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CHAPTER 6
                     TRAINING EVALUATION
INTRODUCTION:
   TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS REFERS TO THE BENEFITS THAT TH...
OVERVIEW OF THE EVALUATION PROCESS:
   `CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING STEPS:
         o DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS IN TERMS O...
 TRAINING OUTCOMES ARE CLASSIFIED INTO FIVE CATEGORIES:
     o COGNITIVE OUTCOMES
     o SKILL-BASED OUTCOMES
     o AFFE...
o ARE USED TO DETERMINE THE TRAINING PROGRAM’S
         PAYOFF FOR THE O.
       o INCLUDES REDUCED COSTS, RELATED TO EMPL...
   CRITERION DEFICIENCY REFERS TO THE FAILURE TO
                MEASURE TRAINING OUTCOMES THAT WERE
                EMPH...
2. WHAT ARE RESULTS OUTCOMES? WHY DO YOU THINK THAT
   MOST ORGANIZATIONS DON’T USE RESULTS OUTCOMES FOR
   EVALUATING THE...
CHAPTER 7
               TRADITIONAL TRAINING METHODS
  INTRODUCTION:
   TRAINING METHOD CAN BE CATEGORIZED INTO THREE TY...
 AUDIO VISUAL TECHNIQUE:
       o INCLUDE OVERHEADS SLIDES, & VIDEO
       o USED TO IMPROVE COMMUNICATION KILLS, INTERVI...
o ON THE JOB TRAINING
     o SIMULATIONS
     o CASE STUDIES
     o BUSINESS GAME
     o ROLE PLAY
     o BEHAVIOUR MODELL...
   ACTUAL INSTRUCTION:
               •   TELL THE TRAINEE THE OBJECTIVE OF THE
                   TASK & ASK TO WATCH YO...
   TRAINEES MUST BE MOTIVATED TO LEARN
            DEVELOPMENT TIME IS LONGER
    o FOLLOWING STEPS ARE NECESSARY TO DEV...
o TRAINER DEMONSTRATE EACH STEP OF THE PROCESS,
       EMPHASIZING SAFETY ISSUE IN EACH STEP OF THE
       PROCESS
    o P...
o IT IS A DESCRIPTION ABOUT HOW EMPLOYEE OR AN
       ORGANIZATION DEALT WITH A DIFFICULT SITUATION
    o TRAINEE ARE REQU...
o IT FOCUSES ON INTERPERSONAL RESPONSE; WHILE
      SIMULATION FOCUSES ON PHYSICAL RESPONSE
    o OUTCOMES DEPENDS ON THE ...
   EACH KEY BEHAVIOUR IS REPEATED. THE TRAINEE IS
          SHOWN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE
          BEHAVIOUR OF THE...
GROUP BUILDING METHODS
   REFERS TO TRAINING METHODS DEIGNED TO IMPROVE TEAM OR
    GROUP EFFECTIVENESS
   TRAINING IS D...
 BEST SUITED FOR DEVELOPING SKILLS SUCH AS: SELF-
     AWARENESS PROBLEM-SOLVING; CONFLICT MANAGEMENT &
     RISK TAKING
...
 TEAM MEMBERS BELIEFS ABOUT THE TASK & FEELING TOWARD
    EACH OTHER RELATE TO THE ATTITUDE COMPONENT


ACTION LEARNING
 ...
CHAPTER 8
            USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN TRAINING
INTRODUCTION:
   TECHNOLOGY IS HAVING A MAJOR IMPACT ON THE DEL...
 THESE TECHNOLOGIES REDUCE TRAINING COSTS & MAKE IT
  EASIER TO ADMINISTER TRAINING PROGRAM
 NT ALSO PROVIDES SUPPORT FO...
   THE USER CAN INTERACT WITH TRAINING MATERIAL
        THROUGH USING JOYSTICK OR TOUCH SCREEN
        MONITOR
       CD...
   WEB-BASED TRAINING SUPPORTS VIRTUAL REALITY,
    ANIMATION, INTERACTION, COMMUNICATIONS
    BETWEEN TRAINEE & REAL-TIM...
o A NAVIGATOR OR CONTENT MAP IS
        PROVIDED SO TRAINEE CAN MOVE
        FORWARD OR BACKWARD THROUGH THE
        PROGR...
o VIRTUAL REALITY
       IT PROVIDES TRAINEES WITH A THREE-DIMENSIONAL
        LEARNING EXPERIENCE
       TECHNOLOGY IS ...
INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEMS [ITS]
   REFERS TO INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS USING ARTIFICIAL
     INTELLIGENCE
   THERE ARE TH...
   PROVIDES INFORMATION ABOUT HOW TO PERFORM
             THE TASK
    o TRAINEE MODEL
            PROVIDES INFORMATION ...
 TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRAINING SUPPORT:
    o TRAINING SUPPORT MEAN THAT THESE TECHNOLOGIES
       ARE HELPING TO CAPTURE TRA...
o GROUPWARE:
               IS A SPECIAL TYPE OF SOFTWARE APPLICATION
                THAT ENABLE MULTIPLE USERS TO TRACK...
CONCLUSIONS
   WHILE TRADITIONAL TRAINING METHOD CAN BE EFFECTIVE,
    MANAGER & TRAINER SHOULD CONSIDER USING NT TRAININ...
CHAPTER 9
                    EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT
INTRODUCTION:
    IT REFER TO FORMAL EDUCATION, JOB EXPERIENCES,
     ...
 COMBINATION OF THESE APPROACHES CAN ALSO BE USED BY
    AN O


FORMAL EDUCATION:
   INCLUDES OFF-SITE & ON-SITE PROGRAM...
o THE ENERGY DIMENSION DETERMINES
         WHERE INDIVIDUAL GAIN
         INTERPERSONAL STRENGTH & VITALITY.
         EXTR...
OTHERS & BE MORE SUBJECTIVE IN
                    MAKING DECISION.
          •    LIFE-STYLE [JUDGING VERSUS PERCEIVING]
...
   IS AN INSTRUMENT DESIGNED TO MEASURE
                IMPORTANT FACTORS IN BEING A SUCCESSFUL
                MANAGER
 ...
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS:
   EMPLOYEES CAN DEVELOP SKILLS & INCREASE THEIR
    KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE O & ITS CUSTOMER BY...
IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK REGARDING SPECIFIC AREAS
                OF DISSATISFACTION
               EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT IS REW...
HOW WILL I KNOW I AM
  MAKING PROGRESS?
  ACTIONS:                PROVIDE COURSES, ASSESSMENT, JOB
  WHAT SHOULD I DO TO  ...
ASSESSING THE CULTURE
HOFFSTEADE MODEL
   BESIDES ECONOMIC / MARKET / SOCIAL / POLITICAL FACTORS;
    CULTURAL FACTOR PLA...
 IT DESCRIBES CULTURE IN TERMS OF FIVE SILENT LANGUAGES:
     •    TIME
     •    SPACE
     •    MATERIAL GOODS
     •  ...
•    FOR EXAMPLE, GENEROUS PERKS LIKE COMPANY CAR /
            CLUB MEMBERSHIP / ETC




   FRIENDSHIP:
       •    THE ...
o BEHAVIOURS THAT ISOLATE OR INTIMIDATE MINORITY
           GROUPS MEMBERS IMPROVE
ASSIGNMENTS:
  1. WHAT DOES MANAGING DI...
o LOWER EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT
           o MONEY SPENT ON T& D GOING DOWN THE DRAIN
  •   FROM THE EMPLOYEE’S PERSPECTIVE, L...
   COMMITMENT TO O
                PRIDE IN WORK
        o EMPLOYEE’S VALUE:
                BE AWARE OF SKILL STRENGTH...
•    A CAREER THAT FREQUENTLY CHANGES BASED ON BOTH
       CHANGES IN THE INTERESTS, ABILITIES, & VALUES & CHANGES
       ...
•   THERE ARE FOUR CAREER STAGES
        o EXPLORATION
        o ESTABLISHMENT
        o MAINTENANCE
        o DISENGAGEME...
CAREER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
  •   INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS
        o SELF-ASSESSMENT
               REFERS TO USE ...
ROLES OF EMPLOYEES, HR MANAGERS, MANAGERS, & O IN CM:
  •   EMPLOYEE’S ROLE
        o TAKING RESPONSIBILITY FOR OWN CAREER...
•   RESPONSIBILITIES
                           GENERATE OPTIONS
                           ASSIST IN GOAL SETTING
     ...
4. COMMENT; CAREER DEVELOPMENT IS ALL HOGWASH, FOR
      EVERYBODY CANNOT BECOME THE CEO OF THE COMPANY?
  5. COMMENT: CAR...
o LACK OF ABILITY
        o LACK OF TRAINING
        o LOW NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT
        o UNFAIR PAY DECISIONS OR CONFUSIO...
OBSOLETE BOTH THE EMPLOYEE & THE O SUFFER. THE O’S
      CULTURE PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN ENCOURAGING
      DEVELOPING T...
•   TO ADDRESS THIS ISSUES, THE HR POLICIES HAVE TO BE RE-
      LOOKED, & CHANGED ACCORDINGLY


TYPES OF WORK-LIFE CONFLI...
RELATIONSHIPS WITH THEIR FAMILY MEMBERS OR
                FRIENDS
O POLICIES TO ACCOMMODATE WORK & NON WORK:
  •   COMMUN...
o FLEXIBILITY IN SCHEDULING   ALLOWS OLDER EMPLOYEES
           TO TAKE CARE OF SICK SPOUSES, GO BACK TO UPGRADE
         ...
o O MUST MEET THE NEEDS OF OLDER EMPLOYEES
        o O MUST TAKE STEPS TO PREPARE EMPLOYEES FOR
           RETIREMENT
    ...
3. WHEN ENVIRONMENT IS SO DYNAMIC, HOW IS IT POSSIBLE PLAN
   CAREER OF PEOPLE?
4. COMMENT: ONE CAN REACH THE TOP ONLY BY ...
o TRAINING DEPARTMENTS WILL BECOME VIRTUAL TRAINING
         O
       o TRAINING WILL BECOME MORE INTEGRATED WITH OTHER
  ...
o DESCRIPTIONS OF PROGRAMS & HOW THEY OPERATE ARE
          AS VALUABLE AS KNOWING HOW BEST PRACTICES
          CONTRIBUTE...
WHAT MISCONCEPTIONS DO MANAGERS HAVE ABOUT TRAINING? HOW
COULD YOU CHANGE THOSE MISCONCEPTIONS?
EXPLAIN WHAT YOU BELIEVE A...
