers 16 (8.4) 38 (52.8) 1 (1.4) 164 (85.9) Wage Labours 22 (11.5) 90 (47.1) 34 (47.2) 65 (90.3) Others 5 (2.6) 7 (3.7) 0 3 (4.2) NALCO 9 (4.7) NA 3(4.2) Contract/Wage NA Employee NALCO NA 69 (36.1) NA Employee Total 191 (100) 191 (100) 72 (100) 72 (100) Source: Field Survey (2011) In the ARMP core zone also situation is same in the pre displacement period. The main occupation is dominated by farming. However, in the post scenario it is wage labour and NALCO employee. Here also as the households have lost their homestead land they have permanent employment in NALCO. In the ARMP buffer zone, main occupation was dominated by farmers and wage labourers. However, in the post displacement period it is dominated by wage labour. 18
  • 19. Profile of the Sample Villages (12) and its Important Characteristics The caste and sub-caste particulars of the sample households have been presented. A large majority of the households belong to Scheduled Tribes (49 percent) followed by ‘others’ (19.2 percent), Scheduled Castes (17.2 percent), and ‘Other Backward Castes’ (14.6 percent). 19
  • 20. Landholding details of the Households in Sample Villages Mining Area Refinery Area ARMP Core Buffer Core Buffer Core Buffer Category of Chara Occupations Kapsiput Kardiguda Putraghati Analabadi Ambogam Mujanga Marichamal Goudaguda Khoraguda Champapodar ngagu da Large Farmers % 30 (21.1) 0 (0.0) 3 (1.5) 10 (1.6) 5 (3.8) 20 (7.7) 0 (0.0) 5 (6.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (9.7) Medium % 15 (10.6) 16 (20.3) 15 (7.5) 20 (3.3) 20 (15) 50 (19.3) 10 (13) 5 (6.8) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.4) 0 (0.0) 8 Small Farmers % 35 (24.6) 15 (19) 25 (12.4) 20 (3.3) 16 (12) 60 (23.2) 12 (15.6) 34 (46.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) (11.1) Marginal % 30 (21.1) 15 (19) 70 (34.8) 20 (3.3) 70 (52.6) 84 (32.4) 34 (44.2) 20 (27.4) 3 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 5 (6.9) 47 Landless % 30 (21.1) 33 (41.8) 58 (28.9) 231 (38.1) 20 (15) 35 (13.5) 15 (19.5) 4 (5.5) 0 (0.0) 31(36.5) (65.3) other Salaried % 2 (1.4) 0 (0.0) 30 (14.9) 306 (50.4) 2 (1.5) 10 (3.9) 6 (7.8) 5 (6.8) 30 (90.9) 52 (61.2) 5 (6.9) 72 Total HHs 142 (100) 79 (100) 201 (100) 607 (100) 133 (100) 259 (100) 77 (100) 73 (100) 33 (100) 85 (100) (100) Source: Field Survey (2011) The data on land holding of the households reveal that in mining area-both in core and buffer zones, small and marginal farmers are in majority (40-45 percent) followed by landless labour (around 30 percent). In kasiput village large farmers are significant (21 percent). Similarly in Kardiguda medium farmers are considerable (20 percent). In the refinery areas the land holding profile is quite different, particularly in core zone (50.4 percent are others/salaried 38 percent are landlers in Analabadi village). This is due to large number of project affected households got employment in the company. However, in the buffer zone of the refinery small and marginal farmers are predominant followed by landless labour. In the ARMP core zone, there are hardly any medium, small farmers; large segment of them are others/salaried (91 percent in Khoraguda and 61 percent in Champapodar) followed by landless 20 labour.
