ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR
MOTIVATION PROCESS
    1. DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOTIVES
    2. PERSONAL CONFLICT
    3. FRUSTRATION 7 D...
 ESTEEM
               SELF-ACTUALIZATION
       o   PHYSIOLOGICAL & SAFETY NEEDS ARE LOWER ORDER NEEDS
       o   THEY ...
   EFFORT-PERFORMANCE
                  PERFORMANCE –REWARD
                  REWARDS-PERSONAL GOALS

EMPLOYEE INVOLVEM...
 BE FLEXIBLE IN TERMS OF YOUR POLICY IN MEETING THE NEEDS OF
                 DIVERSIFIED PEOPLE
         o UNSKILLED WOR...
•   INDIVIDUAL FACTORS
           o INCLUDES:
           o MARITAL DIFFICULTIES
           o ECONOMIC PROBLEMS

CONSEQUENC...
•   CONSISTS OF MORE THAN ONE PERSON
  •   INTERACT TO ACCOMPLISH A PARTICULAR OBJECTIVE
  •   CREATES INTERDEPENDENCE
  •...
o RESPONSES OF GROUP MEMBERS VARY IN THIS STAGE. SOME ARE UPBEAT,
           BASKING IN THE GLORY; & SOME ARE DEPRESSED

A...
THERE IS A TENDENCY FOR INDIVIDUAL’S TO EXPEND LESS EFFORT
                WHEN WORKING COLLECTIVELY THAN WORKING INDIVID...
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WORK GROUP & WORK TEAM
        CRITERIA              WORK-GROUP                 WORK-TEAM
          GOA...
o CONFLICT
            o SOCIAL LOAFING

ORGANIZATION DESIGN:
    4. VARIOUS ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE & THEIR EFFECTS ON HUM...
o A STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZED BY
                A LOW DEGREE OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION,
                WIDE SPANS OF CONTRO...
   ORGANIZATION SIZE
                   TECHNOLOGY
                   ENVIRONMENT

ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE & EMPLOYEE BE...
•   THE FOLLOWING ARE THE PRIMARY CHARACTERISTICS OF OC:
         o INNOVATION & RISK TAKING
         o ATTENTION TO DETAI...
•    THERE IS A LINK BETWEEN CLIMATE MOTIVATION AS STATED BELOW:
            o ACHIEVEMENT
                     CONCERN F...
•  THE ABILITY OF A PERSON TO INFLUENCE OTHERS TO WARD THE ACHIEVEMENT OF
      A COMMON GOAL
LEADERSHIP:
   • IT IS THE S...
•   TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS
           o PROVIDE INDIVIDUALIZED CONSIDERATION & INTELLECTUAL SIMULATION, &
             W...
 BASED ON PREDICTABILITY
            o IDENTIFICATION-BASED TRUST
                  BASED ON MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF EAC...

   •   WORLD POLITICS
         o EXAMPLES:
                UNIFICATION OF GERMANY
                BREAKUP OF SOVIET UN...
• SELECTIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING
        o ORGANIZATIONAL
        o FOLLOWING ARE THE REASONS:
              STRUCTURAL...
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  1. 1. ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR MOTIVATION PROCESS 1. DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOTIVES 2. PERSONAL CONFLICT 3. FRUSTRATION 7 DEFENSE MECHANISM 4. ACHIEVEMENT RELATIONSHIP OF MORALE, PRODUCTIVITY & MOTIVATION STRESS MANAGEMENT: 1. WORK CURVE MONOTONY / BOREDOM / FATIGUE GROUP DYNAMICS: 1. FORMAL & INFORMAL GROUPS 2. TYPES OF GROUPS 3. THEORIES 4. GROUP FORMATION 5. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS ORGANIZATION DESIGN: 1. VARIOUS ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE & THEIR EFFECTS ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR 2. ORGANIZATION CLIMATE 3. ORGANIZATION CULTURE LEADERSHIP: 1. DEFINITION 2. ITS IMPORTANCE TO ORGANIZATION 3. LEADERSHIP STYLES 4. APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF LEADERSHIP TRAITS 5. BEHAVIOURAL & SITUATIONAL APPROACHES 6. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT CHANGE 1. FORCES RESPONSIBLE FOR CHANGE 2. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 3. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 4. INTRODUCING CHANGE IN ORGANIZATION 5. ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT: ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS MOTIVATION PROCESS • DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOTIVES • PERSONAL CONFLICT • FRUSTRATION & DEFENSE MECHANISM • ACHIEVEMENT RELATIONSHIP OF MORALE, PRODUCTIVITY & MOTIVATION MOTIVATION: • IT IS A PROCESS • DEALS WITH INDIVIDUAL’S INTENSITY, & PERSISTENCE • EFFORTS IS DIRECTED TOWARDS ATTAINMENT A GOAL TYPES OF MOTIVES: [DIFFERENT TYPE OF MOTIVATION THEORIES] • NEED THEORIES: o MASLOW’S HIERARCHY  THERE IS HIERARCHY OF FIVE NEEDS:  PHYSIOLOGICAL  SECURITY  SOCIAL
  2. 2.  ESTEEM  SELF-ACTUALIZATION o PHYSIOLOGICAL & SAFETY NEEDS ARE LOWER ORDER NEEDS o THEY ARE SATISFIED EXTERNALLY o SOCIAL, ESTEEM & SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS ARE HIGHER NEEDS o THEY ARE SATISFIED INTERNALLY o TWO FACTORS  INTRINSIC FACTORS ARE RELATED TO JOB SATISFACTION [MOTIVATION FACTORS]  EXTRINSIC FACTORS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DISSATISFACTION [HYGIENE FACTORS]  HYGIENE FACTORS INCLUDES COMPANY POLICY, SUPERVISION, AND SALARY ETC.  IF THESE ARE ADEQUATE, PEOPLE WILL NOT BE DISSATISFIED  MOTIVATION FACTORS INCLUDES ACHIEVEMENT, RECOGNITION, WORK ITSELF, GROWTH, ETC o ERG  THERE ARE THREE GROUPS OF CORE NEEDS: EXISTENCE, RELATEDNESS, & GROWTH. o McCLELLAND’S  THREE IMPORTANT NEEDS • ACHIEVEMENT o DRIVE TO EXCEL • POWER o CONTROLLING THE BEHAVIOUR OF OTHERS • AFFILIATION o DESIRE TO BE FRIENDLY • GOAL SETTING THEORY o FOR HIGHER PERFORMANCE SET:  SPECIFIC & DIFFICULT GOALS  AND PROVIDE FEEDBACK • REINFORCEMENT THEORY o BEHAVIOUR IS A FUNCTION OF ITS CONSEQUENCES • EQUITY THEORY o INDIVIDUAL’S COMPARE THEIR JOB INPUTS & OUTCOMES WITH THOSE OF OTHERS o AND THEN RESPOND TO REMOVE ANY INEQUITIES • EXPECTANCY THEORY o IT FOCUSES ON THREE RELATIONSHIP:
  3. 3.  EFFORT-PERFORMANCE  PERFORMANCE –REWARD  REWARDS-PERSONAL GOALS EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT PROGRAMS • IT IS A PARTICIPATIVE PROCESS THAT USES THE ENTIRE CAPACITY OF EMPLOYEES & IS DESIGNED TO ENCOURAGE INCREASED COMMITMENT TO THE ORGANIZATION’S SUCCESS • EXAMPLES: • PARTICIPATION ,MANAGEMENT • WORK-COUNCILS • BOARD REPRESENTATIVES • QUALITY CIRCLES • EMPLOYEE STOCK OPTION • EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION PROGRAMS • INCLUDES o SUGGESTION SYSTEMS o EMPLOYEE OF THE MONTH o PRAISING THE EMPLOYEE IN A SOCIAL GATHERING o PROMOTION • THE ABOVE LIST IS ONLY ILLUSTRATIVE IN NATURE VARIABLE PAY PROGRAM: • MEANS A PORTION OF AN EMPLOYEE’S PAY IS BASED ON HIS PERFORMANCE • EXAMPLES: o GAIN-SHARING o INCENTIVES o PROFIT SHARING PLANS o SKILL BASE PAY o FLEXIBLE BENEFITS SPECIAL ISSUES IN MOTIVATION: • MOTIVATING o PROFESSIONALS  PROVIDE CHALLENGING JOBS  PROVIDE SUPPORT  WORK ITSELF  AUTONOMY  REWARD THROUGH EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY o CONTINGENT WORKERS  AN OPPORTUNITY FOR PERMANENT STATUS  PROVIDE SKILL BASE TRAINING  PROVIDE SKILL-BASE PAY OR VARIABLE PAY o DIVERSIFIED WORKERS