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Transcript of "T&D Complete"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 6 TRAINING EVALUATION INTRODUCTION:  TRAINING EFFECTIVENESS REFERS TO THE BENEFITS THAT THE O & THE TRAINEES RECEIVE FROM TRAINING  TRAINING CRITERIA OR OUTCOMES REEFERS TO THE MEASURES THAT THE TRAINER & THE O USE TO EVALUATE TRAINING PROGRAM  TRAINING EVALUATION REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF COLLECTING THE OUTCOMES NEEDED TO DETERMINE IF -TRAINING IS EFFECTIVE  EVALUATION DESIGN REFERS TO FROM WHOM, WHAT, & HOW INFORMATION NEEDED FOR DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM WILL BE COLLECTED REASONS FOR EVALUATING TRAINING  INVESTMENT IN TRAINING IS DONE TO GAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE  FOLLOWING ARE THE TYPES OF EVALUATION: o FORMATIVE o SUMMATIVE  FORMATIVE EVALUATION REFERS TO EVALUATION CONDUCTED TO IMPROVE THE TRAINING PROCESS. ONE METHOD IS PILOT TESTING  SUMMATIVE EVALUATION REFERS TO EVALUATION CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH TRAINEES HAVE CHANGED AS A RESULT OF PARTICIPATING IN THE TRAINING PROGRAM
  2. 2. OVERVIEW OF THE EVALUATION PROCESS:  `CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING STEPS: o DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS IN TERMS OF K/ S / B WHICH SHOULD RESULT IN INCREASING THE CAPABILITIES OF THE EMPLOYEES o IDENTIFY SPECIFIC MEASURABLE TRAINING OBJECTIVES TO GUIDE THE PROGRAM. IF OBJECTIVES ARE CLEAR; THEN IT I EASIER TO IDENTIFY RELEVANT OUTCOMES FOR EVALUATION o DETERMINE THE EVALUATION STRATEGY. CHOOSE AN EVALUATION STRATEGY. PLAN & EXECUTE THE EVALUATION OUTCOMES USED IN TRAINING PROGRAMS  D.L.KIRKPATRICK’S FOUR-LEVEL FRAMEWORK FOR CATEGORIZING TRAINING OUTCOMES IS FOLLOWED LEVEL CRITERIA FOCUS 1 REACTIONS TRAINEE SATISFACTION 2 LEARNING ACQUISITION OF K / S / A /B 3 BEHAVIOUR IMPROVEMENT OF BEHAVIOUR ON THE JOB 4 RESULTS BUSINESS RESULTS ACHIEVED BY THE TRAINEES  BOTH LEVEL 1 & 2 CRITERIA ARE COLLECTED BEFORE TRAINEES RETURN TO THEIR JOB  LEVEL 3 & 4 CRITERIA MEASURE THE DEGREE TO WHICH TRAINEES ARE USING TRAINING CONTENT ON THE JOB. IT DETERMINES TRANSFER OF TRAINING CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING OUTCOMES
  3. 3.  TRAINING OUTCOMES ARE CLASSIFIED INTO FIVE CATEGORIES: o COGNITIVE OUTCOMES o SKILL-BASED OUTCOMES o AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES o RESULTS o RETURN ON INVESTMENT  COGNITIVE OUTCOMES: o DETERMINE THE DEGREE TO WHICH TRAINEES ARE FAMILIAR WITH PRINCIPLES, FACTS, TECHNIQUES, PROCEDURES OR PROCESSES EMPHASIZED IN THE TRAINING PROGRAM o CORRESPONDS TO LEVEL 2 OF KIRPATRICK’S MODEL o PAPER & PENCIL TESTS ARE USED TO ASSESS COGNITIVE OUTCOMES  SKILL BASED OUTCOMES: o IT INCLUDES ACQUISITION OR LEARNING OF SKILLS & USE OF SKILLS ON THE JOB o IT CAN BE EVALUATED BY OBSERVATION o CORRESPONDS TO LEVEL 2 OF KIRKPATRICK’S MODEL  AFFECTIVE OUTCOMES: o INCLUDES ATTITUDES & MOTIVATION o ONE TYPE OF AFFECTIVE OUTCOME I TRAINEE’S REACTIONS TOWARD THE TRAINING PROGRAM o REACTIONS ARE USEFUL FOR IDENTIFYING WHAT TRAINEES THOUGHT WAS SUCCESSFUL & INHIBITED LEARNING o IT IS COLLECTED AT THE PROGRAM’ CONCLUSION o REACTION OUTCOMES ARE COLLECTED VIA QUESTIONNAIRE, INTERVIEWS, & FOCUS GROUPS  RESULTS:
  4. 4. o ARE USED TO DETERMINE THE TRAINING PROGRAM’S PAYOFF FOR THE O. o INCLUDES REDUCED COSTS, RELATED TO EMPLOYEE TURNOVER OR ACCIDENTS, INCREASED PRODUCTION & IMPROVEMENTS IN PRODUCT QUALITY OR CUSTOMER SERVICE o IT IS MEASURED BY OBSERVATION  RETURN ON INVESTMENT  COMPARING THE TRAINING’S MONETARY BENEFITS WITH THE COST OF TRAINING  COST COULD BE DIRECT OR INDIRECT  BENEFITS REFERS TO WHAT VALUE THE O GAINS FROM THE TRAINING PROGRAM HOW DO WE KNOW IF OUR OUTCOMES ARE GOOD?  GOOD TRAINING OUTCOMES NEED TO BE o RELEVANT, o RELIABLE, o DISCRIMINATE o PRACTICAL  RELEVANT: o THE EXTENT TO WHICH TRAINING OUTCOMES ARE RELATED TO THE LEARNING CAPABILITIES IN THE TRAINING PROGRAMS o TRAINING OUTCOMES MAY LACK RELEVANCE IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS:  CRITERIA CONTAMINATION  CRITERION DEFICIENCY  CRITERIA CONTAMINATION REFERS TO THE EXTENT THAT THE TRAINING OUTCOMES MEASURE INAPPROPRIATE CAPABILITIES
  5. 5.  CRITERION DEFICIENCY REFERS TO THE FAILURE TO MEASURE TRAINING OUTCOMES THAT WERE EMPHASIZED IN THE TRAINING OBJECTIVES  RELIABILITY o REFERS TO THE DEGREE TO WHICH OUTCOMES CAN BE MEASURED CONSISTENTLY OVER TIME o A RELIABLE TEST IS ONE THAT INCLUDES ITEMS FOR WHICH THE MEANING OR INTERPRETATION OF THESE ITEMS BY THE TRAINEES DOE NOT CHANGE OVER TIME o A RELIABLE TEST ALLOWS THE TRAINER TO HAVE CONFIDENCE THAT ANY IMPROVEMENTS IN POST-TRAINING TEST SCORES FROM PRE-TRAINING LEVELS RESULT FROM LEARNING THAT OCCURRED IN THE TRAINING PROGRAM NOT FROM TEST CHARACTERISTICS  DISCRIMINATION o REFERS TO THE DEGREE TO WHICH TRAINEE’S PERFORMANCE ON THE OUTCOME ACTUALLY REFLECT TRUE DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE o THIS SHOULD BE ON ACCOUNT OF CHANGE IN THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE TRAINEE AFTER UNDERGOING TRAINING PROGRAM  PRACTICALITY o REFERS TO THE EASE WITH WHICH THE OUTCOMES MEASURES CAN BE COLLECTED ASSIGNMENTS 1. WHAT CAN BE DONE TO MOTIVATE COMPANIES TO EVALUATE TRAINING PROGRAM?
  6. 6. 2. WHAT ARE RESULTS OUTCOMES? WHY DO YOU THINK THAT MOST ORGANIZATIONS DON’T USE RESULTS OUTCOMES FOR EVALUATING THEIR TRAINING PROGRAMS? 3. VISIT AN INDUSTRY, & FIND OUT HOW DO THEY CALCULATE RETURN ON INVESTMENT ON TRAINING? 4. VISIT AN INDUSTRY, & FIND OUT WHETHER THE TRAINING PROGRAM HELD LAST YEAR WERE OUTCOMES OF ORGANIZATION STRATEGIES?
  7. 7. CHAPTER 7 TRADITIONAL TRAINING METHODS INTRODUCTION:  TRAINING METHOD CAN BE CATEGORIZED INTO THREE TYPES: o PRESENTATION METHOD o HANDS ON METHOD o GROUP BUILDING METHOD  EACH METHOD HAS ITS OWN ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES PRESENTATION METHOD:  TRAINEE ARE PASSIVE RECIPIENTS OF INFORMATION  INCLUDE: o LECTURES o AUDIO VISUAL TECHNIQUES  LECTURE: o TRAINEE COMMUNICATE THROUGH SPOKEN WORD WHAT SHE WANT THE TRAINEE TO LEARN o COMMUNICATION IS ONE WAY o LEAST EXPENSIVE, & TIME CONSUMING o METHOD IS EFFICIENT o USED TO SUPPORT OTHER TRAINING METHODS LIKE BEHAVIOUR MODELLING & TECHNOLOGY BASED TECHNIQUE o TO MAKE THIS METHOD EFFECTIVE; BUILD THE FOLLOWING INTO THE LECTURE:  ACTIVE PARTICIPATION  JOB RELATED EXAMPLE  EXERCISE o THE ABOVE WILL FACILITATE LEARNING & TRANSFER OF TRAINING
  8. 8.  AUDIO VISUAL TECHNIQUE: o INCLUDE OVERHEADS SLIDES, & VIDEO o USED TO IMPROVE COMMUNICATION KILLS, INTERVIEWING SKILL & CUSTOMER SERVICE SKILLS & FOR ILLUSTRATING HOW PROCEDURES SHOULD BE FOLLOWED o USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH LECTURE TO SHOW REAL LIFE EXPERIENCE & EXAMPLES o IT IS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF BEHAVIOUR MODELLING o HAS FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES:  TRAINER CAN REVIEW, LOW DOWN OR SPEED UP THE LESSON  TRAINEES ARE EXPOSE TO EQUIPMENT, PROBLEM, & EVENT THAT CANNOT BE EASILY DEMONSTRABLE  TRAINEE ARE PROVIDED WITH CONSISTENT INSTRUCTIONS  VIDEOTAPING ALLOWS THE TRAINEES TO SEE & HEAR THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE o HAS FOLLOWING DISADVANTAGES:  TOO MUCH CONTENT FOR THE TRAINEE TO LEARN  POOR DIALOGUE WITH TRAINER  OVERUSE OF HUMOUR OR MUSIC & DRAMA THAT MAKE IT CONFUSING FOR THE TRAINEE TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANT LEARNING POINTS EMPHASIZED IN THE VIDEO HANDS ON METHODS  TRAINEE ACTIVELY INVOLVED IN LEARNING  METHODS INCLUDE
  9. 9. o ON THE JOB TRAINING o SIMULATIONS o CASE STUDIES o BUSINESS GAME o ROLE PLAY o BEHAVIOUR MODELLING  ABOVE METHODS ARE IDEAL FOR DEVELOPING SPECIFIC SKILLS, UNDERSTANDING HOW SKILL & BEHAVIOUR CAN BE TRANSFERRED TO THE JOB, EXPERIENCING ALL ASPECTS OF COMPLETING A TASK OR DEALING WITH INTERPERSONAL ISSUE THAT ARISE ON THE JOB  ON THE JOB TRAINING [OJT] o REFERS TO NEW OR INEXPERIENCED EMPLOYEES LEARNING THROUGH OBSERVING PEERS OR MANAGERS PERFORMING THE JOB & TRYING TO IMITATE THEIR BEHAVIOUR o REQUIRES LESS INVESTMENT o UNSTRUCTURED OJT CAN RESULT IN POORLY TRAINED EMPLOYEES; OR EMPLOYEES USING INEFFECTIVE OR DANGEROUS METHODS TO PRODUCE A PRODUCT, PROVIDE A SERVICE o FOLLOWING ARE THE PRINCIPLES OF OJT:  PREPARING FOR INSTRUCTION: • BREAK DOWN THE JOB INTO IMPORTANT STEPS • PREPARE THE NECESSARY EQUIPMENTS, MATERIALS, & SUPPLIES • DECIDE HOW MUCH TIME YOU WILL DEVOTE TO OJT & WHEN YOU EXPECT THE EMPLOYEE TO BE COMPETENT IN SKILL AREAS
  10. 10.  ACTUAL INSTRUCTION: • TELL THE TRAINEE THE OBJECTIVE OF THE TASK & ASK TO WATCH YOU DEMONSTRATE IT • SHOW THE TRAINEE HOW TO DO IT WITHOUT SAYING ANYTHING • EXPLAIN THE KEY POINTS OR BEHAVIOURS • SHOW THE TRAINEE HOW TO DO IT AGAIN • HAVE THE TRAINEE DO ONE OR MORE SINGLE PARTS OF THE TASK & PRAISE HIM FOR CORRECT REPRODUCTION • HAVE THE TRAINEE DO THE ENTIRE TASK & PRAISE FOR CORRECT REPRODUCTION • IF MISTAKES ARE MADE, HAVE THE TRAINEE PRACTICE UNTIL ACCURATE REPRODUCTION IS ACHIEVED • PRAISE THE TRAINEE FOR SUCCESS IN LEARNING THE TASK  SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING o INVOLVES EMPLOYEE TAKING RESPONSIBILITY FOR ALL ASPECTS OF LEARNING o TRAINERS SERVE AS FACILITATOR o FOLLOWING ARE THE ADVANTAGE:  TRAINEES LEARN AT THEIR OWN PACE  COST IS LESS  FEW TRAINERS ARE REQUIRED  CONSISTENT TRAINING CONTENT  BOON FOR SHIFT WORKING EMPLOYEE o FOLLOWING ARE THE DISADVANTAGES:  TRAINEES MUST BE COMFORTABLE LEARNING ON THEIR OWN.