  • 21. Availability of Infrastructural Facilities in the Sample Villages Drinki Electri Provid Provide Educati Provid Provid provid Irrigati Roads Health ng provided Community provided Area Zone Village city ed by d by on ed by ed by ed by on Avail avail water by whom avail by whom Avail whom whom Avail whom whom whom Avail Avail Core Kapsiput Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT No - Kardiguda Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT No - Mining Buffer Putraghati Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes NALCO NALCO NALCO NALCO Analabadi Yes & Yes NALCO Yes & Yes & Yes NALCO Yes GOVT Yes NALCO GOVT GOVT GOVT Core NALCO NALCORefinery Ambogam No - Yes & Yes GOVT Yes & Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes NALCO GOVT GOVT Mujanga Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT No - Buffer Maricham Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT al NALCO NALCO NALCO Goudagud No - Yes GOVT Yes & Yes & Yes & Yes GOVT No - a GOVT GOVT GOVT NALCO NALCO Core Khoraguda Yes & Yes NALCO Yes & Yes NALCO Yes NALCO No - No -Ash & Red GOVT GOVTMud Pond NALCO NALCO Champapo Yes & Yes NALCO Yes & Yes NALCO Yes NALCO No - No - dar GOVT GOVT Charangag Buffer No - No - Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT No - uda Kadamgud Control Area Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT Yes GOVT No - a Source: Field Survey (2011) 21
  • 22. Educational Facilities in the Sample Villages Primary Upper Higher secondary School Girijan Vidya Vikaskendra Tribal Ashram schools School Primary school Area Zone Village Distanc Plac Avail Avail Distance Place Avail Distance Place Avail Distance Place Avail Distance Place e e Bitharag Core Kapsiput Yes 0 0 No 13 Purhoda No 13 Purhoda No 3 No 13 Purhoda uda Mathalp Mathalp Putraghat Mining Kardiguda Yes 0 0 No 7 No 7 No 34 Koraput No 3 ut ut i Buffer Damanj Putraghati Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 5 No 32 Koraput Yes 0 0 odi Analabadi Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 25 Koraput Yes 0 0 Core Mathalp Ambogam Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 3 No 28 Koraput No 10 Pudaguda ut Refinery Runjagu Pudagud Runjagu Bukdugud Mujanga Yes 0 0 No 5 No 8 No 5 No 6 da a da a Buffer Mathalp Semiligu Marichamal Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 4 No 10 No 4 Mathalut ut da Mathalp Semiligu Goudaguda Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 4 No 10 No 4 Mathalut ut da Damanj Sunnabed Core Khoraguda Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 5 No 22 Koraput No 7 Ash & Red odi a Mud Ponds Champapo Damanj Sunnabed Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 5 No 22 Koraput No 7 dar odi a Charangagu Sunnabe Sunnabe Sunnabed Buffer Yes 0 0 No 5 No 5 No 18 Koraput No 5 da da da a Dolaigu Dolaigud Sunnabed Control Area Kadamguda Yes 0 0 No 5 No 5 No 25 Koraput No 12 da a a Source: Field Survey (2011) Primary schools exist in all the villages; upper primary schools are available in seven villages, higher secondary schools exist only in one village, while ‘Girijan Vidya Vikas Kendra’ (run by ITDAs) do not exist in any of the villages, people have to go to either Koraput or Semiliguda to avail this facility. 22
  • 23.  Further, although hospital (territory level) does not exist in any of the sample villages, Primary Health Centre (PHC) did exist only in one village (Analabadi); two sample villages have health sub-centres and no Veterinary Hospitals available in any of the villages. The situation regarding other infrastructure such as metallic road, ‘all weather roads’ is better in sample villages. Further, half of the sample villages have ICDS centers and strikingly only two villages have Fair Price Shops/PDS outlets. 23
