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Principles of Nutrition by NHI (Vitamins)
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Principles of Nutrition by NHI (Vitamins)


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  • 1. VitaminsVitamins are special chemicals found in food. 132
  • 2. VitaminsVita = LifeAmine = Containing Nitrogen The First Vitamin Discovered Contained Nitrogen
  • 3. Vitamins Organic Essential Nutrients Requirements Minute (Small) Perform Specific Functions Growth Reproduction Maintenance of Health and LifeVitamins are organic substances which the body require in small amounts toperform specific functions that promote growth, normal metabolism, reproductionand normal maintenances of health and life. 134
  • 4. Vitamins Vitamins Differ from Energy-Yielding Nutrients such as Carbohydrate, Proteins and Fat Structure Function Food ContentsVitamins do not supply energy but are essential to metabolic activities and help inthe utilization to the proximate principles.They are also involved in the utilization of the major nutrients like proteins, CHO &fats. 135
  • 5. VitaminsVitamins Similar to Energy-Yielding Nutrients: Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Vital to Life Organic
  • 6. VitaminsAvailable in FoodsOrganic Destructible: Light: Riboflavin (B2) Oxygen: Vitamin C Heat : Thiamin (B1) and Vitamin C
  • 7. VitaminsSolubility: Hydrophilic: (Water-Soluble) Carbohydrate, Protein Vitamins B and C Hydrophobic: (Fat-Soluble) Fat Vitamins A, D, E, K
  • 8. Precursors Provitamins Inactive Vitamin Form Chemically Changed to Active Form of VitaminsSubstances that occur in foods which are not themselves vitamins, but are capableof conversion into vitamins in the body e.g; carotens are the pro-vitamin of vitaminA. 139
  • 9. Riboflavin-Vitamin B2 Functions Coenzymes FMN and FAD Energy Metabolism Supports Normal Vision Supports Skin Health Food SourcesVitamin is a precursor of two enzymes—Flavin-mononucleotide & Flavin adenine di-nuleotied.Release of energy from foods as it effects growth and cellular metabolismNeeds in normal vision and may help against cataract.Sources– Milk, eggs, organ meat, mushrooms, shellfish, cereals and pulses. 149
  • 10. Riboflavin-Vitamin B2 Deficiency Disease Ariboflavinosis Deficiency Symptoms Skin Rash Cracks and Redness of Mouth Sensitivity to Light
  • 11. Niacin-Vitamin B3 Functions Coenzymes NAD and NADP Energy Metabolism Nervous System Digestive System Food SourcesNAD & NADP- are the active form of niacin named as nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.-These coenzymes are involved in more than 50 different metabolic reactions.-Extracts energy from CHO and glucose.-proper nervous system functioning.Sources- Organ meats, liver, poultry, fish, milk, eggs, wheat germ, whole wheat,yeast. 151
  • 12. Niacin-Vitamin B3 Deficiency Disease Pellegra Deficiency Symptoms-A clinical condition due to niacin deficiency, characterized as 3Ds.-Weakness, irritability, burning tongue as the mucous membrane of the mouth isinflamed.-High doses results in irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. 152
  • 13. Biotin Food SourcesOriginally called vitamin H.Egg, liver, kidney, yeast, pulses, nuts, chocolates, cauliflower and greenvegetables. 153
  • 14. Biotin Functions Coenzyme Energy Metabolism Fat Synthesis Amino Acid Metabolism Glycogen Synthesis--Biotin coenzyme participate in the metabolism of fat and CHO in the synthesis offatty acids and amino acids.--Helps metabolize proteins, fats and CHO & thus helps to produce energy in bodycells.--Assists in the synthesis of FA.--Incorporate AA into proteins & help with the formation of DNA & RNA. 154
  • 15. BiotinDeficiency Symptoms Loss of Appetite and Nausea Abnormal Heart Action Depression Muscle Pain and Weakness
  • 16. Pantothenic Acid-Vitamin B5 Food SourcesSources– Whole grain cereals, vegetables, peanuts, cheese, eggs-yolk, organmeats. 156
  • 17. Pantothenic Acid-Vitamin B5 Functions Coenzyme A Energy MetabolismThis vitamin is a constituent of co-enzyme A and is present in all living matter.Important for cellular metabolism of CHO & fats to release energy. 157
  • 18. Pantothenic Acid-Vitamin B5 Deficiency Symptoms Insomnia Fatigue
  • 19. Pyridoxine-Vitamin B6 Functions Coenzymes PLP and PMP Amino Acid Metabolism Fatty Acid Metabolism Converts Tryptophan to Niacin Food SourcesPyridoxine and its co-enzymes have a wide variety of metabolic functionsespecially—-AA metabolism and its transportation.-Production of antibodies, RBC, synthesis and functioning of both DNA & RNA.- Fish, poultry, egg yolk, soya- bean, bananna, potatoes, cauliflower. 159
  • 20. Pyridoxine-Vitamin B6 Deficiency Disease Anemia (small-cell type)Due to the deficiency of B6 , the RBCs are pale and small and the Anemia is said tobe Hypochromic and Microcytic.