  11. 11.  TRAINEES MUST BE MOTIVATED TO LEARN  DEVELOPMENT TIME IS LONGER o FOLLOWING STEPS ARE NECESSARY TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVE SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING  CONDUCTING JOB ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY THE TASK THAT MUST BE COVERED  WRITING TRAINEE-CENTERED LEARNING OBJECTIVES DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE TASKS. BECAUSE OBJECTIVES TAKES THE PLACE OF INSTRUCTOR, THEY MUST INDICATE WHAT INFORMATION IS IMPORTANT, WHAT ACTIONS THE TRAINEE SHOULD TAKE & WHAT SHOULD TRAINEE MASTER  DEVELOPING THE CONTENT OF FOR THE LEARNING PACKAGE  BREAKING THE CONTENT INTO SMALLER PIECES  DEVELOPING AN EVALUATION PACKAGE  APPRENTICESHIP: o IT INCLUDES BOTH ON THE JOB & CLASS ROOM TRAINING o THE OJT PORTION OF THE APPRENTICESHIP FOLLOWS THE GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE ON THE JOB TRAINING o MODELLING, PRACTICE, FEEDBACK & EVALUATION ARE INVOLVED o TRAINEE SHOULD HAVE THE REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE OF THE OPERATION OR PROCE
  12. 12. o TRAINER DEMONSTRATE EACH STEP OF THE PROCESS, EMPHASIZING SAFETY ISSUE IN EACH STEP OF THE PROCESS o PROVIDE OPPORTUNITY TO THE TRAINEE TO PERFORM THE PROCESS o FOLLOWING IS THE ADVANTAGE:  EARN & LEARN  GETS QUALIFIED FOR FULL TIME JOB ON COMPLETION OF THE TRAINING o FOLLOWING IS THE DISADVANTAGE:  SPECIALIZED INTO ONE SKILL o IT IS AN IMPORTANT PART OF EDUCATION IN TRAINING IN MANY COUNTRIES  SIMULATION: o IT REPRESENTS A REAL LIFE SITUATION WITH TRAINEES’ DECISIONS RESULTING IN OUTCOMES THAT MIRROR WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF THEY WERE ON THE JOB o ALLOWS TRAINEE TO SEE THE IMPACT OF THEIR DECISION IN AN ARTIFICIAL RISK FREE ENVIRONMENT o SIMULATORS REPLICATE THE PHYSICAL EQUIPMENT THAT EMPLOYEES USE ON THE JOB o SIMULATORS NEED TO HAVE IDENTICAL ELEMENTS TO THOSE FOUND IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT  CASE STUDIES
  13. 13. o IT IS A DESCRIPTION ABOUT HOW EMPLOYEE OR AN ORGANIZATION DEALT WITH A DIFFICULT SITUATION o TRAINEE ARE REQUIRED TO ANALYSE CRITIQUE THE ACTIONS TAKEN, INDICATING THE APPROPRIATE ACTION & SUGGESTING WHAT MIGHT HAVE BEEN DONE DIFFERENTLY o LEARNING TAKE PLACE THROUGH A PROCESS OF DISCOVERY o CASES DEVELOPS INTELLECTUAL SKILLS LIKE ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS & EVALUATION o CASES ALSO HELP TRAINEES DEVELOP THE WILLINGNESS TO TAKE RISKS GIVEN UNCERTAIN OUTCOME, BASED ON THEIR ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION o LEARNING ENVIRONMENT MUST BE CONDUCIVE PREPARE & DISCUSS THEIR CASE ANALYSIS  BUSINESS GAMES o REQUIRE TRAINEES TO GATHER INFORMATION, ANALYSE IT & MAKE DECISIONS o USED FOR MANAGEMENT KILL DEVELOPMENT o IT STIMULATES LEARNING. o DECISION INVOLVE ALL ASPECT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  ROLE PLAY: o INVOLVE TRAINEES ACT OUT CHARACTERS ASSIGNED TO THEM o INFORMATION REGARDING THE SITUATION IS PROVIDED TO THE TRAINEES o ROLE PLAY MAY PROVIDE LIMITED INFORMATION REGARDING THE SITUATION, WHILE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN SIMULATION IS IN DETAIL
  14. 14. o IT FOCUSES ON INTERPERSONAL RESPONSE; WHILE SIMULATION FOCUSES ON PHYSICAL RESPONSE o OUTCOMES DEPENDS ON THE EMOTIONAL REACTIONS OF OTHER TRAINEES, WHILE IN SIMULATION THE OUTCOME DEPEND UPON FAIRLY WELL DEFINED MODEL OF REALITY o FOR ROLE PLAY TO BE EFFECTIVE, TRAINERS NEED TO ENGAGE IN SEVERAL ACTIVITIES BEFORE DURING & AFTER THE ROLE PLAY o TRAINEES SHOULD DISCUSS THEIR FEELINGS, WHAT HAPPENED IN THE EXERCISE, WHAT THEY LEARNED  BEHAVIOUR MODELLING o INVOLVES PRESENTING TRAINEES WITH A MODEL WHO DEMONSTRATES KEY BEHAVIOURS TO REPLICATE & PROVIDES TRAINEES WITH THE OPPORTUNITY TO PRACTICE THE KEY BEHAVIOURS o IT I BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF SOCIAL LEARNING WHICH EMPHASISE THAT LEARNING OCCURS BY  OBSERVING BEHAVIOURS DEMONSTRATED BY A MODEL  SEEING THE MODEL BEING REINFORCED FOR USING THOSE BEHAVIOURS o IT IS MORE APPROPRIATE FOR LEANING SKILLS & BEHAVIOURS THAN FACTUAL INFORMATION o EFFECTIVE MODELLING DISPLAYS HAVE SIX CHARACTERISTICS:  THE DISPLAY CLEARLY PRESENT THE KEY BEHAVIOURS  THE MODEL IS CREDIBLE TO THE TRAINEES  AN OVERVIEW OF THE KEY BEHAVIOURS IS PRESENTED
  15. 15.  EACH KEY BEHAVIOUR IS REPEATED. THE TRAINEE IS SHOWN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE MODEL & EACH KEY BEHAVIOUR  A REVIEW OF THE KEY BEHAVIOUR IS INCLUDED  MODELS ENGAGING IN BOTH POSITIVE USE OF KEY BEHAVIOUR & NEGATIVE MODELS ARE PRESENTED o PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PRACTICE INVOLVES:  HAVING TRAINEES COGNITIVELY REHEARSE & THINK ABOUT KEY BEHAVIOURS  PLACING TRAINEES IN SITUATIONS WHERE THEY HAVE TO UE THE KEY BEHAVIOUR o PRACTICE SESSION SHOULD INCLUDE A METHOD FOR PROVIDING TRAINEES WITH FEEDBACK o BEHAVIOUR MODELLING HELP TO ENSURE THAT TRANSFER OF TRAINING OCCURS BY USING APPLICATION PLANNING. APPLICATION PLANNING INVOLVE PREPARING TRAINEES TO USE KEY BEHAVIOURS ON THE JOB. IT INVOLVES PROVIDING A WRITTEN DOCUMENT IDENTIFYING SPECIFIC SITUATION WHERE THEY SHOULD USE THE KEY BEHAVIOURS. AS A PART OF APPLICATION PLANNING PROCESS, A TRAINEE MAY BE PAIRED WITH ANOTHER PARTICIPANT WITH THE STATED EXPECTATION THAT THEY SHOULD PERIODICALLY COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER TO DISCUSS SUCCESS & FAILURE OF THE KEY ISSUE OF BEHAVIOURS
  16. 16. GROUP BUILDING METHODS  REFERS TO TRAINING METHODS DEIGNED TO IMPROVE TEAM OR GROUP EFFECTIVENESS  TRAINING IS DIRECTED AT IMPROVING THE TRAINEES’ SKILL AS WELL AS TEAM EFFECTIVENESS  GROUP BUILDING METHODS INVOLVE TRAINEE SHARING IDEAS & EXPERIENCES BUILDING GROUP IDENTITY, UNDERSTANDING THE DYNAMIC OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP, & GETTING TO KNOW THEIR OWN STRENGTHS & WEAKNESS & THOSE OF THEIR CO-WORKERS  GROUP TECHNIQUES FOCUS ON HELPING TEAMS INCREASE THEIR SKILLS FOR EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK  A NUMBER OF TRAINING TECHNIQUES ARE AVAILABLE TO IMPROVE WORK GROUP TEAM PERFORMANCE, TO ESTABLISH A NEW TEAM OR TO IMPROVE INTERACTIONS AMONG DIFFERENT TEAM  ALL INVOLVE EXAMINATION OF FEELING, PERCEPTIONS, & BELIEF ABOUT FUNCTIONING OF THE TEAM, DISCUSSION & DEVELOPMENT OF PLANS TO APPLY WHAT WAS LEARNED IN TRAINING TO THE TEAM’S PERFORMANCE IN THE WORK SETTING  GROUP BUILDING METHODS INCLUDE ADVENTURE LEARNING, TEAM TRAINING, & ACTION LEARNING ADVENTURE LEARNING  FOCUSES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEAMWORK & LEADERSHIP SKILLS USING STRUCTURED OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES.
  17. 17.  BEST SUITED FOR DEVELOPING SKILLS SUCH AS: SELF- AWARENESS PROBLEM-SOLVING; CONFLICT MANAGEMENT & RISK TAKING  FOR ADVENTURE LEARNING PROGRAMS TO BE SUCCESSFUL, EXERCISES SHOULD BE RELATED TO THE TYPE OF SKILLS THAT PARTICIPANTS ARE EXPECTED TO DEVELOP  AFTER THE EXERCISE, A SKILLED FACILITATOR SHOULD LEAD A DISCUSSION ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED IN THE EXERCISE, WHAT WE LEARNED, HOW EVENTS IN THE EXERCISE RELATE TO THE JOB SITUATION, & HOW TO SET GOAL & APPLY WHAT WAS LEARNED ON THE JOB  BY ANALYSING BEHAVIOURS THAT OCCUR DURING THE EXERCISE TRAINEES GAIN INSIGHT INTO INEFFECTIVE BEHAVIOURS  EMPLOYEES GAIN A GREATER UNDERSTANDING OF THEMSELVES & HOW THEY INTERACT WITH CO-WORKERS TEAM TRAINING:  INVOLVES COORDINATING THE PERFORMANCE OF INDIVIDUALS WHO WORK TOGETHER TO ACHIEVE A COMMON GOAL  THERE ARE THREE COMPONENTS OF TEAM PERFORMANCE: o BEHAVIOUR o KNOWLEDGE o ATTITUDE  BEHAVIOURAL REQUIREMENT MEANS THAT TEAM MEMBERS MUST PERFORM ACTIONS THAT ALLOW THEM TO COMMUNICATE, COORDINATE, ADAPT, & COMPLETE COMPLEX TASKS TO ACCOMPLISH THEIR OBJECTIVES  THE KNOWLEDGE COMPONENT REQUIRES TEAM MEMBERS TO FUNCTION EFFECTIVELY IN UNANTICIPATED OR NEW SITUATIONS
  18. 18.  TEAM MEMBERS BELIEFS ABOUT THE TASK & FEELING TOWARD EACH OTHER RELATE TO THE ATTITUDE COMPONENT ACTION LEARNING  INVOLVE GIVING TEAMS AN ACTUAL PROBLEM HAVING THEM WORK ON SOLVING IT & COMMITTING TO AN ACTION PLAN, & THE HOLDING THEM ACCOUNTABLE FOR CARRYING OUT THE PLAN ASSIGNMENTS: 1. WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS & WEAKNESS OF THE LECTURE / CASE STUDY & BEHAVIOUR MODELLING? 2. IF YOU HAD TO CHOOSE BETWEEN ADVENTURE LEARNING & ACTION LEARNING FOR DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE TEAM, WHICH WOULD YOU CHOOSE? DEFEND YOUR CHOICE? 3. DISCUSS THE PROCESS OF BEHAVIOUR MODELLING TRAINING? 4. HOW CAN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TRAINEE AFFECT SELF- DIRECTED LEARNING? 5. WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF EFFECTIVE TRAINING PERFORMANCE? HOW MIGHT TRAINING STRENGTHEN THESE COMPONENTS? 6. WHAT ARE SOME REASONS WHY ON THE JOB TRAINING CAN BE INEFFECTIVE? WHAT CAN BE DONE TO ENSURE ITS EFFECTIVENESS?