  4. 4.  BE FLEXIBLE IN TERMS OF YOUR POLICY IN MEETING THE NEEDS OF DIVERSIFIED PEOPLE o UNSKILLED WORKER  PAY MARKET RATE o DOING REPETITIVE NATURE OF JOB.  CREATE PLEASANT WORK CLIMATE  OPPORTUNITY TO SOCIALIZE  EMPATHETIC SUPERVISORS  BREAKS AT REGULAR INTERVALS STRESS MANAGEMENT: 1. WORK CURVE MONOTONY / BOREDOM / FATIGUE STRESS: • CAUSE IS OUTSIDE & EFFECT IS INSIDE • INCLUDES • CONSTRAINTS o FORCES THAT PREVENT INDIVIDUALS FROM DOING WHAT THEY DESIRE • DEMANDS o THE LOSS OF SOMETHING DESIRED • STRESS IS NOT ALWAYS BAD • A LITTLE AMOUNT OF STRESS MAKES A PERSON TO STRETCH TO ACCOMPLISH THE GOAL SOURCES OF STRESS: • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS o INCLUDES  ECONOMIC UNCERTAINTY • FEAR OF LOOSING JOBS  POLITICAL UNCERTAINTY • EXAMPLE: STAND OF MNS / AMARNATH ISSUE  TECHNOLOGICAL UNCERTAINTY • NEW INNOVATIONS MAKES AN EMPLOYEE’S SKILL & EXPERIENCE OBSOLETE • ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS o INCLUDES  TASK DEMANDS INCLUDES o DESIGN OF JOBS  ROLE DEMANDS • INABILITY TO MEET THE DEMANDS OF THE ROLE  INTERPERSONAL DEMANDS • LACK OF SOCIAL SUPPORT  ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE • RULES & REGULATIONS • NO INVOLVEMENT  ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP • STYLE OF LEADERS
  5. 5. • INDIVIDUAL FACTORS o INCLUDES: o MARITAL DIFFICULTIES o ECONOMIC PROBLEMS CONSEQUENCE OF STRESS: • PHYSIOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS o BLOOD PRESSURE o HEART ATTACK o HEADACHES • PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS o TENSION o ANXIETY o IRRITABILITY o BOREDOM o PROCRASTINATION • BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS • REFLECTED IN o PRODUCTIVITY o ABSENTEEISM o TURNOVER o CHANGES IN EATING HABITS o INCREASED SMOKING OR CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL o SLEEP DISORDERS MANAGING STRESS: • TWO APPROACHES: o INDIVIDUAL  EFFECTIVE TIME MANAGEMENT  INCREASING PHYSICAL EXERCISE  RELAXATION TRAINING  SOCIAL SUPPORT o ORGANIZATIONAL  IMPROVED PERSONNEL SELECTION  JOB PLACEMENT  IMPROVED ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION  ESTABLISHMENT OF CORPORATE WELLNESS PROGRAMS [PHYSICAL & MENTAL CONDITIONS] GROUP DYNAMICS: 6. FORMAL & INFORMAL GROUPS 7. TYPES OF GROUPS 8. THEORIES 9. GROUP FORMATION 10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS FORMAL & INFORMAL GROUPS GROUP:
  6. 6. • CONSISTS OF MORE THAN ONE PERSON • INTERACT TO ACCOMPLISH A PARTICULAR OBJECTIVE • CREATES INTERDEPENDENCE • CLASSIFIED: o FORMAL  IS DEFINED BY ORGANIZATION o INFORMAL  NOT DEFINED BY ORGANIZATION  FORMED TO MEET SOCIAL NEEDS • TYPES: o COMMAND GROUP  A MANAGER & HIS IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES o TASK GROUP  THOSE WORKING TOGETHER TO COMPLETE A JOB TASK o INTEREST GROUP  THOSE WORKING TOGETHER TO ATTAIN A SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE WITH EACH IS CONCERNED o FRIENDSHIP GROUP  THOSE BROUGHT TOGETHER BECAUSE THEY SHARE ONE MORE COMMON CHARACTERISTICS GROUP FORMATION: • GOES THROUGH FIVE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT • FORMING o UNCERTAINTY ABOUT PURPOSE, STRUCTURE & LEADERSHIP o DETERMINING TYPES OF BEHAVIOUR o THIS STAGE IS COMPLETE WHEN MEMBERS BEGIN TO THINK OF THEMSELVES AS PART OF A GROUP • STORMING o ACCEPTANCE OF EXISTENCE OF THE GROUP o CONFLICT AS TO WHO WILL CONTROL THE GROUP o RESISTANCE TO THE CONSTRAINTS THAT THE GROUP IMPOSES ON INDIVIDUALITY o WHEN THIS STAGE IS COMPLETE THERE WILL BE RELATIVELY CLEAR HIERARCHY OF LEADERSHIP WITHIN THE GROUP • NORMING o RELATIONSHIP & COHESIVENESS IS DEVELOPED o THIS STAGE IS COMPLETE WHEN THE GROUP STRUCTURE SOLIDIFIES & THE GROUP HAS ACCEPTED A COMMON SET OF EXPECTATIONS OF CORRECT BEHAVIOUR OF THE MEMBERS • PERFORMING o THE GROUP IS FULLY FUNCTIONAL o FOCUS IS ON PERFORMANCE • ADJOURNING o PREPARING FOR DISBANDMENT