  • 24. Health Facilities in Sample Villages Primary Health sub Hospital PHC Veterinary Hospital centre Area Zone Village Ava Distan Ava Distan Ava Distan Ava Distan Place Place Place Place il ce il ce il ce il ce Kakirigum Bitharag Bitharag Bitharag Core Kapsiput No 3 No 3 No 3 No 7 ma uda uda uda Minin Damanjo Mathalpu Mathalpu Mathalput g Area Kardiguda No 7 No 7 No 7 No 7 Buff di t t er Damanjo Mathalpu Mathalput Putraghati No 5 No 5 Littiguda No 5 No 5 di t 0 Analabadi Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 Core Mathalpu Mathalpu Mathalpu Mathalput Refine Ambogam No 3 No 3 No 3 No 3 t t t ry Pudagud Pudagud Pudagud Pudaguda Area Mujanga No 8 No 8 No 8 No 8 Buff a a a er Marichama Damanjo Mathalpu Mathalpu Mathalput No 4 No 4 No 4 No 4 l di t t Damanjo Mathalpu Mathalpu Mathalput Goudaguda No 4 No 4 No 4 No 4 di t t Ash & Core Khoraguda Yes Damanjo Mathalpu Mathalpu Mathalput 5 No 5 No 5 No 5 Red di t t Mud Champapo Damanjo Mathalpu Mathalpu Mathalput Yes 5 No 5 No 5 No 5 Ponds dar di t t Buff Charangag Sunnabe Sunnabe Sunnabe Dumbriput No 5 No 5 No 5 No 10 er uda da da da Control Kadamgud Sunnabe Kudali No 12 No 15 Kudali No 15 Kudali No 15 Area a da Source: Field Survey (2011) 24
  • 25. Other Infrastructure Facilities in the Sample Villages All Weather Metalled Road Bus stop Post office PHC Sub center ICDS PDS/Fair price road Area Zone Village Distan Dista Distan Distanc Distanc Distanc Distanc Avail Place Avail Place Avail Place Avail Place Avail Place Avail Place Avail Place ce nce ce e e e e Junctio Bithara Bithara Core Kapsiput Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 3 No 3 No 3 Yes 0 0 No 3 Girliput n guda guda Putrag Littigud Mathal Littigud Mining Kardiguda Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 2 No 3 No 7 Yes 0 0 No 2 hati a put a Buffer Putrag Littigud Mathal Littigud Putraghati Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 1 No 5 No 5 Yes 0 0 No 5 hati a put a Analabadi Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Core Mathal Littigud Mathal Littigud Ambogam Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 3 No 5 No 3 Yes 0 0 No 5 put a put aRefinery Daman Mujanga Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 7 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 jodi Buffer Mathal Marichamal Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 4 Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 put Benji Mathal Charan Mathal Gouda Charan Goudaguda Yes 0 0 No 2 No 4 No 3 No 4 No 0.5 No 3 di put gul put guda II gul Daman Damanj Mathal Bodug Ghattu Core Khoraguda Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 5 No 5 No 5 No 5 No 7Ash & Red jodi odi put uda gudaMud Pond Champapoda Daman Damanj Mathal Bodug Ghattu Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 5 No 5 No 5 No 5 No 7 r jodi odi put uda guda Charangagud Choga Chog Sunna Sunnab Sunnab Ghattu Buffer No 2 No 2 No 5 No 5 No 5 Yes 0 0 No 4 a n an beda eda eda guda Semilig Semilig Raniko Raniko Control Area Kadamguda Yes 0 0 Yes 0 0 No 2 Center No 6 No 6 No 1 No 1 uda uda na na Source: Field Survey (2011) 25
  • 26.  CPRs constitute significant source for livelihood enhancement of the poor in the villages. Mostly their access is open to all the sections of the villages. NALCO has acquired village common land in eight out of twelve sample villages. Unfortunately no compensation was paid by NALCO to village communities and the reason offered is that these are forest lands and having no ‘pattas’. Even in case of grazing land, the same scenario is observed. The loss of these important resources has huge bearing on the live stock holding capacity of the communities. 26