  19. 19. CHAPTER 8 USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN TRAINING INTRODUCTION:  TECHNOLOGY IS HAVING A MAJOR IMPACT ON THE DELIVERY OF TRAINING PROGRAMS  THEY ARE REPLACING OR SUBSTITUTING TRADITIONAL TRAINING METHODS HOW ARE NEW TECHNOLOGIES INFLUENCING TRAINING?  NEW TECHNOLOGIES [NT] ALLOW TRAINING TO BE DELIVERED ON A 24-HOUR BASIS TO GEOGRAPHICALLY DISPERSED EMPLOYEES. NT INFLUENCES TRAINING DELIVERY IN THE FOLLOWING WAY: o CUSTOMIZE TO LEARNER o APPEAL TO MULTIPLE SENSES o INCORPORATE LEARNING PRINCIPLES [FEEDBACK, REINFORCEMENT, MEANINGFULNESS]  NT IS ALSO BEING USED TO STREAMLINE TRAINING ADMINISTRATION. THESE TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDE IMAGING, INTERACTIVE RESPONSE SYSTEMS & SPECIALIZED TRAINING SOFTWARE. NT INFLUENCE TRAINING ADMINISTRATION IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS: o PAPERLESS RECORD KEEPING & ENROLMENT o MONITORING
  20. 20.  THESE TECHNOLOGIES REDUCE TRAINING COSTS & MAKE IT EASIER TO ADMINISTER TRAINING PROGRAM  NT ALSO PROVIDES SUPPORT FOR TRAINING. NT INFLUENCES TRAINING IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS: o PROVIDE INFORMATION ON AS NEEDED BASIS o DEVELOP INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL  NT INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING: o MULTIMEDIA TRAINING o DISTANCE LEARNING o EXPERT SYSTEMS o SOFTWARE APPLICATION o ELECTRONIC PERFORMANCE o SUPPORT SYSTEM  MULTIMEDIA TRAINING INCLUDES o COMPUTER BASED TRAINING  IT IS INTERACTIVE  COMPUTER PROVIDE THE LEARNING STIMULUS, TRAINEE MUST RESPOND & THE COMPUTER ANALYSES THE RESPONSES & PROVIDES FEEDBACK TO THE TRAINEE o CD-ROM & LASER DISC  USING A PERSONAL COMPUTER, ANIMATION, VIDEO CLIPS, & THE GRAPHICS CAN BE INTEGRATED INTO TRAINING SESSION
  21. 21.  THE USER CAN INTERACT WITH TRAINING MATERIAL THROUGH USING JOYSTICK OR TOUCH SCREEN MONITOR  CD-ROM UTILIZES A LASER TO READ TEXT, GRAPHIC, AUDIO & VIDEO OFF AN ALUMINIUM DISC. A LASER DISC USES A LASER TO PROVIDE HIGH QUALITY VIDEO & SOUND o INTERACTIVE VIDEO  COMBINES THE ADVANTAGES OF VIDEO & COMPUTER BASED INSTRUCTION  INSTRUCTION IS PROVIDED ONE-ON-ONE BASIS TO TRAINEES VIA MONITOR CONNECTED TO A KEYBOARD  TRAINEES USE THE KEYBOARD OR TOUCH THE MONITOR TO INTERACT WITH THE PROGRAM  THE TRAINING PROGRAM IS STORED ON A VIDEODISC OR COMPACT DISC o THE INTERNET OR WEB-BASED TRAINING  INTERNET-BASED TRAINING REFERS TO TRAINING THAT IS DELIVERED ON PUBLIC OR PRIVATE COMPUTER NETWORKS &DISPLAYED BY A WEB BROWSER  INTRANET-BASED TRAINING REFERS TO TRAINING DELIVERED USING THE COMPANY’S OWN COMPUTER NETWORK  THE TRAINING PROGRAMS ARE ACCESSIBLE ONLY TO COMPANY EMPLOYEES
  22. 22.  WEB-BASED TRAINING SUPPORTS VIRTUAL REALITY, ANIMATION, INTERACTION, COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN TRAINEE & REAL-TIME AUDIO & VIDEO  RULES FOR THE DESIGN OF EFFECTIVE WEB-BASED TRAINING PROGRAM: • DELIVERY o PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAM IS TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE o PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT IS BASED ON AN ANALYSIS OF TRAINEES’ NEEDS o CONTENT IS RELEVANT TO REAL WORLD EXPERIENCES o TRAINING IS TESTED ON END-USER • INSTRUCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS o TRAINEES HAVE OPPORTUNITIES TO PRACTICE & RECEIVE FEEDBACK THROUGH PROBLEMS, EXERCISES, ASSIGNMENTS & TESTS o ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING OUTCOMES IS BUILT INTO THE PROGRAM o ABSTRACT CONCEPT ARE PRESENTED USING REAL EXAMPLES o TRAINEES ARE URGED TO IDENTIFY OBSTACLES TO USING CONTENT IN THEIR JOBS & WAYS TO OVERCOME OBSTACLES o MULTIPLE EXAMPLES, EXERCISES & APPLICATION FOR THE LEARNING OBJECTIVES ARE PRESENTED • LEARNER CONTROL
  23. 23. o A NAVIGATOR OR CONTENT MAP IS PROVIDED SO TRAINEE CAN MOVE FORWARD OR BACKWARD THROUGH THE PROGRAM & EASILY ACCESS RESOURCES & LINK TO OTHER SITES AS NEEDED o TRAINEES CAN COMPARE ANSWERS, APPROACHES, & RESPONSES TO QUESTIONS TO THOSE PROVIDED BY OTHERS o TRAINEES CAN BEGIN THE PROGRAM WHERE THEY WANT OR A STARTING POINT CAN BE BASED ON AN ASSESSMENT OF THEIR KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, OR EXPERIENCE RELATED TO THE PROGRAM • LINKAGES: o FOLLOW-UP MATERIALS & ADDITIONAL RESOURCES [CHART, TABLES, OTHER WEB SITE] ARE IDENTIFIED & EASILY ACCESSIBLE TO TRAINEE • SHARING o OPPORTUNITIES EXIST FOR ELECTRONICALLY INTERACTING WITH & SHARING WITH TRAINERS, PEERS, OTHER TRAINEES & EXPERT. THIS MAY BE DONE THROUGH E-MAIL, CHAT ROOMS OR BULLETIN BOARDS
  24. 24. o VIRTUAL REALITY  IT PROVIDES TRAINEES WITH A THREE-DIMENSIONAL LEARNING EXPERIENCE  TECHNOLOGY IS USED TO STIMULATE MULTIPLE SENSES OF THE TRAINEE.  DEVICES RELAY INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT TO THE SENSES. EXAMPLES: GLOVES PROVIDES A SENSE OF TOUCH. TREADMILLS, OR MOTION PLATFORM ARE USED TO CREATE A REALISTIC ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENT  DEVICE ALSO COMMUNICATE INFORMATION ABOUT THE TRAINEES MOVEMENTS TO A COMPUTER  THESE DEVICES ALLOW THE TRAINEE TO EXPERIENCE PRESENCE. PRESENCE IS INFLUENCED BY THE AMOUNT OF SENSORY INFORMATION AVAILABLE TO THE TRAINEE, CONTROL OVER THE SENSORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT, & THE TRAINEE’S ABILITY TO MODIFY THE ENVIRONMENT  ONE ADVANTAGE IS THAT IT ALLOWS THE TRAINEE TO PRACTICE DANGEROUS TASKS WITHOUT PUTTING ONESELF & OTHERS IN DANGER
  25. 25. INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEMS [ITS]  REFERS TO INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE  THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF ITS: o TUTORING o COACHING o EMPOWERING ENVIRONMENTS  TUTORING IS A STRUCTURED ATTEMPT TO INCREASE TRAINEE UNDERSTANDING OF A CONSTANT DOMAIN  COACHING PROVIDES TRAINEES WITH FLEXIBILITY TO PRACTICE SKILLS IN ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENTS  EMPOWERING REFERS TO THE TRAINEE’S ABILITY TO FREELY EXPLORE THE CONTENT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM  THE FIVE COMPONENTS OF ITS ARE AS FOLLOWS: o USER INTERFACE  ENABLES TO TRAINEE TO INTERACT WITH THE SYSTEM o DOMAIN EXPERT
  26. 26.  PROVIDES INFORMATION ABOUT HOW TO PERFORM THE TASK o TRAINEE MODEL  PROVIDES INFORMATION ABOUT STUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE o TRAINING SESSION MANAGER  INTERPRETS TRAINEES ACTIONS & REPORTS THE RESULT OR PROVIDES COACHING o TRAINEE SCENARIO GENERATOR  DETERMINES DIFFICULTY & ORDER IN WHICH PROBLEMS ARE PRESENTED TO TRAINEE o ITS CAN BE DISTINGUISHED FROM OTHER NEW TRAINING TECHNOLOGIES IN FOLLOWING WAYS:  ITS HAS ABILITY TO MATCH INSTRUCTION TO INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS NEEDS  ITS CAN COMMUNICATE & RESPOND TO THE STUDENT  ITS CAN MODEL THE TRAINEE’S LEARNING PROCESS  ITS CAN DECIDE ON THE BASIS OF TRAINEE’S PREVIOUS PERFORMANCE, WHAT INFORMATION TO PROVIDE TO HIM  ITS CAN MAKE DECISION ABOUT THE TRAINEE’ LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING  ITS CAN COMPLETE A SELF-ASSESSMENT RESULTING IN A MODIFICATION OF ITS TEACHING PROCESS o ITS HAS BEEN USED BY NASA IN ASTRONAUT TRAINING  DISTANCE LEARNING: o IS USED BY GEOGRAPHICALLY DISPERSED COMPANIES TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT NEW PRODUCT, POLICIES, OR PROCEDURES A WELL AS SKILLS TRAINING & EXPERT LECTURES TO FIELD LOCATIONS
  27. 27.  TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRAINING SUPPORT: o TRAINING SUPPORT MEAN THAT THESE TECHNOLOGIES ARE HELPING TO CAPTURE TRAINING CONTENT SO THAT IT IS AVAILABLE TO EMPLOYEES WHO MAY NOT HAVE ATTENDED TRAINING IT ALSO MEAN THAT THESE TECHNOLOGIES PROVIDE INFORMATION & DECISION RULES TO EMPLOYEE ON AN AS NEEDED BASIS. o EMPLOYEES CAN ACCESS THESE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT o CONDITION WHEN TRAINING SUPPORT TECHNOLOGIES ARE MOST NEEDED:  PERFORMANCE OF TASK IS INFREQUENT  THE TASK IS LENGTHY, DIFFICULT & INFORMATION INTENSIVE  THE CONSEQUENCES OF ERROR ARE DAMAGING  PERFORMANCE RELIES ON KNOWLEDGE, PROCEDURES OR APPROACHES THAT FREQUENTLY CHANGES  THERE IS HIGHLY EMPLOYEE TURNOVER  LITTLE TIME IS AVAILABLE FOR TRAINING OR RESOURCES FOR TRAINING ARE FEW  EMPLOYEES ARE EXPECTED TO TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR LEARNING & PERFORMING TASKS o EXPERT SYSTEM  REFER TO TECHNOLOGY [USUALLY SOFTWARE] THAT ORGANIZES & APPLIES THE KNOWLEDGE OF HUMAN EXPERTS TO SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