  7. 7. o RESPONSES OF GROUP MEMBERS VARY IN THIS STAGE. SOME ARE UPBEAT, BASKING IN THE GLORY; & SOME ARE DEPRESSED ALTERNATIVE MODEL: FOR TEMPORARY GROUPS • TEMPORARY GROUPS WITH DEADLINES DO NOT FOLLOW THE ABOVE PATTERN. THEY HAVE THEIR OWN SEQUENCING OF ACTIONS [INACTIONS] LIKE: o THEIR FIRST MEETING SETS THE GROUP’S DIRECTION o THE FIRST PHASE OF GROUP ACTIVITY IS INERTIA o FOLLOWED BY TRANSITION, WHICH OCCURS WHEN THE GROUP HAS USED UP HALF ITS ALLOTTED TIME. o A TRANSITION INITIATES MAJOR CHANGES o A SECOND PHASE OF INERTIA FOLLOWS THE TRANSITION. o THE GROUP’S LAST MEETING IS CHARACTERIZED BY A MARKEDLY ACCELERATED ACTIVITY. BEHAVIOUR OF WORK GROUP: • THE FOLLOWING FACTORS INFLUENCE THE WORKING OF GROUP: • ORGANIZATION’S AUTHORITY STRUCTURE o WHERE THE WORK GROUP IS PLACED IN THE HIERARCHY LEVEL. • FORMAL REGULATIONS o IT STANDARDIZES EMPLOYEE’S BEHAVIOUR • RESOURCES: o PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF RESOURCES INFLUENCES THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE EMPLOYEES • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION & REWARD SYSTEM: o DOES THE ORGANIZATION PROVIDE SPECIFIC / CHALLENGING PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES o DOES THE ORGANIZATION REWARD INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP OBJECTIVES • ORGANIZATION’S CULTURE o DEFINES STANDARD OF ACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOUR • PHYSICAL WORK SETTING o THE LAYOUT / SIZE / ILLUMINATION / ETC. GROUP STRUCTURE • INCLUDES o FORMAL LEADERSHIP  EVERY GROUP HAS A FORMAL LEADER, IDENTIFIED BY TITLE o ROLES  A SET OF EXPECTED BEHAVIOUR o NORMS  ACCEPTABLE STANDARDS OF BEHAVIOUR o GROUP STATUS  A SOCIALLY DEFINED POSITION GIVEN TO A GROUP o GROUP SIZE  SIZE OF THE GROUP AFFECTS THE GROUP’S OVERALL BEHAVIOUR
  8. 8. THERE IS A TENDENCY FOR INDIVIDUAL’S TO EXPEND LESS EFFORT WHEN WORKING COLLECTIVELY THAN WORKING INDIVIDUAL. [SOCIAL LOAFING] o COMPOSITION  THE DEGREE TO WHICH MEMBERS OF A GROUP SHARE A COMMON DEMOGRAPHIC ATTRIBUTE LIKE AGE / SEX / RACE / EDUCATION / LENGTH OF SERVICE  INDIVIDUALS WHO AS PART OF A GROUP HOLD A COMMON ATTRIBUTE o COHESIVENESS  DEGREE TO WHICH GROUP MEMBERS ARE ATTRACTED TO EACH OTHER & ARE MOTIVATED TO STAY IN THE GROUP GROUP DECISION MAKING • FOLLOWING ARE THE STRENGTHS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING o GENERATE MORE COMPLETE INFORMATION 7 KNOWLEDGE o DIVERSITY IN VIEWS o HIGHER QUALITY DECISIONS o INCREASED ACCEPTANCE OF DECISION • FOLLOWING ARE THE WEAKNESS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING o TIME CONSUMING o CONFORMITY PRESSURE o DOMINATED BY FEW OR ONE MEMBER o AMBIGUOUS RESPONSIBILITY GROUPTHINK • PHENOMENON IN WHICH THE NORM FOR CONSENSUS. OVERRIDES THE REALISTIC APPRAISAL OF ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION GROUPSHIFT: • A CHANGE IN DECISION RISK BETWEEN THE GROUP’S DECISION & THE INDIVIDUAL DECISION THAT MEMBERS WITHIN THE GROUP WOULD MAKE, CAN BE EITHER TOWARD CONSERVATISM OR GREATER RISK GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUES: • INTERACTING GROUPS o MEMBERS INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER FACE TO FACE o BEFORE DISCUSSIONS BEGIN, EACH MEMBER WRITES HIS OWN IDEA. EACH IDEA IS DISCUSSED. THE IDEA IS ACCEPTED • BRAINSTORMING o IDEAS ARE GENERATED. o CRITICISM IS DISCOURAGED • ELECTRONIC MEETING o A MEETING IN WHICH MEMBERS INTERACT ON COMPUTERS