  • 27. Job Benefits Offered by NALCO If yes how permanent job opportunities in many hhs got monthly Area Zone Village If no, state reason Nature of job type of job NALCO permanent income employment Nalco says that job were offered to Core Kapsiput No those who have lost home and 0 0 0 0 homestead Mining Area Nalco says that job were offered to Kardiguda No those who have lost home and 0 0 0 0 Buffer homestead Putraghati No Still pending 0 0 0 0 Messengers, Peons, Semi-skilled 30000 to Analabadi Yes 0 317 Operators, & Un-skilled 60000 Core helpers etc Nalco says that job were offered to Ambogam No those who have lost home and 0 0 0 0Refinery Area homestead Nalco says that job were offered to Mujanga No those who have lost home and 0 0 0 0 homestead Buffer Nalco says that job were offered to Marichamal No those who have lost home and 0 0 0 0 homestead Nalco says that job were offered to Goudaguda No those who have lost home and 0 0 0 0 homestead Messengers, Peons, Semi-skilled 30000 to Khoraguda Yes 0 20 Core Operators, & Un-skilled 60000Ash & Red Mud helpers etc Pond Messengers, Peons, Semi-skilled 30000 to Champapodar Yes 0 52 Operators, & Un-skilled 60000 helpers etc Nalco says that job were offered to Buffer Charangaguda No those who have lost home and 0 0 0 0 homestead Control Area Kadamguda No Not affected area - Control village 0 0 0 0 Source: Field Survey (2011) 27
  • 28.  The data on job benefits offered to HHs by NALCO - except in three villages (one village namely Analabadi in the core zone of refinery and two villages namely Kharaguda and Champapodar in the core zone of Ash & Red Mud Ponds) no permanent jobs were offered by NALCO. NALCO says that jobs were offered to only those villages whose lands and homesteads have been lost. In the process partially or indirectly affected villages were not benefitted by NALCO jobs even though they lost employment opportunities in their native villages. The natures of jobs offered were also mostly unskilled like messengers, peons, helpers, operators etc. Since it is govt. employment, the monthly income (salaries) given to these job holders is substantial. 28
  • 29.  Although NALCO did not offer large scale permanent employment, it is offering contract employment in all the villages. However, the number of HHs getting contract employment is varying across the sample villages. In Refinery Core Zone village, Analabadi as many as 220 HHs are getting contract employment, there few villages where very few households (as low as three, twelve and twenty HHs) are getting contract employment. It may be due to the vicinity factor of these villages in relation to the Refinery location. The wages offered is inform across all the villages and ranging between Rs.197-290 per day and their monthly income works out around Rs.5000/- to 6000/-. 29
  • 30. Housing Particulars of the Sample HHs (By Type) Mining Refinery ARMP Type of House Core Zone Buffer zone Core Zone Buffer zone Core Zone Buffer zone Thatched . 2 (2.7) 1 (0.5) 5 (5.7) 3 (7.5) 2 (2) Semi Pucca 38 (100) 70 (94.6) 176 (83.4) 83 (94.3) 35 (87.5) 21 (84) Pucca . 2 (2.7) 34 (16.1) . 2 (5) 2 (8) Grand Total 38 (100) 74 (100) 211 (100) 88 (100) 40 (100) 25 (100) Source: Field Survey (2011)• The data on the housing in the mining core zone - all the 38 HHs (100 percent) live in semi pucca houses whereas in buffer zone also, a majority of them (94.6 percent) have semi pucca houses.• It is significant to know that very few HHs in the mining area have pucca houses. In the refinery area core zone, a large majority (83.4 percent) of the HHs live in semi-pucca houses and a small number of HHs (16.1 percent) do live in pucca houses, while in buffer zone a large majority of the HHs (94.3 percent) live in semi-pucca houses and a small number of HHs (5.7 percent) do live in thatched houses.• In ARMP area also predominantly have semi-pucca houses. On the whole, it may be observed that in all project areas a large majority live in semi-pucca houses and very few HHs live either in pucca or in thatched houses 30