  28. 28. o GROUPWARE:  IS A SPECIAL TYPE OF SOFTWARE APPLICATION THAT ENABLE MULTIPLE USERS TO TRACK, SHARE & ORGANIZE INFORMATION, & TO WORK ON THE SAME DOCUMENT SIMULTANEOUSLY EXAMPLE: LOTUS NOTES o ELECTRONIC PERFORMANCE SUPPORT SYSTEM  IT IS COMPUTER APPLICATION THAT PROVIDES SKILL TRAINING, INFORMATION ACCESS OR EXPERT ADVICE  TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRAINING ADMINISTRATION o NT IS MAKING TRAINING ADMINISTRATION MORE EFFICIENT & EFFECTIVE o INTERACTIVE VOICE TECHNOLOGY, IMAGING & SOFTWARE APPLICATION HAVE MADE IT EASIER TO TRACK TRAINING INFORMATION. THEY ALSO PROVIDE EASY ACCESS TRAINING INFORMATION FOR TRAINERS TO USE IN DECISION MAKING  INTERACTIVE VOICE TECHNOLOGY o CREATES AN AUTOMATED PHONE RESPONSE SYSTEM o EMPLOYEES CAN ALSO DIRECTLY ENROL IN TRAINING PROGRAMS & SPEAK TO AN HR REPRESENTATIVE IF THEY HAVE QUESTIONS. AS A RESULT OF THE TECHNOLOGY, THE COMPANY WAS ABLE TO REDUCE ITS HR STAFF & MORE QUICKLY SERVE EMPLOYEES’ BENEFIT NEEDS  IMAGING o REFERS TO SCANNING DOCUMENTS STORING THEM ELECTRONICALLY & RETRIEVING THEM  TRAINING SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS: o USED TO TRACK INFORMATION RELATED TO TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, EMPLOYEE SKILLS, EMPLOYEES’ TRAINING ACTIVITIES
  29. 29. CONCLUSIONS  WHILE TRADITIONAL TRAINING METHOD CAN BE EFFECTIVE, MANAGER & TRAINER SHOULD CONSIDER USING NT TRAINING METHODS UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS o THERE IS SUFFICIENT BUDGET PROVIDED TO DEVELOP & USE NT o TRAINEES ARE GEOGRAPHICALLY DISPERSED & TRAVEL COSTS RELATED TO TRAINING ARE HIGH o TRAINEES ARE COMFORTABLE USING TECHNOLOGY INCLUDING THE WEB, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, & CD-ROMS o THE INCREASED USE OF NT IS PART OF THE COMPANY’ BUSINESS STRATEGY. NT IS BEING USED OR IMPLEMENTED IN MANUFACTURING OR PRODUCTS OR SERVICE PROCESSES o EMPLOYEES HAVE A DIFFICULT TIME ATTENDING SCHEDULED TRAINING PROGRAMS o CURRENT TRAINING METHODS ALLOW LIMITED TIME OR PRACTICE, FEEDBACK & ASSESSMENT ASSIGNMENTS: 1. DISCUSS HOW NEW TECHNOLOGIES MAKE IT EASIER TO LEARN. HOW DO THEY FACILITATE TRANSFER OF TRAINING? 2. WHAT IS RE-PURPOSING? HOW DOES IT AFFECT USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN TRAINING? 3. WHAT ARE SOME POTENTIAL PROBLEMS WITH USING VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGY FOR TRAINING? 4. EXPLAIN HOW NEW TECHNOLOGIES INFLUENCE TRAINING? 5. HOW CAN INTERACTIVE VOICE TECHNOLOGY & IMAGING HELP WITH TRAINING ADMINISTRATION?
  30. 30. CHAPTER 9 EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION:  IT REFER TO FORMAL EDUCATION, JOB EXPERIENCES, RELATIONSHIPS & ASSESSMENTS OF PERSONALITY & ABILITIES THAT HELP EMPLOYEES PREPARE FOR THE FUTURE  DEVELOPMENT ALSO HELPS EMPLOYEES PREPARE FOR CHANGE IN THEIR CURRENT JOB THAT MAY RESULT FROM NEW TECHNOLOGY, WORK DESIGN, CUSTOMERS OR PRODUCTS MARKET  EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT IS NECESSARY COMPONENT OF O’S EFFORT TO IMPROVE QUALITY, TO MEET CHALLENGES OF GLOBAL COMPETITION & SOCIAL CHANGE & TO INCORPORATE TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES & CHANGES IN WORK DESIGN  LARGE MAJORITY OF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY IS TARGETED AT MANAGERS; THOUGH ALL LEVELS OF EMPLOYEES MAY BE INVOLVED IN ONE OR MORE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY APPROACHES TO EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT:  FOUR APPROACHES: o FORMAL EDUCATION o ASSESSMENT o JOB EXPERIENCES o INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
  31. 31.  COMBINATION OF THESE APPROACHES CAN ALSO BE USED BY AN O FORMAL EDUCATION:  INCLUDES OFF-SITE & ON-SITE PROGRAMS DESIGNED SPECIALLY FOR O’S EMPLOYEES. EXAMPLE: EXECUTIVE MBA PROGRAMS  THESE PROGRAMS MAY INVOLVE LECTURES BY BUSINESS EXPERTS, BUSINESS GAMES & SIMULATIONS, ADVENTURE LEARNING, & MEETING WITH CUSTOMERS ASSESSMENT:  INVOLVES COLLECTING INFORMATION & PROVIDING FEEDBACK TO EMPLOYEES ABOUT THEIR BEHAVIOUR, COMMUNICATION STYLE OR SKILL  ASSESSMENT IS MOST FREQUENTLY USED TO IDENTIFY EMPLOYEES WITH MANAGERIAL POTENTIAL & TO MEASURE CURRENT MANAGERS’ STRENGTH, & WEAKNESS  ALSO USED TO IDENTIFY MANAGERS WITH POTENTIAL TO MOVE INTO HIGHER LEVEL EXECUTIVE POSITIONS  CAN ALSO BE USED WITH WORK TEAM TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL TEAM MEMBER STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES AS WELL AS THE DECISION PROCESSES OR COMMUNICATION STYLES THAT INHIBIT THE TEAM’ PRODUCTIVITY  THE FOLLOWING ARE THE POPULAR ASSESSMENT TOOLS o MBTI [MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR]  IDENTIFIES INDIVIDUAL’S PREFERENCES FOR • ENERGY [INTROVERSION VERSUS EXTROVERSION]
  32. 32. o THE ENERGY DIMENSION DETERMINES WHERE INDIVIDUAL GAIN INTERPERSONAL STRENGTH & VITALITY. EXTROVERTS GAIN ENERGY THROUGH INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS. INTROVERTS GAIN ENERGY BY FOCUSING ON PERSONAL THOUGHTS & FEELINGS • INFORMATION GATHERING [SENSING VERSUS INTUITION] o IT RELATES TO THE ACTION INDIVIDUALS TAKE WHEN MAKING DECISION. INDIVIDUALS WITH A SENSING PREFERENCE TEND TO GATHER FACTS & DETAILS. INTUITIVES TEND TO FOCUS LESS ON FACTS & MORE ON POSSIBILITIES & RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN IDEAS • DECISION MAKING [THINKING VERSUS FEELING] o INDIVIDUALS WITH THINKING PREFERENCE TEND TO BE VERY OBJECTIVE IN MAKING DECISIONS. INDIVIDUALS WITH A FEELING PREFERENCE TEND TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF POTENTIAL DECISIONS ON
  33. 33. OTHERS & BE MORE SUBJECTIVE IN MAKING DECISION. • LIFE-STYLE [JUDGING VERSUS PERCEIVING] o INDIVIDUALS WITH A JUDGING PREFERENCE FOCUS ON GOAL, ESTABLISH DEADLINES, & PREFER TO BE CONCLUSIVE. INDIVIDUALS WITH A PERCEIVING PREFERENCE TEND TO ENJOY SURPRISES, LIKE TO CHANGE DECISIONS & DISLIKE DEADLINES o ASSESSMENT CENTRE [AC]  IT IS A PROCESS IN WHICH MULTIPLE EVALUATORS [ALSO CALLED A ASSESSORS] EVALUATE EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE ON A NUMBER OF EXERCISES  USUALLY HELD AT OFF-SITE  6-12 EMPLOYEES PARTICIPATE AT ONE TIME  AC IS PRIMARILY USE TO IDENTIFY IF EMPLOYEES HAVE THE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS, ADMINISTRATIVE SKILLS & INTERPERSONAL SKILLS NEEDED FOR MANAGERIAL JOB. ALSO USED TO IDENTIFY WHETHER EMPLOYEES CAN WORK IN A TEAM  THE FOLLOWING ARE THE TYPES OF EXERCISES USED IN AC: • LEADERLESS GROUP DISCUSSIONS • INTERVIEWS • IN-BASKETS • ROLE PLAYING o BENCHMARKS
  34. 34.  IS AN INSTRUMENT DESIGNED TO MEASURE IMPORTANT FACTORS IN BEING A SUCCESSFUL MANAGER  ITEM MEASURED BY BENCHMARKS ARE BASED ON RESEARCH THAT EXAMINES THE LESSONS EXECUTIVES LEARN AT CRITICAL EVENTS IN THEIR CAREERS  THIS INCLUDES ITEMS THAT MEASURE MANAGERS SKILLS IN DEALING WITH SUBORDINATES, ACQUIRING RESOURCES & CREATING PRODUCTIVE WORK CLIMATE o PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS [PA] & 360 DEGREE FEEDBACK SYSTEM  PA IS A PROCESS OF MEASURING EMPLOYEE’S PERFORMANCE  FEEDBACK PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THIS INSTRUMENT JOB EXPERIENCES:  IT REFERS TO RELATIONSHIPS, PROBLEMS, DEMANDS, TASKS OR OTHER FEATURES THAT EMPLOYEES FACE IN THEIR JOBS  DEVELOPMENT IS POSSIBLE IF THERE IS MISMATCH BETWEEN THE EMPLOYEE’S SKILLS & SKILL REQUIRED TO DO THE JOB  THE FOLLOWING ARE THE VARIOUS WAYS THAT JOB EXPERIENCE CAN BE USED FOR EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT: o JOB ENLARGEMENT o JOB ENRICHMENT o JOB ROTATION o TRANSFERS o PROMOTIONS o DEPUTATION
  35. 35. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS:  EMPLOYEES CAN DEVELOP SKILLS & INCREASE THEIR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE O & ITS CUSTOMER BY INTERACTING WITH A MORE EXPERIENCED O’AL MEMBERS  TWO TYPES: o MENTORING o COACHING  MENTORING: o AN EXPERIENCED, PRODUCTIVE SENIOR EMPLOYEE HELPS DEVELOP A LESS EXPERIENCED EMPLOYEE [PROTÉGÉ] o MENTORING RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPS WHERE INTERESTS & VALUES OF BOTH THE PERSONS MATCHES o CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS  MENTOR & PROTÉGÉ PARTICIPATION IS VOLUNTARY.  DEVELOPS INFORMAL RELATIONSHIP  MENTOR ARE CHOSEN  PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAM IS CLEARLY UNDERSTOOD. PROJECTS & ACTIVITIES THAT THE MENTOR & PROTÉGÉ ARE EXPECTED TO COMPLETE ARE SPECIFIED. THE LENGTH OF THE PROGRAM IS SPECIFIED.  A MINIMUM LEVEL OF CONTACT BETWEEN THE MENTOR & PROTÉGÉ IS SPECIFIED  PROTÉGÉS ARE ENCOURAGED TO CONTACT ONE ANOTHER TO DISCUSS PROBLEMS & SHARE SUCCESSES  THE MENTOR PROGRAM IS EVALUATED. INTERVIEWS WITH MENTORS & PROTÉGÉS ARE USED TO OBTAIN