  9. 9. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WORK GROUP & WORK TEAM CRITERIA WORK-GROUP WORK-TEAM GOAL SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTIVE PERFORMANCE SYNERGY NEUTRAL [SOMETIMES POSITIVE NEGATIVE] ACCOUNTABILITY INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL & MUTUAL SKILLS SUPPLEMENTARY COMPLEMENTARY TYPES OF TEAMS • PROBLEM-SOLVING TEAMS o PERTAINS TO DEPARTMENTAL ISSUES o MEMBERS ARE FROM THE SAME DEPARTMENT • SELF-MANAGED TEAMS o OPERATE AS PROFIT CENTRES • CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS • PERTAINS ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS • MEMBERS ARE FROM DIFFERENT FUNCTION BUT OF THE SAME HIERARCHY • VIRTUAL TEAMS o MEMBERS LINKED THROUGH COMPUTERS o MEMBERS ARE DISPERSED. HENCE NO FACE TO FACE CONTACT CREATING AN EFFECTIVE TEAM • FOR CREATING AN EFFECTIVE TEAM DO THE FOLLOWING • WORK DESIGN o INCLUDES  AUTONOMY  SKILL VARIETY  TASK IDENTITY  TASK SIGNIFICANCE • COMPOSITION o INCLUDES:  ABILITY  PERSONALITY  ROLES & DIVERSITY  SIZE  FLEXIBILITY  PREFERENCE FOR TEAM WORK • CONTEXT o INCLUDES:  ADEQUATE RESOURCES  LEADERSHIP  PERFORMANCE EVALUATION & REWARD • PROCESS o COMMON PURPOSE o SPECIFIC GOALS o TEAM EFFICACY
  10. 10. o CONFLICT o SOCIAL LOAFING ORGANIZATION DESIGN: 4. VARIOUS ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE & THEIR EFFECTS ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR 5. ORGANIZATION CLIMATE 6. ORGANIZATION CULTURE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: • HOW JOB TASKS ARE FORMALLY DIVIDED , GROUPED & COORDINATED • THERE ARE SIX KEY ELEMENTS THAT MANAGERS NEED TO ADDRESS WHEN THEY DESIGN THEIR OS: o WORK SPECIALIZATION o CHAIN OF COMMAND o SPAN OF CONTROL o CENTRALIZATION o DECENTRALIZATION o FORMALIZATION • WORK SPECIALIZATION: o THE DEGREE TO WHICH TASKS IN THE ORGANIZATION ARE SUBDIVIDED INTO SEPARATE JOBS o THE BASIS BY WHICH JOBS ARE GROUPED TOGETHER IS CALLED AS DEPARTMENTALIZATION • CHAIN OF COMMAND: o THE UNBROKEN LINE OF AUTHORITY THAT EXTENDS FROM THE TOP OF THE ORGANIZATION TO THE LOWEST ECHELON & CLARIFIES WHO REPORTS TO WHOM o CHAIN OF COMMAND HAS TWO COMPLIMENTARY CONCEPTS:  AUTHORITY • THE RIGHTS INHERENT IN A MANAGERIAL POSITION TO GIVE ORDERS & TO EXPECT THE ORDERS TO BE OBEYED  UNITY OF COMMAND • A SUBORDINATE SHOULD HAVE ONLY ONE SUPERIOR TO WHOM HE OR SHE IS DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE • SPAN OF CONTROL o THE NUMBER OF SUBORDINATES A MANAGER CAN EFFICIENTLY & EFFECTIVELY DIRECT • CENTRALIZATION: o THE DEGREE TO WHICH DECISION MAKING IS CONCENTRATED AT A SINGLE POINT IN THE ORGANIZATION • DECENTRALIZATION o DECISION DISCRETION IS PUSHED DOWN TO LOWER LEVEL EMPLOYEES • FORMALIZATION: • THE DEGREE TO WHICH JOBS WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION IS STANDARDIZED TYPES OF OS • SIMPLE STRUCTURE:
  11. 11. o A STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZED BY  A LOW DEGREE OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION,  WIDE SPANS OF CONTROL  AUTHORITY CENTRALIZED IN A SINGLE PERSON • BUREAUCRACY o A STRUCTURE WITH HIGHLY ROUTINE OPERATING TASKS  ACHIEVED THROUGH SPECIALIZATION  VERY FORMALIZED RULES & REGULATIONS  TASKS THAT ARE GROUPED INTO A FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTS  CENTRALIZED AUTHORITY  NARROW SPAN OF CONTROL & DECISION MAKING o THAT FOLLOWS THE CHAIN OF COMMAND • MATRIX STRUCTURE o A STRUCTURE THAT CREATES DUAL LINES OF AUTHORITY o COMBINES FUNCTIONAL & PRODUCT DEPARTMENTALIZATION • TEAM STRUCTURE: o THE USE OF TEAMS AS THE CENTRAL DEVICE TO COORDINATE WORK ACTIVITIES • VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION: o A SMALL CORE ORGANIZATION THAT OUTSOURCE MAJOR BUSINESS FUNCTIONS • BOUNDARYLESS ORGANIZATION: • AN ORGANIZATION THAT SEEKS o TO ELIMINATE THE CHAIN OF COMMAND o HAVE LIMITLESS SPAN OF CONTROL o REPLACE DEPARTMENTS WITH EMPOWERED TEAMS WHY DOES STRUCTURE DIFFER? • THERE ARE TWO MODELS OF OS: o MECHANISTIC  HAS FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS: • EXTENSIVE DEPARTMENTALIZATION • HIGH FORMALIZATION • LIMITED INFORMATION NETWORK • CENTRALIZATION o ORGANIC  HAS FOLLOWING CHARACTERISTICS: • FLAT OS • USES CROSS-HIERARCHICAL & CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS • HAS LOW FORMALIZATION • COMPREHENSIVE INFORMATION NETWORK • RELIES PARTICIPATIVE DECISION-MAKING o THE ABOVE TWO MODELS ADDRESSES THE BASIS OF THE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE FORMATION o THE FOLLOWING ARE THE FORCES THAT DETERMINES THE OS  STRATEGY