  • 31. Economic Activities of the Individuals (Primary) Mining Refinery ARMP Core Zone Buffer Zone Core Zone Buffer Zone Core Zone Buffer Zone Occupations Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 20 37 57 101 142 139 58 42 Agriculture (21.3) (39.4) (60.6) 35 (20) 66 (37.7) (57.7) 56 (14.5) 86 (22.3) (36.9) 64 (28.6) 75 (33.5) (62.1) 23 (23.2) 35 (35.4) (58.6) 19 (30.2) 23 (36.5) (66.7) 1 2 22 8 5 Wage Labour (1.1) (2.1) 3 (3.2) 4 (2.3) 12 (6.9) 16 (9.1) 12 (3.1) 10 (2.6) (5.71) 7 (3.1) (3.6) 15 (6.7) 4 (4.0) (5.1) 9 (9.1) 5 (7.9) 4 (6.3) 9 (14.3) 6 106 1 16 NALCO Employ . . . . . . 100 (26.0) (1.6) (27.5) 1 (0.4) (0.4) 16 (16.2) (16.2) NALCO Contract/Wage 29 4 33 48 86 17 59 1 15 1 Labour (30.9) (4.3) (35.1) 42 (24) 6 (3.4) (27.4) 72 (18.7) 14 (3.6) (22.3) 42 (18.8) (7.6) (26.3) 14 (14.1) (1.0) (15.2) 6 (9.5) (1.6) 7 (11.1) 1 5 29 2 1 1 Others (1.1) 1 (1.1) 7 (4) 3 (1.7) 10 (5.7) 24 (6.2) (1.3) (7.53) 8 (3.6) (0.9) 10 (4.5) (1.0) 1 (1.0) 4 (6.3) (1.6) 5 (7.9) 51 43 94 175 385 224 99 63 Total (54.3) (45.7) (100) 88 (50.3) 87 (49.7) (100) 264 (68.6) 121 (31.4) (100) 122 (54.5) 102 (45.5) (100) 57 (57.6) 42 (42.4) (100) 34 (54.0) 29 (46.0) (100) Source: Field Survey (2011)• The various economic activities of the individuals of the sample households reveal that the members are engaged in diverse occupations in all the regions. 31
  • 32. Mean Household Income of Villages Area Zone Mean HHs Income (Rs) Mean Per capita Income (Rs.) Mean HHs size (No.) Core Zone 55472.6 12114.7 4.6Mining Buffer Zone 57219.6 13484.9 4.2 Core Zone 225875.2 44541.7 5.1Refinery Buffer Zone 57874.7 12637.6 4.6 Core Zone 117291 19630.3 6 ARMP Buffer Zone 58148 11182.3 5.2 Source: Field Survey (2011) 32
  • 33. Landholding details of the Sample Households in Sample Villages Mining Area Refinery Area ARMP Category of Occupations Core Buffer Core Buffer Core Buffer Large Farmers 0 (0.0) 1 (1.4) 5 (2.4) 7 (8.0) 1 (2.5) 1 (4) Medium Farmers 6 (15.8) 2 (2.7) 7 (3.3) 6 (6.8) 4 (10) 5 (20) Small & Marginal Farmers 22 (57.9) 43 (58.1) 38 (18.0) 49 (55.7) 12 (30) 13 (52) Farm & non-Farm Labour 10 (26.3) 28 (37.8) 60 (28.4) 25 (28.4) 7 (17.5) 6 (24) Others (Salaried) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 101 (47.9) 1 (1.1) 16 (40) 0 (0.0) Total HHs 38 (100) 74 (100) 211 (100) 88 (100) 40 (100) 25 (100) Source: Field Survey (2011) 33
  • 34. Household having Livestock in Bauxite Mining Area Mining Refinery ARMP Livestock Core Zone Buffer Zone Core Zone Buffer Zone Core Zone Buffer Zone 47 22 13 Yes 22 (57.9) 33 (44.6) 64 (30.3) (53.4) (55) (52) 41 18 12 No 16 (42.1) 41 (55.4) 147 (69.7) (46.6) (45) (48) 40 25 Total 38 (100) 74 (100) 211 (100) 88 (100) (100) (100) Source: Field Survey (2011)• Possession of livestock gives incremental and additional incomes to the rural families, which is very common. Out of the total 476 households, 201 HHs possess livestock and the rest (275) do not have any livestock assets. 34
  • 35. Details of Household Physical Assets Mining Refinery ARMP Particulars Core Zone Buffer Zone Core Zone Buffer Zone Core Zone Buffer Zone % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs % of HHs Cycle 23.7 55.4 66.8 55.7 52 80 Radio 2.6 4.1 7.6 9.1 10 16 Fan 0.00 13.5 66.4 18.2 37.5 0.00 Almirah 0.00 13.5 51.7 12.5 27.5 0.00 TV 0.00 24.3 63.5 18.2 37.5 0.00 Fridge 0.00 1.4 26.5 1.1 27.5 0.00 Scooter 5.3 17.6 47.9 10.2 47.5 0.00 Car 0.00 2.7 9 0.00 0.00 0.00 Watch 44.7 66.2 86.7 60.2 82.5 68 Agricultural Assets 71.1 68.9 23.2 78.4 52.5 64 Source: Field Survey (2011)• The data on the households having various physical assets such as Cycle, Radio, Television, Fan, Almariah, Fridge, Scooter, Car, Watch, agricultural assets etc., reveal that having agricultural assets in large number in most of the regions.• It is very striking to note that only in refinery core zone a significant proportion have Television (63.5 percent), Fridges (26.5 percent) and Scooter (47.9 percent) and ARMP core zone (47.5 percent have Scooter, 7.5 percent have Television and 27.5 percent have fridges). This is again due to their permanent employment in the factory. 35