  • 21. Folate-Folic Acid-Folacin Functions DNA Synthesis New Cell Formation Food SourcesSources– Spinach, liver, peas, sweet potato, bean sprout, wheat germ, soya flour,milk, fruits. 161
  • 22. Folate-Folic Acid-Folacin Deficiency Disease Anemia (large-cell type) Deficiency Symptoms Diarrhea Depression/Mental Confusion-Deficiency leads to impaired RBC production.-Megaloblastic anaemiaIf the maturation of the RBCs in the bone marrow is impaired by lack of Folic acid orVitamin B12, the cells which enter the blood stream are irregular in size and shape,but usually on average larger than normal. Such anemia is orthochromic andmegalocytic. It is usually referred to as Megaloblastic Anemia. 162
  • 23. Cobalamin-Vitamin B12 Functions Coenzymes New Cell Synthesis Fatty Acids Amino Acids Maintain Nerve CellsBulk of body stores of vitamin B12 is in the form of coenzyme B12. 163
  • 24. Cobalamin-Vitamin B12 Food SourcesThis vitamin has cyanide group and cobalt group.From animal foods like goat liver, fish, eggs & milk. 164
  • 25. Cobalamin-Vitamin B12 Deficiency Disease Pernicious Anemia Deficiency Symptoms Fatigue Degeneration of Peripheral Nerves HypersensitivityVariations in the size and shape of the blood cells.Results in peripheral neuropathy. Loss of mental energy, depression, tingling,numbness, diminished or absent sensation in extrimities. 165
  • 26. Ascorbic Acid-Vitamin C Functions Collagen Synthesis Antioxidant Amino Acid Metabolism Absorption of Iron Resistance to InfectionAlso helps to maintain healthy blood vessels. 166
  • 27. Ascorbic Acid-Vitamin C Food SourcesAmala, guava, oranges, all citrious fruits, dark green leafy vegetables, tomatoes,etc. 167
  • 28. Ascorbic Acid-Vitamin C Deficiency Disease Scurvy Deficiency Symptoms--General manifestation of scurvy are fever, rapid pulse, and susceptibility toinjection and wound healing is delayed.--Bleeding gums, common cold, delayed wound healing.--Gastrointestinal disturbances, dysuria, skin sensitivity. 168
  • 29. Fat Soluble Vitamins Fat-Soluble Vitamins
  • 30. Fat Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, K *Differ From Water-Soluble Vitamins Found in Fat and Oily Parts of Foods Insoluble in Water Lymphatic System
  • 31. Fat Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, K *Differ From Water-Soluble Vitamins Greater Risks for Toxicity Stored in Liver and Adipose Tissue Not Readily Excreted 171
  • 32. Vitamin A and Beta-carotene First Fat-Soluble Vitamin Recognized Beta-Carotene, Precursor to Vitamin A Three Forms of Vitamin A (Retinoids) Retinol (an Alcohol) Retinal (an Aldehyde) Retinoic Acid (an Acid)Circulates in the plasma with the specific retinol binding protein. This combination iscalled halo-RBP. 172
  • 33. Beta Carotene as an Antioxidant Protects the Body Against Disease Free Radicals Heart Disease Cancer Arthritis Cataracts-Encourages immune system to produce the cells you need to fight off infection andpromotes rapid recovery.-As anti-oxidant and may aid in reducing the risk of cancer.-Also promotes the growth of healthy bones. 173
  • 34. Retinol-Vitamin A Functions Vision Maintenance of Cornea Mucous Membranes Skin, Bone, and Tooth Growth Food Sources-It is a vision vitamin.-Keeps skin and mucous membranes smooth and supple.-Promotes the growth of bones and teeth.-Sources- Eggs, liver, fish liver oil, milk and milk products & green leafy vegetables. 174
  • 35. Retinol-Vitamin A in Vision Cornea Transportation of Light Energy Nerve Impulses at Retina Supports Growth of Bones Remodeling of Bone-It may be affected in severe vitamin A deficiency. It becomes dull and then cornealscar occurs.-Takes part in the formation of bony matrix. 175
  • 36. Retinol-Vitamin A Deficiency Disease Hypovitaminosis A Deficiency SymptomsChanges in the eyes like night blind ness, xeropthalmia, skin changes ,effects themucous membrane of the respiratory tract, alimentary tract and genito-urinary tract.Toxicity– Fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, irritability,cracking lips, dry skin and hair loss, swelling over long bones. 176
  • 37. Retinol-Vitamin A Deficiency Vitamin A Stores: 90% in Liver Adequate Protein Vitamin A Food Sources Global Nutrition Problem Night Blindness 100 Million Children with DeficiencyIn liver it is stored in the form of retinyl esters. 177
  • 38. Calciferol-Vitamin D Significant Sources Food SunlightAlso called Sun shine vitamin. Skin prepares vitamin D in the presence of sunlight. 178