  36. 36. IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK REGARDING SPECIFIC AREAS OF DISSATISFACTION  EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT IS REWARDED  COACHING RELATIONSHIPS: o A COACH IS A PEER OR MANAGER WHO WORKS WITH AN EMPLOYEE TO MOTIVATE HIM HELP HIM TO DEVELOP SKILLS & PROVIDE REINFORCEMENT & FEEDBACK o THERE ARE THREE ROLES A COACH CAN PLAY:  GIVING FEEDBACK  HELP EMPLOYEES TO LEARN BY THEMSELVES  PROVIDING RESOURCES SUCH AS MENTORS, JOB EXPERIENCES WHICH THE EMPLOYEES MAY NOT BE ABLE TO GAIN ACCESS TO WITHOUT THE COACH’S HELP THE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PROCESS [DPP]  DPP INVOLVES IDENTIFYING DEVELOPMENT NEEDS, CHOOSING A DEVELOPMENT GOAL, IDENTIFYING THE ACTIONS THAT NEED TO BE TAKEN BY THE EMPLOYEE & THE O TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL, DETERMINING HOW PROGRESS TOWARD GOAL ATTAINMENT WILL BE MEASURED & ESTABLISHING A TIMETABLE FOR DEVELOPMENT  STEPS & RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE DPP EMPLOYEE O’S RESPONSIBILITY RESPONSIBILITY STEPS OPPORTUNITY: PROVIDE ASSESSMENT INFORMATION HOW DO I NEED TO TO IDENTIFY STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES IMPROVE? INTERESTS & VALUES GOAL IDENTIFICATION: PROVIDE DEVELOPMENT-PLANNING WHAT DO I WANT TO GUIDE. MANAGER HAS DEVELOPMENT DEVELOP? DISCUSSION WITH EMPLOYEE CRITERIA: MANAGER PROVIDES FEEDBACK
  37. 37. HOW WILL I KNOW I AM MAKING PROGRESS? ACTIONS: PROVIDE COURSES, ASSESSMENT, JOB WHAT SHOULD I DO TO EXPERIENCE & RELATIONSHIP REACH MY DEVELOPMENT GOAL? TIME: MANAGER FOLLOWS UP ON PROGRESS WHAT IS TIMETABLE? TOWARD DEVELOPMENT GOAL & HELPS EMPLOYEE SET A REALISTIC TIMETABLE FOR GOAL ACHIEVEMENT ASSIGNMENTS: 1. LIST & EXPLAIN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE 360- DEGREE FEEDBACK SYSTEMS? 2. WHY DO COMPANIES DEVELOP FORMAL MENTORING PROGRAMS? WHAT ARE THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS FOR THE MENTOR & FOR THE PROTÉGÉ? 3. WHAT IS COACHING? IS THERE ONE TYPE OF COACHING? EXPLAIN. 4. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TEACHING / COACHING / MENTORING / FACILITATING? 5. DISCUSS REASONS WHY MANY MANAGERS ARE RELUCTANT TO COACH THEIR EMPLOYEES? CHAPTER 10 SPECIAL ISSUES IN TRAINING & EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT TRAINING ISSUES RESULTING FROM EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT  LEGAL ISSUES: o EMPLOYEE INJURY DURING TRAINING ACTIVITY o REPRODUCING & USING COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL IN TRAINING CLASS WITHOUT PERMISSION
  38. 38. ASSESSING THE CULTURE HOFFSTEADE MODEL  BESIDES ECONOMIC / MARKET / SOCIAL / POLITICAL FACTORS; CULTURAL FACTOR PLAYS A VERY IMPORTANT ROLE IN ANY DECISION TO GO ABROAD  CULTURAL DIFFERENCES ARE EXPLAINED ALONG THE FOLLOWING FOUR DIMENSIONS: [ONE MODEL]  INDIVIDUALISM / COLLECTIVISM • IN INDIVIDUALISTIC SOCIETY, THE EMPHASIS IS ON INDIVIDUALISM • COLLECTIVISTIC SOCIETY EMPHASIS IS ON TOGETHERNESS / HARMONY / BELONGINGNESS  POWER DISTANCE • SOCIETY IS HIERARCHICAL • THERE IS AN UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF POWER AMONG THE MEMBERS • OPPOSITE OF THIS IS  FEW DISTINCTIONS AMONG MEMBERS  EQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF POWER AMONG MEMBERS  UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE • THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE SOCIETY FEELS COMFORTABLE WITH AMBIGUITY • VALUES & ENCOURAGES RISK TAKING  MASCULINE / FEMININE TENDENCIES • A MASCULINE SOCIETY IS MORE AGGRESSIVE / ASSERTIVE & FOCUSED ON ACHIEVEMENTS • A FEMININE SOCIETY EMPHASIS ON INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP / SENSITIVITY HALL’S MODEL:
  39. 39.  IT DESCRIBES CULTURE IN TERMS OF FIVE SILENT LANGUAGES: • TIME • SPACE • MATERIAL GOODS • FRIENDSHIP • AGREEMENT  TIME: • THE LANGUAGE OF TIME CONSIDERS HOW WE USE TIME TO COMMUNICATE & HOW WE USE IT TO MANAGE OUR DAILY LIVES • FOR EXAMPLE, HOW MUCH DO INDIVIDUALS IN THE CULTURE RELY ON SCHEDULES, APPOINTMENTS, & DEADLINES • IS IT CONSIDERED APPROPRIATE TO KEEP SOMEONE WAITING FOR A MEETING • DO MEETINGS HAVE AN AGENDA  SPACE: • THE LANGUAGE OF SPACE CONSIDERS HOW WE COMMUNICATE THROUGH SPACE & DISTANCE • FOR EXAMPLE WHAT IS CONSIDERED THE APPROPRIATE PHYSICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN PEOPLE ENGAGED IN CONVERSATION • HOW SPACES IN ORGANIZATIONS ARE ARRANGED TO COMMUNICATE RANK / POWER / STATUS • DOES ORGANIZATION HAVE SEPARATE TOILETS / PARKING SPACE FOR SENIORS • ARE SOME OFFICES LARGER THAN OTHERS  MATERIAL GOODS: • THE LANGUAGE OF MATERIAL GOODS IS USED TO SIGNIFY POWER / SUCCESS / STATUS
  40. 40. • FOR EXAMPLE, GENEROUS PERKS LIKE COMPANY CAR / CLUB MEMBERSHIP / ETC  FRIENDSHIP: • THE LANGUAGE OF FRIENDSHIP CONSIDERS HOW WE FORM INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP. • FOR EXAMPLE, ARE FRIENDSHIP FORMED & DISSOLVED QUICKLY; OR ARE THEY BUILT ON A FOUNDATION OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME • SOME CULTURE COMMUNICATE STATUS THROUGH ONE’S NETWORK OF FRIENDS & THE SUPPORT THIS NETWORK PROVIDES  AGREEMENT: • THE LANGUAGE OF AGREEMENTS CONSIDERS HOW CONSENSUS IS REACHED AMONG THE PEOPLE • FOR EXAMPLE ARE FORMAL, WRITTEN CONTRACTS SIGNED UNDER AN OATH OF LAW OR IS SIMPLE HANDSHAKE SUFFICIENT GUARANTEE • IS IT ACCEPTABLE TO DEBATE SOMEONE WITH WHOM YOU DO NOT AGREE &, IF SO, IS IT ACCEPTABLE TO DEBATE IN FRONT OF OTHERS MANAGING WORK FORCE DIVERSITY  TO SUCCESSFULLY MANAGE WORKFORCE, O NEED TO ENSURE THAT: o EMPLOYEES UNDERSTAND HOW THEIR VALUES & STEREOTYPES INFLUENCE THEIR BEHAVIOUR TOWARD OTHERS OF DIFFERENT GENDER, ETHNIC, RACIAL OR RELIGIOUS BACKGROUNDS o EMPLOYEES GAIN AN APPRECIATION OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE AMONG THEMSELVES
  41. 41. o BEHAVIOURS THAT ISOLATE OR INTIMIDATE MINORITY GROUPS MEMBERS IMPROVE ASSIGNMENTS: 1. WHAT DOES MANAGING DIVERSITY MEAN TO YOU? ASSUME YOU WERE IN CHARGE OF DEVELOPING A DIVERSITY-TRAINING PROGRAM. WHO WOULD BE INVOLVED? WHAT WOULD YOU INCLUDE AS THE CONTENT OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM? 2. WHAT ARE SCHOOL-TO-WORK TRANSITION PROGRAMS? WHY ARE THEY NEEDED? 3. DISCUSS THE IMPLICATIONS OF A SKILL-BASED PAY SYSTEM FOR TRAINING SYSTEMS? 4. IN WHAT WAY IS YOUR INSTITUTE’S CULTURE DIFFERENT FROM YOUR COLLEGE CULTURE? HOW DID YOU MANAGE YOUR TRANSITION? 5. WHAT ARE SOME POTENTIAL LEGAL ISSUES THAT A TRAINER SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE DECIDING TO RUN AN ADVENTURE LEARNING PROGRAM? CHAPTER 11 CAREER MANAGEMENT CAREER MANAGEMENT: • CM IS A PROCESS THROUGH WHICH EMPLOYEES: o BECOME AWARE OF THEIR OWN INTERESTS, VALUES, STRENGTHS, & WEAKNESS o OBTAIN INFORMATION ABOUT JOB OPPORTUNITIES WITHIN THE O o IDENTIFY CAREER GOALS o ESTABLISH ACTION PLANS TO ACHIEVE CAREER GOALS WHY IS CAREER MANAGEMENT IMPORTANT? • CM IS IMPORTANT FROM BOTH THE EMPLOYEES’ PERSPECTIVE & THE O’S PERSPECTIVE • FROM THE O POINT OF VIEW THE FAILURE TO MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES TO PLAN THEIR CAREERS CAN RESULT IN o SHORTAGES OF EMPLOYEES
  42. 42. o LOWER EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT o MONEY SPENT ON T& D GOING DOWN THE DRAIN • FROM THE EMPLOYEE’S PERSPECTIVE, LACK OF CM CAN RESULT IN o FRUSTRATION o FEELING OF NOT BEING VALUED IN THE O o CANNOT FIND SUITABLE EMPLOYMENT • O NEEDS TO HELP EMPLOYEES MANAGE THEIR CAREERS TO MAXIMIZE THEIR CAREER MOTIVATION CAREER MOTIVATION: • CAREER MOTIVATION HAS THREE ASPECTS: o CAREER RESILIENCE  EXTENT TO WHICH EMPLOYEES ARE ABLE TO COPE WITH SET BACKS o CAREER INSIGHT  KNOWING ABOUT THEIR INTERESTS / STRENGTHS / WEAKNESS  AND HOW IT RELATES TO THEIR CAREER GOALS o CAREER IDENTITY  DEFINING THEIR PERSONAL VALUES ACCORDING TO THEIR WORK • CAREER MOTIVATION CREATES VALUE FOR BOTH O & INDIVIDUALS o O’S VALUE:  INNOVATION  EMPLOYEES ADAPTING TO UNEXPECTED CHANGES