  • 36. Households Source of Borrowing Mining Refinery ARMP Sources Core Buffer Core Buffer Core Buffer Bank 2 (33.3) 12 (80) 57 (69.5) 18 (60) 14 (93.3) 6 (54.5) Cooperative Society 1 (16.7) 0.00 4 (4.9) 2 (6.7) 0.00 0.00 SHG 2 (33.3) 2 (13.3) 6 (7.3) 7 (23.3) 0.00 5 (45.5) Money Lender 1 (16.7) 1 (6.7) 15 (18.3) 3 (10) 1 (6.7) 0.00 Total 6 (100) 15 (100) 82 (100) 30 (100) 15 (100) 11 (100) Source: Field Survey (2011)• A total number of 159 hhs are found borrowing loans from different sources out of total sample of 476 households in the project area.• Sourcewise borrowing reveal that banks are the chief lenders to the sample hhs (33.3 percent in mining core area and 80.0 percent in buffer zone, 69.5 percent in refinery core zone and 60.0 percent in buffer zone; 93.3 percent in ARMP core zone and 54.5 percent in buffer zone) followed Self Help Groups (SHGs). 36
  • 37. Household Health Status HHs Health Status Area Zone Excellent Good Fair Partial Grand Total Core Zone 1 38 . 32 (84.2) 5 (13.2) (2.6) (100) Mining Buffer Zone 1 74 . 47 (63.5) 26 (35.1) (1.4) (100) Core Zone 1 211 (0.5) 140 (66.4) 61 (28.9) 9 (4.3) (100) Refinery Buffer Zone 1 88 . 53 (60.2) 34 (38.6) (1.1) (100) Core Zone 1 40 . 21 (52.5) 18 (45) (2.5) (100) ARMP Buffer Zone 25 . 10 (40) 15 (60) . (100) Source: Field Survey (2011)• A qualitative assessment was done in the project area and based on that assessment health status was ranked as ‘excellent’, ‘good’, ‘fair’, ‘partial’.• A large majority of them have expressed their health status as ‘good’ (84.2 percent in mining core zone and 63.5 percent in buffer area; 66.4 percent in refinery core zone and 60.2 percent in buffer zone; 52.5 percent in ARMP core zone and 40.0 percent in buffer zone) followed by ‘fair’. Very less number of hhs have expressed their health status as ‘partial’. 37
  • 38. Views on Existence of Plant/Mining and Its Influence Area Zone Beneficial partially Helpful No Problems Partially Hazarding Grand Total 33 5 Core . . 38 (100) (86.8) (13.2) Mining 7 61 6 Buffer . 74 (100) (9.5) (82.4) (8.1) 24 56 111 20 Core 211 (100) (11.4) (26.5) (52.6) (9.5) Refinery 1 23 56 8 Buffer 88 (100) (1.1) (26.1) (63.6) (9.1) 3 1 15 21 Core 40 (100) (7.5) (2.5) (37.5) (52.5) ARMP 10 4 Buffer . 11 (44) 25 (100) (40) (16) Source: Field Survey (2011)• The views of the sample households on the influence of the plant/mining in the project area shows that only small proportion mentioned that it is beneficial.• A large majority of them expressed that there are no problems with the plant/ mining.• There are few households in the project area that mentioned about the influence of the project as ‘Partially Hazarding’. 38
  • 39. Details of Household Total Income from Various Sources Monthly Income* The figures in NALCO Wage Total Annual brackets are Area Zone Agriculture NALCO Salaries Wage/Contract Others Total HHs Works Income average monthly Salaries income of the household 1568180 73930 Core Zone 395250 (18.5) 0 97200 (4.6) 2134560 (100) 177880 (4681) 38 (73.5) (3.5) Mining 2708530 483780 446460 Buffer Zone 646200 (15.1) 0 4284970 (100) 357080.8 (4825) 74 (63.2) (11.3) (10.4) 2318580 4996914 993470 2112740 Core Zone 35750449 (77.4) 46172153 (100) 3847679 (18235) 211 (5) (10.8) (2.2) (4.6) Refinery 1485575 720000 2954160 755950 Buffer Zone 366210 (5.8) 6281895 (100) 523491.3 (5949) 88 (23.6) (11.5) (47) (12) 389800 3171300 1059960 184300 Core Zone 72275 (1.5) 4877635 (100) 406469.6 (10162) 40 (8) (65) (21.7) (3.8) ARMP 276000 405400 393520 Buffer Zone 386500 (26.4) 0 1461420 (100) 121785 (5114) 25 (18.9) (27.7) (26.9) Source: Field Survey (2011)• The incomes of the sample households from the various sources clearly show that NALCO salaries constitute chief source (incase of refinery core zone (77.4 percent) and ARMP core zone 65.0 percent).• Followed by NALCO wage/contract salaries• The incomes from agriculture, wage works and others are not very significant. 39
