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India Energy Trends, 6 Oct 09 by Girish Sant
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India Energy Trends, 6 Oct 09 by Girish Sant

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Talk by Girsh Sant at launch event of Worldwatch Institute's State of the World 2009, Indian Edition produced by CEE

Talk by Girsh Sant at launch event of Worldwatch Institute's State of the World 2009, Indian Edition produced by CEE

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  • This slide show was presented at the launch of the Indian edition of the book ’State of the World 2009: into a warming world’ by Worldwatch Institute and published in India by Centre for Environment Education. The text of the talk is at http://www.greenteacher.org/?page_id=207
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India Energy Trends, 6 Oct 09 by Girish Sant India Energy Trends, 6 Oct 09 by Girish Sant Presentation Transcript

  • Indian Energy Trends: The Climate and Development Challenge Girish Sant, Prayas Energy group Prayas Energy Group http://pesd.stanford.edu • Stanford University 06/10/2009
  • Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions Rs. (Joules/Rs.) (Tons/Joules) = (Tons) Industry Electricity Transportation Residential Prayas Energy Group 2
  • Economy-wide Energy Intensity Total Primary Energy Supply (Btu/$PPP 2000) India’s energy intensity has been falling since the mid-nineties. Current trends would imply continued decline in the near future. Source: Energy Information Administration, USDOE Prayas Energy Group 3
  • Economy Trends and Performance Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions Industry Electricity Transportation Residential Prayas Energy Group 4
  • Energy Intensity – Industry Industrial growth (7% p.a between 2000 - 2005) has decoupled from its energy consumption growth (3% p.a)   Specific Energy Consumption in GJ / ton   Type of 1990 1995 2000 2005 AAGR (1990- Industry 2005) Iron and 41.9 37.6 33.3 29.1 -2.41% Steel Cement 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1 -1.10% Ammonia 55.3 60.4 51.9 42.9 -1.67% Aluminum 399.0 393.8 380.5 364.9 -0.59% Pulp and 35.0 31.3 27.6 24.0 -2.48% Paper Cement industry is the most efficient in the world in terms of electricity use. Source: India Energy Outlook, LBNL,, 2009 Prayas Energy Group 5
  • Industry Mitigation Opportunities • Scale Best Available Technology penetration • Small scale industries (1/3rd of output) • BEE - Designated Consumers • Electricity sector production and delivery - Low plant efficiency (30% vs. best of 40%) - High Transmission/Distribution losses (30%) - Poor price signals to agriculture Prayas Energy Group
  • Where do India’s Emissions Come From? Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions Industry Electricity Transportation Residential Prayas Energy Group 7
  • Modes of Transportation • Buses and rail dominate motorized transport • Non-motorized modes of transport(walking and bicycling) meet more than a quarter of all trips in major cities and greater than half in small towns and rural areas. • Despite high growth India has a relatively low ownership of vehicles: 12 LDVs per 1000 persons. Source: LBNL, 2009 Source: LBNL, 2009 Prayas Energy Group 8
  • Recent Policies and Mitigation opportunities • JNNURM – Development of Public transportation – Road/traffic management infrastructure • Improved urban design • Vehicle Fuel Economy Potential Co-benefits – Reduce accident fatalities – Reduce local pollution, congestion Prayas Energy Group 9
  • Where do India’s Emissions Come From? Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions Industry Electricity Transportation Residential Prayas Energy Group 10
  • Residential Sector – Emissions Impact Indian households have half the energy intensity of households with similar income in Brazil and a third of that of a similar American household • Low meat consumption patterns – Livestock sector contributes to 18% of the GHG emissions. • High Urban Density – Smaller homes – less than 540 sq ft. – Low commuting distances in the cities • Electricity growth linked to income - Only 11 percent households consume more than 100 units in a month, average US household consumes 900 units a month. • 5 percent of CO2 emissions from direct energy use Mitigation: • Providing all households with modern cooking fuels will have a negligible (<1 percent) impact on emissions • BEE – Standards and Labeling program for efficient appliances Prayas Energy Group 11
  • Income x Energy Intensity x Carbon Intensity = Emissions Rs. (Joules/Rs.) (Tons/Joules) = (Tons) Electricity Prayas Energy Group 12
  • Carbon Intensity trends and Drivers Electricity Sector – Contributes to 35% of the GHG emissions in India – Power stations emitted 943 grams of CO2 per kWh of electricity produced in 2005 – more than 50% higher than the average for the world. Mitigation policies and opportunities in the Electricity Sector: – Renovation and Modernization programs of coal plants – Super-critical technology – Renewable energy penetration – Currently ,9.7% of the total installed capacity (does not include large hydro) – Renewable Purchase Obligations – Natural Gas – National Exploration and Licensing Policy Prayas Energy Group 13
  • National Action Plan on Climate Change While India is on a low energy and carbon path compared countries like US and China, the current BAU path for growth is not sustainable and needs a thorough review • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat • National Solar Mission • National Mission for a ‘Green India’ • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture • National Water Mission • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change Prayas Energy Group 14
  • Action possible PMC/PCMC • Municipal Corporation’s procurement of five star appliances • Creation of Research networks for identifying and facilitating knowledge generation and implementation of green and pro people actions/agenda • Reducing the Octroi of all five star appliances coming into the City • Transportation – Increasing the efficiency of Public Transport – Increasing the Taxes on Private vehicles (use money for public transport) • Incentives efficient Commercial Complexes / installations. – Reduced taxes for Energy Conservation Building Codes compliant Commercial buildings. (however this will require some coordination and additional paper work) Prayas Energy Group 15
  • Thank you.. girish@prayaspune.org www.prayaspune.org/peg Prayas Energy Group 16