  43. 43.  COMMITMENT TO O  PRIDE IN WORK o EMPLOYEE’S VALUE:  BE AWARE OF SKILL STRENGTH / WEAKNESS  PARTICIPATE IN LEARNING ACTIVITIES  COPE WITH LESS IDEAL WORKING CONDITION  AVOID SKILL OBSOLESCENCE • CM IS POSITIVELY INFLUENCED BY HOW MUCH O PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR ACHIEVEMENT, ENCOURAGEMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT, & INFORMATION ABOUT CAREER OPPORTUNITIES • CM SYSTEMS HELP IDENTIFY THESE OPPORTUNITIES & PROVIDE CAREER INFORMATION IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS: o HOW CM CAN HELP O TO COPE WITH COMPETITIVE CHALLENGES o THE POSITIVE OUTCOMES THAT CAN RESULT FROM CM WHAT IS CAREER? • SEQUENCE OF POSITIONS HELD WITHIN AN OCCUPATION • MOBILITY WITHIN THE O • DESCRIBES THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EMPLOYEE • EACH EMPLOYEE’S CAREER CONSISTS OF DIFFERENT JOBS, POSITIONS & EXPERIENCES PROTEAN CAREER:
  44. 44. • A CAREER THAT FREQUENTLY CHANGES BASED ON BOTH CHANGES IN THE INTERESTS, ABILITIES, & VALUES & CHANGES IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT COMPARISON BETWEEN CAREER & PROTEAN CAREER DIMENSION CAREER PROTEAN CAREER GOAL PROMOTIONS PSYCHOLOGICAL SUCCESS PSYCHOLOGICAL SECURITY FOR EMPLOYABILITY FOR CONTRACT LOYALTY FLEXIBILITY RESPONSIBILITY FOR COMPANY EMPLOYEE CAREER PATTERN LINEAR & EXPERT SPIRAL & TRANSITORY EXPERTISE KNOW HOW LEARN HOW DEVELOPMENT HEAVY RELIANCE ON GREATER RELIANCE FORMAL TRAINING ON RELATIONSHIPS & JOB EXPERIENCES A MODEL OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT • A CAREER DEVELOPMENT [CD] IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH EMPLOYEES PROGRESS THROUGH A SERIES OF STAGES, EACH CHARACTERIZED BY A DIFFERENT SET OF DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS, ACTIVITIES, & RELATIONSHIPS • THE FOLLOWING ARE THE MODELS FOR CD: o LIFE CYCLE MODEL  WHILE MOVING FROM ONE STAGE TO ANOTHER, THEY FACE CERTAIN DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS o ORGANIZATION BASED MODEL  EMPLOYEES HAVE TO LEARN TO PERFORM CERTAIN ACTIVITIES WHILE MOVING FROM ONE STAGE TO ANOTHER o DIRECTIONAL PATTERN MODEL  DESCRIBES THE FORM OR SHAPE OF THE CAREER
  45. 45. • THERE ARE FOUR CAREER STAGES o EXPLORATION o ESTABLISHMENT o MAINTENANCE o DISENGAGEMENT • EACH CAREER STAGE IS CHARACTERIZED BY DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS, ACTIVITIES, & RELATIONSHIPS • EMPLOYEES CURRENT CAREER STAGE INFLUENCES THEIR NEEDS, ATTITUDES & JOB BEHAVIOURS CHARACTERISTICS EXPLORATION ESTABLISHMENT MAINTENANCE DISENGA DEVELOPMENTAL IDENTIFY ADVANCEMENT, HOLD ON TO RETIREM TASKS INTERESTS, GROWTH, ACCOMPLISHMENTS PLANNIN SKILLS, SECURITY, , UPDATE SKILLS CHANGE FIT BETWEEN DEVELOP LIFE- BALANC SELF & WORK STYLE BETWEE & NON W ACTIVITIES HELPING, MAKING TRAINING PHASING LEARNING INDEPENDENT SPONSORING WORK FOLLOWING CONTRIBUTIONS POLICY MAKING DIRECTIONS RELATIONSHIPS APPRENTICE COLLEAGUE MENTOR SPONSO TO OTHER EMPLOYEES AGE` LESS THAN 30 30 – 45 45 – 60 61 + YEARS ON THE LESS THAN 2 2 – 10 10 + 20 + JOB
  46. 46. CAREER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS • INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS o SELF-ASSESSMENT  REFERS TO USE OF INFORMATION BY EMPLOYEES TO DETERMINE THEIR CAREER INTEREST, VALUES, APTITUDES & BEHAVIOURAL TENDENCIES  THIS INFORMATION IS OBTAINED THROUGH VARIOUS TESTS o REALITY CHECK  REFERS TO HOW THE O EVALUATES THEIR SKILLS & KNOWLEDGE & WHERE THEY FIT INTO O’S PLAN  THE EMPLOYEE’S MANAGERS PROVIDE THIS INFORMATION. EG. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL o GOAL SETTING  REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF EMPLOYEES DEVELOPING SHORT / LONG TERM CAREER OBJECTIVES  THESE GOALS USUALLY RELATE TO • DESIRED POSITIONS, • LEVEL OF SKILL APPLICATION • WORK-SETTING [MOVEMENT TO CORPORATE] • SKILL ACQUISITION o ACTION PLANNING  INVOLVES EMPLOYEES DETERMINING HOW THEY WILL ACHIEVE THEIR SHORT / LONG TERM CAREER GOALS  INVOLVES ENROLLING IN TRAINING COURSE, ATTENDING SEMINARS, APPLYING FOR JOB OPENINGS
  47. 47. ROLES OF EMPLOYEES, HR MANAGERS, MANAGERS, & O IN CM: • EMPLOYEE’S ROLE o TAKING RESPONSIBILITY FOR OWN CAREER PLANNING o TAKE INITIATIVE TO ASK FOR FEEDBACK REGARDING THEIR STRENGTH / WEAKNESS o IDENTIFY THEIR STAGE OF CD & DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS o GAIN EXPOSURE TO A RANGE OF LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES o INTERACT WITH EMPLOYEES FROM DIFFERENT WORK GROUPS INSIDE & OUTSIDE THE O • MANAGER’S ROLE o TO HELP EMPLOYEES DEAL WITH CAREER ISSUES, MANAGERS NEED TO BE EFFECTIVE IN FOUR ROLES:  COACH • RESPONSIBILITIES:  PROBE PROBLEMS  LISTEN  CLARIFY CONCERNS  DEFINE CONCERNS  APPRAISER • RESPONSIBILITIES  GIVE FEEDBACK  CLARIFY O’S STANDARD  CLARIFY JOB RESPONSIBILITIES  CLARIFY O’S NEEDS  ADVISOR
  48. 48. • RESPONSIBILITIES  GENERATE OPTIONS  ASSIST IN GOAL SETTING  PROVIDE RECOMMENDATIONS  REFERRAL AGENTS • RESPONSIBILITIES:  LINK TO CAREER MANAGEMENT RESOURCES  FOLLOW UP ON CAREER MANAGEMENT PLAN • HR MANAGER’S ROLE o PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT T& D OPPORTUNITIES o PROVIDE SPECIALIZED TRAINING SUCH AS TESTING TO DETERMINE EMPLOYEES’ VALUES, INTERESTS & SKILLS o HELP EMPLOYEES FOR JOB SEARCHES o OFFER CAREER COUNSELLING • O’S ROLE: o PROVIDE EMPLOYEES WITH RESOURCES NEEDED TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN CAREER PLANNING ASSIGNMENTS: 1. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OCCUPATION / CAREER / PROFESSION? 2. HOW DID YOU COME TO KNOW YOUR AREA OF INTEREST, WHICH ENABLED YOU TO CHOOSE YOUR SPECIALIZATION? 3. COMMENT: WE NORMALLY SELECT OUR SPECIALIZATION, BASED NOT ON OUR LIKING, BUT FROM ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE CAREER / PROFESSION?
  49. 49. 4. COMMENT; CAREER DEVELOPMENT IS ALL HOGWASH, FOR EVERYBODY CANNOT BECOME THE CEO OF THE COMPANY? 5. COMMENT: CAREER DEVELOPMENT IS NOT POSSIBLE, IN A FLATTER ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE? 6. WHAT IS A PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT? HOW DOES THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT INFLUENCE CAREER MANAGEMENT? CHAPTER 12 SPECIAL CHALLENGES IN CM INTRODUCTION: • PLATEAUING IS A SERIOUS CONCERN FOR MANY MIDDLE AGE MANAGERS. MANY MANAGERS MIGHT BE IN MAINTENANCE STAGE, WHEREIN PLATEAUING IS OF PRIMARY CONCERN PLATEAUING: • IT DEALS WITH FEELINGS & EMOTIONS OF AN EMPLOYEE • ALSO MEANS THAT THE LIKELIHOOD OF THE EMPLOYEE RECEIVING FUTURE JOB ASSIGNMENTS WITH INCREASED RESPONSIBILITY IS LOW • PLATEAUING IS NOT BAD. A PLATEAUED EMPLOYEE MAY NOT DESIRE INCREASED RESPONSIBILITIES. JOB PERFORMANCE MAY MEET THE MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE STANDARDS • PLATEAUING BECOMES DYSFUNCTIONAL WHEN THE EMPLOYEE FEELS STUCK IN A JOB THAT OFFERS NO POTENTIAL FOR PERSONAL GROWTH. SUCH FRUSTRATION RESULTS IN A POOR JOB ATTITUDE, INCREASED ABSENTEEISM & POOR PERFORMANCE • FOLLOWING ARE THE REASONS FOR PLATEAUING:
  50. 50. o LACK OF ABILITY o LACK OF TRAINING o LOW NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT o UNFAIR PAY DECISIONS OR CONFUSION WITH PAY RAISES o CONFUSION ABOUT JOB RESPONSIBILITIES o SLOW O’S GROWTH RESULTING IN REDUCED DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES • PLATEAUED EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED TO BECOME INVOLVED IN DEVELOPMENTAL OPPORTUNITIES, INCLUDING TRAINING COURSES, JOB EXCHANGES, & SHORT TERM ASSIGNMENTS IN WHICH THEY EXAMINE THEIR EXPERTISE OUTSIDE THEIR DEPARTMENT • PLATEAUED EMPLOYEES MAY NEED CAREER COUNSELING TO HELP THEM UNDERSTAND WHY THEY ARE PLATEAUED, & THE OPTIONS FOR DEALING WITH THE PROBLEM • EMPLOYEES SHOULD BE ENCOURAGED TO REALITY TEST THE SOLUTIONS THEY BELIEVE WILL SOLVE THEIR PLATEAUING THROUGH DISCUSSIONS WITH THEIR MANAGER, COWORKERS, & HR MANAGERS THIS IS NECESSARY TO ENSURE THAT THEIR SOLUTION IS REALISTIC GIVEN THE RESOURCES AVAILABLE IN THE O. • AT TIMES IT MAY BE IN THE BEST INTEREST OF THE EMPLOYEE IF HE IS ENCOURAGED TO LEAVE THE O SKILL OBSOLESCENCE • OBSOLESCENCE IS REDUCTION IN AN EMPLOYEE’S COMPETENCE RESULTING FROM LACK OF KNOWLEDGE OF NEW WORK PROCESSES, TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGIES THAT HAVE DEVELOPED SINCE THE EMPLOYEE COMPLETED HIS EDUCATION. • OBSOLESCENCE NEEDS TO BE AVOIDED IF O IS TRYING TO BECOME LEARNING O. IF EMPLOYEES’ SKILL BECOMES