  • 40. Details of New House given by the NALCO If Yes, New House New House Received by respondents Type of house If Not reason for not receiving new house Constructed by whom Area Zone Family Not affected Not lost home NA Yes No Total NALCO Tined Roof member Pending household and homestead received house Core . . 38 (100) 38 (100) . . 20 (52.6) . . 18 (47.4) Mining Buffer . . 74 (100) 74 (100) . . 34 (45.9) . . 40 (54.1) Core . 154 (73) 57 (27) 211 (100) 154 (100) 154 (100) 14 (24.6) 5 (8.8) 2 (3.5) 36 (63.2) Refinery Buffer . . 88 (100) 88 (100) . . 45 (51.1) . . 43 (48.9) Core . 16 (40) 24 (60) 40 (100) 16 (100) 16 (100) 5 (20.8) . 1 (4.2) 18 (75) Ash & Red Mud Pond Buffer . . 25 (100) 25 (100) . . 3 (12) . . 22 (88) Source: Field Survey (2011)• The data on the houses allotted by NALCO to the sample households clearly show that only in refinery core zone (73.0 percent) and ARMP core zone (40.0 percent) significant portion of the households received new houses given by NALCO. 40
  • 41. Households Expectations from NALCO Expectation Area Zone Expecting Job to Job offer for all Access health card Local priority for NA Job regularization husband’s Others Grand Total hereditary Affected People for all all works job/Fathers job Core 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 5 (13.2) 8 (21.1) 25 (65.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 38 (100) Mining Buffer 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 23 (31.1) 2 (2.7) 40 (54.1) 0 (0.0) 8 (10.8) 1 (1.4) 74 (100) Core 0 (0.0) 94 (44.5) 47 (22.3) 2 (0.9) 11 (5.2) 23 (10.9) 16 (7.6) 18 (8.5) 211 (100) Refinery Buffer 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (8) 6 (6.8) 44 (50) 0 (0.0) 14 (15.9) 17 (19.3) 88 (100) Core 0 (0.0) 10 (25) 11 (27.5) 0 (0.0) 11 (27.5) 0 (0.0) 4 (10) 4 (10) 40 (100) ARMP Buffer 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (12) 19 (76) 1 (4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (8) 25 (100) Source: Field Survey (2011)• The expectations of the affected households from the NALCO are in the nature of ‘Job regularisation’ to those who are on contract, followed by ‘Job offer for all affected people’.• And ‘others’ that include adequate water facility, access to free education, new houses for R & R colony, free electricity, monitoring of drainage and cleanliness of the roads etc. 41
  • 42. Conclusions and Way Forward• The most vulnerable sections, viz., scheduled tribes and scheduled castes who have lost lands, houses and other assets could not able to get back their livelihood status as a result of cash compensation policy.• The fact that land scarcity was not there in 80’s as is felt now, Nalco should have adopted land to land policy.• As a result, the above sections were reduced from farmers to casual laborers in farm and non-farm sectors.• In the year 1984 – 85, NALCO started Peripheral Development Programme.• The area which is 10 Kms from Refinery and Mining considered as a Peripheral Area. Under this programme, NALCO has promised to provide all the facilities like health, education, roads, drinking water and infrastructure development (school building etc.) 42
  • 43. • The NALCO’s Employment policy is that once the displaced persons, who were provided with employment happened to die due to ill health, their spouses were not provided jobs even on humanitarian grounds, sounds faulty.• Another issue of concern is that NALCO is getting water from the Kerandi River which is 8 km far away from the refinery.• The pipeline is connected to carry water from the river. Due to laying of water pipeline some of the villages have lost their agriculture lands.• It was told that during the pilot survey people made request to the NALCO to get water access for drinking from the pipeline but NALCO has simply denied.• People are saying that there is huge water going wastage due to leakages.• Besides the problems enlisted above, there are certain environmental and ecological problems observed in the field.• In Goudaguda village, there are two pipelines; one is Caustic Soda pipeline and another one is Septic water pipeline which adjacent to this village, due to pipeline leakages the Caustic mud and septic water flows into agriculture fields hence the agriculture fields fertility is affected and the crop production has been decreased. 43