  12. 12.  ORGANIZATION SIZE  TECHNOLOGY  ENVIRONMENT ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE & EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOUR • WORK SPECIALIZATION: o CONTRIBUTES TO HIGHER EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY BUT REDUCED JOB SATISFACTION o AFTER SOMETIME JOB BECOMES BORING • SPAN OF CONTROL o LARGE SPAN OF CONTROL MAY LEAD TO HIGHER EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE & MORE OPPORTUNITY FOR PERSONAL INITIATIVE o INCREASES JOB SATISFACTION OF MANAGER • CENTRALIZATION o LESS CENTRALIZED, GREATER AMOUNT OF PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING o RESULTING GREATER JOB SATISFACTION • TO MAXIMIZE EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, SUCH AS EXPERIENCE, PERSONALITY & THE WORK TASK SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT • NATIONAL CULTURE ALSO INFLUENCES STRUCTURE. ORGANIZATIONS OPERATING WITH PEOPLE FROM HIGH POWER DISTANCE CULTURES, WILL FIND EMPLOYEES ACCEPTING MECHANISTIC STRUCTURES • ORGANIZATION STAY WITH ORGANIZATIONS THAT SUIT THEIR PERSONALITY. CANDIDATES WHO PREFER PREDICTABILITY TAKE OUT EMPLOYMENT IN MECHANISTIC STRUCTURES ORGANIZATION CULTURE • IS THE SOCIAL GLUE THAT HELPS HOLDS THE ORGANIZATION TOGETHER • IT CONSISTS OF o BELIEFS  IT IS A PROPOSITION ABOUT HOW THE WORLD WORKS THAT INDIVIDUAL ACCEPTS AS TRUE  IT IS COGNITIVE FACT o ASSUMPTIONS  ARE BELIEFS THAT ARE REGARDED AS SO VALUABLE & OBVIOUSLY CORRECT THAT THEY ARE TAKEN FOR GRANTED & RARELY QUESTIONED OR EXAMINED.  IT IS ALSO COGNITIVE FACT. o VALUES  ARE ALSO BELIEFS? BELIEFS ABOUT WHAT ARE DESIRABLE OR GOOD, & WHAT IS UNDESIRABLE OR BAD.  IT IS ALSO COGNITIVE FACT
  13. 13. • THE FOLLOWING ARE THE PRIMARY CHARACTERISTICS OF OC: o INNOVATION & RISK TAKING o ATTENTION TO DETAIL o OUTCOME ORIENTATION o PEOPLE ORIENTATION o TEAM ORIENTATION o AGGRESSIVENESS [GO GETTERS] o STABILITY • ORGANIZATIONS HAVE DOMINANT & NUMEROUS SETS OF SHARED SUB-CULTURE • DOMINANT CULTURE o EXPRESSES THE CORE VALUES THAT ARE SHARED BY A MAJORITY OF THE ORGANIZATION’S MEMBERS HOW EMPLOYEES LEARN CULTURE • STORIES • RITUALS • MATERIAL SYMBOLS • LANGUAGE MATCHING PEOPLE WITH CULTURE • ORGANIZATIONS ATTEMPT TO SELECT NEW MEMBERS WHO FIT WELL WITH ORGANIZATION’S CULTURE • AND EVEN JOB CANDIDATES TRY TO FIND ORGANIZATIONS WHERE THEIR VALUES & PERSONALITY WILL FIT IN • OC HAS FOLLOWING DIMENSIONS: o SOCIALIBILITY  MEANS FRIENDLINESS o SOLIDARITY  MEANS TASK ORIENTATION o MATRIX OF THE SE TWO DIMENSIONS CREATE FOUR DISTINCT CULTURE:  NETWORKED CULTURE • HIGH ON SOCIALABILITY • LOW ON SOLIDARITY  MERCENARY CULTURE • LOW ON SOCIALABILITY • HIGH ON SOLIDARITY  FRAGMENTED CULTURE • LOW ON SOCIABILITY • LOW ON SOLIDARITY  COMMUNAL CULTURE  HIGH ON SOCIALABILITY  HIGH ON SOLIDARITY ORGANIZATION CLIMATE • PERCEIVED ATTRIBUTES OF AN ORGANIZATION & ITS SUB-SYSTEM • AS REFLECTED IN THE WAY AN ORGANIZATION DEALS WITH MEMBERS, GROUPS & ISSUES