  51. 51. OBSOLETE BOTH THE EMPLOYEE & THE O SUFFER. THE O’S CULTURE PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN ENCOURAGING DEVELOPING THEIR SKILLS. FOLLOWING ARE THE FACTORS THAT ARE RELATED TO UPDATING SKILLS: o O’S CLIMATE  EMPHASIS ON CONTINUOUS LEARNING o MANAGER  PROVIDE CHALLENGING WORK ASSIGNMENTS  ENCOURAGE EMPLOYEES TO ACQUIRE NEW SKILLS o PEER  DISCUSS IDEAS & PROBLEMS  SHARE INFORMATION o REWARD SYSTEM  SABBATICALS  PAY FOR NEW IDEAS  PAY FOR EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT BALANCING WORK & LIFE: • O NOW A DAYS ARE CONCERNED WITH SIMULTANEOUSLY MEETING THE NEEDS OF BOTH WORK & FAMILY RESEARCH SUGGESTS THAT DUAL CAREER FAMILIES, SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES, & FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN UNDER AGE FIVE ARE LIKELY TO EXPERIENCE THE MOST WORK & FAMILY CONFLICTS • BESIDES BALANCING WORK LIFE, O NOW A DAYS HAS PROVIDE SUPPORT SERVICES TO EMPLOYEES TO DEAL WITH STRESSES & STRAINS RELATED TO WORK & NON-WORK CONFLICTS • EMPLOYEES WITH DEPENDENTS STRUGGLE WITH CHILD CARE & ELDER CARE • ALL EMPLOYEES STRUGGLE WITH ISSUES RELATED TO PARTICIPATING IN NON-WORK ACTIVITIES THAT THEY INCREASINGLY HAVE LESS TIME FOR DUE TO WORK DEMANDS
  52. 52. • TO ADDRESS THIS ISSUES, THE HR POLICIES HAVE TO BE RE- LOOKED, & CHANGED ACCORDINGLY TYPES OF WORK-LIFE CONFLICTS: • OUTCOMES ARE: o FRUSTRATION o HEALTH RISK o DECREASED PRODUCTIVITY o TARDINESS o TURNOVER o POOR MENTAL HEALTH • THREE TYPES OF WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT EXISTS: o TIME-BASED  OCCURS WHEN THE DEMANDS OF WORK & NON- WORK INTERFERE WITH EACH OTHER  EXAMPLE: TRAVEL, STAYING BACK ON OVERTIME o STRAIN-BASED  RESULTS FROM THE STRESS OF WORK & NON WORK ROLES  EXAMPLE: A NEW BORN BABY DEPRIVES PARENTS OF SLEEP; RESULT IT IS DIFFICULT TO CONCENTRATE AT WORK o BEHAVIOR-BASED  OCCURS WHEN EMPLOYEES BEHAVIOR IN WORK ROLES IS NOT APPROPRIATE FOR THEIR BEHAVIOR IN NON WORK ROLES  EXAMPLE: WORK DEMANDS THAT MANAGERS BE LOGICAL, IMPARTIAL, & AUTHORITARIAN. AT THE SAME TIME THESE MANAGERS ARE EXPECTED TO BE WARM, EMOTIONAL, & FRIENDLY IN THEIR
  53. 53. RELATIONSHIPS WITH THEIR FAMILY MEMBERS OR FRIENDS O POLICIES TO ACCOMMODATE WORK & NON WORK: • COMMUNICATING INFORMATION ABOUT WORK & NON WORK POLICIES & JOB DEMANDS • FLEXIBILITY IN WORK ARRANGEMENTS & WORK SCHEDULES • SUPPORT SERVICES COPING WITH LOSS OF JOBS: • O THAT LAY OFF EMPLOYEES CAN EXPERIENCE LOWERED JOB COMMITMENT, DISTRUST OF MANAGEMENT & DIFFICULTIES RECRUITING NEW EMPLOYEES • JOB LOSS ALSO CAUSES STRESS & DISRUPTS THE PERSONAL LIVES OF LAID OFF EMPLOYEES • BECAUSE OF THE POTENTIAL DAMAGING EFFECTS OF DOWNSIZING, O SHOULD SEEK ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO REDUCE HEADCOUNT & LOWER LABOUR COSTS • JOB LOSS MAY BE INEVITABLE DUE TO MERGERS & ACQUISITION • FROM CAREER MANAGEMENT POINT OF VIEW, O MUST TAKE STEPS THAT REMAINING EMPLOYEES REMAIN PRODUCTIVE & COMMITTED TO THE O • TO REDUCE THE POTENTIAL NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF LAY OFF THE FOLLOWING THINGS AN O SHOULD DO: o ADVANCE WARNING & EXPLANATION FOR LAY OFF o PSYCHOLOGICAL, FINANCIAL & CAREER COUNSELING o ASSESSMENT OF SKILLS & INTEREST o PROVIDE ASSISTANCE IN FINDING ALTERNATIVE JOBS DEALING WITH OLDER EMPLOYEES: • FOLLOWING ACTIONS AN O CAN TAKE:
  54. 54. o FLEXIBILITY IN SCHEDULING ALLOWS OLDER EMPLOYEES TO TAKE CARE OF SICK SPOUSES, GO BACK TO UPGRADE K / S, WORK FEW HOURS, o PROVIDE TRAINING TO AVOID OBSOLESCENCE & BE PREPARED TO USE NEW TECHNOLOGY o COUNSELING FOR FINDING NEW JOBS, & TRANSITION TO LESS SECURE POSITIONS PRE-RETIREMENT SOCIALIZATION: • PROCESS OF HELPING EMPLOYEES PREPARE FOR EXIST FROM WORK • IT ENCOURAGES EMPLOYEES TO LEARN ABOUT RETIREMENT LIFE, PLAN FOR ADEQUATE FINANCIAL, HOUSING, & HEALTH- CARE RESOURCES & FORM ACCURATE EXPECTATIONS ABOUT RETIREMENT • MANY O ALSO USE ALTERNATIVE WORK ARRANGEMENTS TO HELP EMPLOYEES MAKE THE TRANSITION INTO RETIREMENT WHILE AT THE SAME TIME CONTINUING TO UTILIZE THEIR TALENTS • ALTHOUGH FORMAL PRE-RETIREMENT SOCIALIZATION PROGRAMS ARE PRIMARILY FOR EMPLOYEES WHO ARE CONSIDERING RETIREMENT, FINANCIAL PLANNING, ESTATE PLANNING & PURCHASING INSURANCE NEEDS TO BE DONE MUCH EARLIER IN THEIR CAREER TO ENSURE THAT EMPLOYEES WILL HAVE THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES NECESSARY TO LIVE COMFORTABLY DURING RETIREMENT RETIREMENT: • INVOLVES LEAVING A JOB & WORK ROLE & MAKING A TRANSITION INTO A LIFE WITHOUT WORK • THE AGING WORK FORCE & THE USE OF EARLY RETIREMENT PROGRAMS TO SHRINK O WORK FORCES HAVE THREE IMPLICATIONS:
  55. 55. o O MUST MEET THE NEEDS OF OLDER EMPLOYEES o O MUST TAKE STEPS TO PREPARE EMPLOYEES FOR RETIREMENT o O MUST BE CAREFUL THAT EARLY RETIREMENT PROGRAMS DO NOT UNFAIRLY DISCRIMINATE AGAINST OLDER EMPLOYEES EARLY RETIREMENT PROGRAMS: • OFFERS FINANCIAL BENEFITS TO LEAVE THE O • THESE PROGRAMS ARE USUALLY PART OF THE O’S STRATEGY TO REDUCE LABOUR COSTS WITHOUT HAVING TO LAY OFF THE EMPLOYEES • ELIGIBILITY FOR EARLY RETIREMENT IS USUALLY BASED ON AGE [40 YEARS] & YEARS OF SERVICE [10 YEARS] • EMPLOYEES ARE GIVEN COMPLETE INFORMATION ABOUT THE PLAN & THEY RECEIVE A REASONABLE AMOUNT OF TIME TO MAKE THEIR DECISIONS • EMPLOYEES DECISIONS ARE CONSIDERED VOLUNTARY, IF THEY REFUSE TO PARTICIPATE IN THE PLAN • O ORGANIZES TRAINING PROGRAMS ON HOW SAVE THE LUMP SUM AMOUNT SO THAT THEY GET MONTHLY INCOME • THE LUMP SUM AMOUNT ALSO QUALIFIES UPTO FIVE LAKHS INCOME TAX EXEMPTION • THE LUMP SUM AMOUNT IS OVER & THE OTHER RETIREMENT TERMINAL BENEFITS LIKE PF / GRATUITY / SUPERANNUATION ASSIGNMENTS: 1. WHAT IS A DUAL-CAREER PATH? WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE DUAL CAREER PATH? 2. HOW COULD YOU HELP DOWNSIZED SURVIVORS REMAIN MOTIVATED & PRODUCTIVE? PROVIDE A RATIONALE FOR YOUR RANKING?
  56. 56. 3. WHEN ENVIRONMENT IS SO DYNAMIC, HOW IS IT POSSIBLE PLAN CAREER OF PEOPLE? 4. COMMENT: ONE CAN REACH THE TOP ONLY BY JOB-HOPPING? CHAPTER 13 THE FUTURE OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION:  THE FUTURE TREND IN T&D PRACTICES WILL BE AS FOLLOW: o PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN OS TO SHARE TRAINING PRACTICES & GAIN LEVERAGE WITH PROGRAM DEVELOPERS & CONSULTANTS o THE USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR TRAINING DELIVERY WILL INCREASE o EMPHASIS ON STORAGE & USE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL WILL RISE
  57. 57. o TRAINING DEPARTMENTS WILL BECOME VIRTUAL TRAINING O o TRAINING WILL BECOME MORE INTEGRATED WITH OTHER BUSINESS FUNCTIONS o TRAINING DEPARTMENTS WILL WORK MORE WITH EXTERNAL PARTNERS o T&D WILL BE VIEWED MORE FROM A CHANGE MODEL PERSPECTIVE DETERMINING IF CHANGE IS NECESSARY: BENCHMARKING & PROCESS RE-ENGINEERING  VIEWING TRAINING FROM A SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVE MEANS THAT THE COMPANIES & TRAINER NEED TO UNDERSTAND BOTH INTERNAL & EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT  ALSO NEED TO BE AWARE OF OTHER COMPANIES PRACTICES TO ENSURE THAT THEIR TRAINING PRACTICE ARE THE BEST POSSIBLE  BENCHMARKING PROVIDES INFORMATION ABOUT OTHER COMPANIES’ PRACTICES  PROCESS REENGINEERING PROVIDES INFORMATION ABOUT THE EFFECTIVENESS & EFFICIENCY OF TRAINING SYSTEMS WITHIN THE COMPANY BENCHMARKING  TRAINERS NEED TO TAKE FOLLOWING THINGS INTO ACCOUNT WHEN BENCHMARKING o GATHER INFORMATION ABOUT INTERNAL PROCESSES TO SERVE AS A COMPARISON FOR BEST PRACTICES o IDENTIFY THE PURPOSE OF BENCHMARKING, & THE PRACTICE TO BE BENCHMARKED o SENIORS NEED TO BE COMMITTED TO THIS PROJECT o BOTH QUANTITATIVE & QUALITATIVE DATA SHOULD BE COLLECTED
  58. 58. o DESCRIPTIONS OF PROGRAMS & HOW THEY OPERATE ARE AS VALUABLE AS KNOWING HOW BEST PRACTICES CONTRIBUTED TO THE BOTTOM LINE o COLLECT DATA FROM OS WITHIN & OUTSIDE ONE’S INDUSTRY o DO NOT VIEW HR PRACTICES IN ISOLATION FROM EACH OTHER o THE INFORMATION COLLECTED NEEDS TO BE CONSIDERED IN TERMS OF THE CONTEXT OF THE OS o USE OF INFORMATION GATHERED FROM BENCHMARKING NEEDS TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE BROADER FRAMEWORK OF O CHANGE PROCESS REENGINEERING  REENGINEERING CAN BE USED TO REVIEW THE TRAINING DEPARTMENT FUNCTIONS & PROCESSES  IT INVOLVES FOUR STEPS: o IDENTIFY THE PROCESS TO BE REENGINEERED o UNDERSTAND THE PROCESS o REDESIGN THE PROCESS o IMPLEMENT THE NEW PROCESS STEPS IN IMPLEMENTING A NEW T& D PRACTICE  CHANGE MANAGEMENT o INVOLVES FOUR STEPS:  OVERCOMING RESISTANCE  MANAGING THE TRANSITION  SHAPING POLITICAL DYNAMICS  USING TRAINING TO UNDERSTAND NEW TASK ASSIGNMENTS: WHAT NEW SKILLS WILL TRAINERS NEED TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN THE FUTURE?
  59. 59. WHAT MISCONCEPTIONS DO MANAGERS HAVE ABOUT TRAINING? HOW COULD YOU CHANGE THOSE MISCONCEPTIONS? EXPLAIN WHAT YOU BELIEVE ARE THE ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF CREATING A TRAINING CONSORTIUM OR PARTNERSHIP WITH OTHER COMPANIES? THE END THANK YOU

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