  • 39. Calciferol-Vitamin D from the Sun Natural Exposure to Sunlight Sun Imposes No Risk of Toxicity Prolonged Exposure Degrades the Vitamin D Precursor
  • 40. Calciferol-Vitamin D from the Sun Ultraviolet Rays of the Sun Dark Skinned People Prone to Rickets Deficiency More Likely in Elderly Vitamin D Fortified Foods or Supplements-as it reduces the production of vitamin D.-Osteomalacia is more common in adults. The calcium deficiency results in de-mineralization of bones.-should be taken carefully. 180
  • 41. Calciferol-Vitamin D Functions Raises Blood Calcium and Phosphorus Hormone Organs: Intestines, Kidneys, Bones Stimulates Absorption from GI Tract Bone GrowthMaintain the blood (plasma) Ca & P levels.Acts like a hormone.Vitamin D main site of action is in the small intestine where promotes Ca & Pabsorption from the gut & also has direct action on the gut.Raises concentration of plasma Ca & P to promote bone deposition. 181
  • 42. Calciferol-Vitamin D Deficiency Disease Rickets Osteomalacia Deficiency SymptomsDeformity of the weight bearing bones, knock knees, bowing of legs.Loss of bone mineral.Pain in bones.Excessive thirst, diarrhea, nausea, weakness & headach. 182
  • 43. Tocopherol-Vitamin E 1922, Discovery in Vegetable Oils Anti sterility Factor = Tocopherol Compound Named Vitamin E Alpha Beta Gamma DeltaAlpha-Tocopherol is the most common and the most active of the seven mentionedforms. 183
  • 44. Tocopherol-Vitamin EFood Sources 20% = Vegetable Oils 20% = Fruits and Vegetables 15% = Grain ProductsAnimal Fats: Meat and Milk FatContain Little or No Vitamin E
  • 45. Tocopherol-Vitamin E Functions Antioxidant Stabilization of Cell Membranes Regulation of Oxidation Reactions Protection of PUFA Protection of Vitamin A-Natural antioxident. It helps to reduce oxidation of lipid membranes, USFA &breakdown of other nutrients by oxygen.-Protect the cell membrane destruction.-It reacts with free radicals & oxidizing agents.-Found in cell membrane that contain PUFA. It inhibits the reaction involvingoxygen.-It protects both vitamin A & carotene from oxidation. 185
  • 46. Vitamin E as an Antioxidant Oxidation Transformation of Energy Fuels to ATP Oxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protection of Lungs Air Pollutants (Nitrogen or Ozone) Protects Red Blood Cells-prevents the oxidation of USFA-protects lungs from oxidative damage from environmental substances.-protects RBC membrane from oxidative damage. 186
  • 47. Tocopherol-Vitamin E Deficiency Rare in Humans Fat Malapsorption Cystic Fibrosis Causes of Vitamin E Deficiency Erythrocyte HemolysisDeficiency– low fat diet, malabsorption syndrome or after gastric surgery.RBC hemolysis occur more easily in vitamin E deficiency. 187
  • 48. Vitamin K Blood Clotting “K” = Danish Word Koagulation (Coagulation or Clotting) 13 Different Proteins and Calcium Vitamin K Essential Synthesis of Protein Blood-Clotting Process Calcium and thromboplastin Fibrinogen Vitamin K (a soluble (a phospholipid) from blood protein) platelets Prothrombin Fibrin Thrombin Precursor (an inactive (a solid (an active protein) clot) enzyme)Originally called Koagulation vitamin. 188
  • 49. Vitamin K Significant Sources Food Non-Food Bacteria in GI Bacterial SynthesisK1 is the naturally occurring form of vitamin K.Bacteria in GI synthesis vitamin K. Normal synthesis is inhibited by the intake of oralantibiotics– K2 vitamin. 189
  • 50. Vitamin KFunctions Blood-Clotting Synthesis Bone Growth
  • 51. Vitamin K Deficiency Deficiency is Rare Bile Production Diarrhea Malabsorption Diseases (Crohn’s) Sulfa Drugs AntibioticsBile production is impaired if there is sever damage to liver as secretion of bile saltsis necessary for normal absorption of vitamin K.In steatrrhoea, ulcerative colitis fats are not absorbed effectively, bleeding due tovitamin K deficiency may occur.Sulfa drugs and antibiotics spoils the GI bacterial flora. 191
  • 52. Vitamin K Deficiency Surgery: Blood Clotting Time Checked Newborn Babies: Sterile Digestive Tract Vitamin K-Producing Bacteria Plasma Prothrombin Concentrations Hemorrhagic DiseaseNew born babies has sterile GI tract for about a week & hence a low bloodprothrombin level.Due to prolonged antibiotic therapy, prevents the growth of intestinal bacteria.Deficiency of vitamin K produces a lowered prothrombin time.Vitamin K deficiency involves abnormal bleeding as in nose bleeding and internalhemorrhage which can be sever. 192