  • 44. • Transport is the major problem from refinery to refinery surrounding villages.• Male employees, are using bicycle or motor cycle for their transport and women trek long distances by walk.• It is very difficult because they have to walk 9 to 10 Kms on Kutcha road to reach refinery and time takes more than one hour.• They are expecting NALCO to provide transport facility to reach refinery and on time.• During Land Acquisition process NALCO has promised to give employment opportunity to all the affected persons in the household.• But later NALCO has disagreed to provide employment opportunity to every affected person in the household. 44
  • 45. • The affected households became addicted to certain social evils such as liquor and drugs (particularly among youth)• It was found that in Analabadi rehabilitation colony most of the employees are addicted to alcohol and tobacco chewing etc.• On the whole, resettlement mechanism adopted by NALCO is not very satisfactory and more over it is found that NALCO did not have CSR initiative.• NALCO has generally passed the money towards Resettlement and rehabilitation of PAFs to the Government of Odisha and under the leadership of the District Collector. 45
  • 46. Way forward• the NALCO has to rethink about affected people’s problems and do some of the welfare activities for the people interms of livelihoods promotion, Health & Education, Skill Development Activities, Infrastructure facilities etc.Livelihoods:• A comprehensive livelihood portfolio needs to be created for the project affected population in all area interms of providing Income Generation Activities (IGAs) and developing skills among the local communities. NALCO needs to this in conjunction with various development departments of the district.Basic AmenitiesHealth:• Nalco has promised to provide health service to the all affected people from the NALCO surrounding villages.• NALCO has issued health cards to the affected people who got permanent employment in the NALCO and in addition to two villages i.e., Ambogam and Goudaguda villages because these two villages are more affected villages by the refinery and ARMP. 46
  • 47. Education:•NALCO is giving free education to the affected people who got employment inNALCO, rest are not accessing the free education. In this area, the literacy rateis very less especially in women literacy rate.•The reason for the above, the people do not have access better education.•Incase NALCO provides free education to the affected villages, there will bemuch more benefits to the girl child to get education. NALCO must think on thisservice.Drinking Water:•In all affected villages, people do not have access to protected water.Mostly, they depend on stream water for the drinking and other householdneeds.•Due to contaminated water people are suffering health problems likewater born disease etc.•If NALCO can take this initiative, many people from the surrounding villagesare benefited and they can access protected drinking water facility. 47
  • 48. Skill Development Activities and Sustainable Livelihoods• NALCO could not provide any skill development activities to the affected people. Most of the affected people main livelihood source is agriculture and NALCO contract/wage labour works.• Awareness activities and also some training programs should be taken up by the NALCO with some development agency/ the Government to make these people to have alternative livelihoods for their future sustainable livelihoods.• Skill development trainings would certainly help the women folk to opt for alternative livelihoods 48
  • 49. THANK YOU