  14. 14. • THERE IS A LINK BETWEEN CLIMATE MOTIVATION AS STATED BELOW: o ACHIEVEMENT  CONCERN FOR EXCELLENCE o EXPERT INFLUENCE  CONCERN FOR MAKING AN IMPACT ON OTHERS o CONTROL  CONCERN FOR ORDERLINESS  DESIRE TO BE & STAY & INFORMED o EXTENSION  CONCERN FOR OTHERS o DEPENDENCY  DESIRE FOR ASSISTANCE OF OTHERS o AFFILIATION  CONCERNING FOR ESTABLISHING & MAINTAINING RELATIONSHIP o ORIENTATION  CONCERN FOR ORGANIZATION o INTER-PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP  CREATING INTER-DEPENDENCY o SUPERVISION  SUPPORTIVE o PROBLEM MANAGEMENT  HOW ARE PROBLEMS PERCEIVED BY THE ORGANIZATION o MANAGEMENT OF MISTAKES  HOW DOES MANAGEMENT VIEWS MISTAKES o CONFLICT MANAGEMENT  THE WAY CONFLICTS ARE RESOLVED o COMMUNICATION  CONCERNED WITH FLOW OF INFORMATION o DECISION MAKING  WHETHER PARTICIPATIVE o TRUST  BASIS OF RELATIONSHIP o MANAGEMENT REWARDS  WHAT IS REWARDED IN AN ORGANIZATION INFLUENCES ORGANIZATION CLIMATE o RISK-TAKING  HOW DOES ORGANIZATION RESPONDS TO RISK o INNOVATION & CHANGE  HOW CHANGE & INNOVATIONS ARE PERCEIVED LEADERSHIP: 7. DEFINITION 8. ITS IMPORTANCE TO ORGANIZATION 9. LEADERSHIP STYLES 10. APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF LEADERSHIP TRAITS 11. BEHAVIORAL & SITUATIONAL APPROACHES 12. THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP LEADER
  15. 15. • THE ABILITY OF A PERSON TO INFLUENCE OTHERS TO WARD THE ACHIEVEMENT OF A COMMON GOAL LEADERSHIP: • IT IS THE STYLE OF THE LEADER THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP • TRAIT o THE QUALITIES OF A LEADER THAT DIFFERENTIATES A LEADER FROM A NON- LEADER • BEHAVIORAL o THE SPECIFIC BEHAVIORS THAT DIFFERENTIATES LEADERS FROM NON- LEADERS. EXAMPLE: PEOPLE FOCUSED OR TASK FOCUSED, OR ONE WHO SEEKS EXPERIMENTATION • CONTINGENCY o IT IS BASED ON SITUATIONS o THE FOLLOWING ARE THE MODELS  FIEDLER CONTINGENCY • MATCH BETWEEN A LEADER’S STYLE OF INTERACTING WITH SUBORDINATES, & THE DEGREE TO WHICH THE SITUATION GIVES CONTROL & INFLUENCE TO THE LEADER  HERSEY & BLANCHARD • A CONTINGENCY THEORY THAT FOCUSES ON FOLLOWER’S READINESS  LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY • LEADER CREATES IN-GROUPS& OUT-GROUPS & SUBORDINATES WITH IN-GROUP STATUS WILL HAVE HIGHER PERFORMANCE RATINGS, LESS TURNOVER, & GREATER SATISFACTION WITH THEIR SUPERIOR  PATH-GOAL • A LEADER’S BEHAVIOR IS ACCEPTABLE TO SUBORDINATES IN SO FAR AS THEY VIEW IT AS SOURCE OF EITHER IMMEDIATE OR FUTURE SATISFACTION  LEADER PARTICIPATION • PROVIDES A SET OF RULES TO DETERMINE THE FORM & AMOUNT OF PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS • NEO-CHARISMATIC THEORIES o EMPHASIS SYMBOLISM, EMOTIONAL APPEAL & EXTRAORDINARY FOLLOWER COMMITMENT • CHARISMATIC LEADER o FOLLOWERS MAKE ATTRIBUTIONS OF HEROIC OR EXTRAORDINARY LEADERSHIP ABILITIES WHEN THEY OBSERVE CERTAIN BEHAVIORS • TRANSACTIONAL LEADER o GUIDE OR MOTIVATE THEIR FOLLOWERS IN THE DIRECTIONAL OF ESTABLISHED GOALS BY CLARIFYING ROLE & TASK REQUIREMENTS
  16. 16. • TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS o PROVIDE INDIVIDUALIZED CONSIDERATION & INTELLECTUAL SIMULATION, & WHO POSSESS CHARISMA • VISIONARY LEADERSHIP o ABILITY TO CREATE & ARTICULATE A REALISTIC, CREDIBLE, ATTRACTIVE VISION OF THE FUTURE FOR AN ORGANIZATION EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE & LEADERSHIP: • GREAT LEADERS EXHIBIT THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE o SELF-AWARENESS  EXHIBITED BY CONFIDENCE, REALISTIC SELF-ASSESSMENT & A SELF- DEPRECIATING SENSE OF HUMOUR o SELF-MANAGEMENT  EXHIBITED BY TRUSTWORTHINESS & INTEGRITY, COMFORT WITH AMBIGUITY & OPENNESS TO CHANGE o SELF-MOTIVATION  EXHIBITED BY A STRONG DRIVE TO ACHIEVE, OPTIMISM & HIGH ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT o EMPATHY  EXHIBITED BY EXPERTISE IN BUILDING & RETAINING TALENT, CROSS- CULTURAL SENSITIVITY & SERVICE TO CLIENTS & CUSTOMERS o SOCIAL SKILLS  ABILITY TO LEAD CHANGE EFFORTS, PERSUASIVENESS & EXPERTISE IN BUILDING & LEADING TEAMS TRUST & LEADERSHIP • TRUST o A POSITIVE EXPECTATION THAT ANOTHER WILL NOT ACT OPPORTUNISTICALLY o IT IS THE FOUNDATION OF LEADERSHIP o BASIS ON WHICH RELATIONSHIP IS BUILT • THE FOLLOWING ARE THE DIMENSIONS OF TRUST: o INTEGRITY  REFERS TO HONESTY & TRUTHFULNESS o COMPETENCE  INCLUDES KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDE o CONSISTENCY  RELATES TO RELIABILITY, PREDICTABILITY & GOOD JUDGMENT IN HANDLING SITUATIONS o LOYALTY  WILLINGNESS TO PROTECT & SAVE FACE FOR ANOTHER PERSON • FOLLOWING ARE THE TYPES OF TRUST: o DETERRENCE-BASED TRUST  TRUST BASED ON FEAR OF REPRISAL o KNOWLEDGE-BASED TRUST
  17. 17.  BASED ON PREDICTABILITY o IDENTIFICATION-BASED TRUST  BASED ON MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING OF EACH OTHER’S INTENTIONS & APPRECIATION OF OTHER’S WANTS & DESIRES MANAGEMENT CHANGE 6. FORCES RESPONSIBLE FOR CHANGE 7. RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 8. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 9. INTRODUCING CHANGE IN ORGANIZATION 10. ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT: ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS MANAGEMENT CHANGE CHANGE: • MAKING THINGS DIFFERENT PLANNED CHANGE • CHANGE ACTIVITIES THAT ARE INTENTIONAL & GOAL ORIENTED TYPES OF CHANGE • FIRST ORDER o MARGINAL CHANGE • SECOND ORDER o BREAKTHROUGH CHANGE FORCES FOR CHANGE: • NATURE OF THE WORKFORCE o EXAMPLES ARE:  MORE CULTURAL DIVERSITY  INCREASE IN PROFESSIONAL • TECHNOLOGY o EXAMPLES:  FLATTER ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE  TQM PROGRAMS  REENGINEERING PROGRAMS • ECONOMIC SHOCKS o EXAMPLE:  CHANGE IN OIL PRICE • COMPETITION o EXAMPLES:  GLOBAL COMPETITION  MERGERS & CONSOLIDATIONS  GROWTH OF E-COMMERCE • SOCIAL TENDS o EXAMPLES:  ATTITUDE TOWARDS SMOKING  DELAYED MARRIAGES  STAND AGAINST POLLUTION
  18. 18.  • WORLD POLITICS o EXAMPLES:  UNIFICATION OF GERMANY  BREAKUP OF SOVIET UNION  OPENING OF MARKETS IN CHINA CHANGE AGENTS: • PERSONS WHO ACT AS CATALYSTS & ASSUMES THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR MANAGING CHANGE WHAT CAN CHANGE AGENTS CHANGE? • STRUCTURE o AN OS DEFINES HOW TASKS ARE FORMALLY DIVIDED, GROUPED & COORDINATED o CHANGE AGENTS CAN ALTER CAN ALTER ONE OR MORE OF THE KEY ELEMENTS IN THE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE o EXAMPLE:  DEPARTMENTAL RESPONSIBILITIES CAN BE COMBINED  SPAN OF CONTROLS WIDENED  INCREASE STANDARDIZATION  DECENTRALIZE DECISION MAKING • TECHNOLOGY o INTRODUCTION OF NEW EQUIPMENT, TOOLS, OR OPERATING PROCEDURE • PHYSICAL SETTING o DOING AWAY WITH STATUS SYMBOLS  EXAMPLES: • NO CABINS • COMMON CANTEEN • PEOPLE o CHANGE IN PEOPLE ARE BROUGHT ABOUT IN TERMS OF KNOWLEDGE & ATTITUDE o IT IS DONE THROUGH CONCEPT OF OD. IN OD HR INTERVENTIONS ARE MADE TO CHANGE PEOPLE & THEIR NATURE OF RELATIONSHI RESISTANCE TO CHANGE: • ORGANIZATION & THEIR MEMBERS RESIST CHANGE • RESISTANCE PROVIDES STABILITY & PREDICTABILITY TO BEHAVIOR • RESISTANCE CAN BE OVERT, IMPLICIT, IMMEDIATE OR DEFERRED • SOURCES OF RESISTANCE CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS: o INDIVIDUAL  FOLLOWING ARE THE REASONS: • HABIT • SECURITY • ECONOMIC FACTORS • FEAR OF UNKNOWN
  19. 19. • SELECTIVE INFORMATION PROCESSING o ORGANIZATIONAL o FOLLOWING ARE THE REASONS:  STRUCTURAL INERTIA • ORGANIZATIONS HAVE BUILT-N MECHANISM TO PRODUCE STABILITY • FOR EXAMPLE, THE SELECTION PROCESS SYSTEMATICALLY SELECTS CERTAIN PEOPLE IN & CERTAIN PEOPLE OUT  LIMITED FOCUS ON CHANGE • ORGANIZATIONS ARE MADE UP OF A NUMBER OF INTERDEPENDENT SUBSYSTEMS. YOU CAN’T CHANGE ONE WITHOUT AFFECTING THE OTHERS  GROUP INERTIA • EVEN IF INDIVIDUALS WANT TO CHANGE THEIR BEHAVIOR, GROUPS NORMS MAY ACT AS A CONSTRAINT  THREAT TO EXPERTISE • EXPERTS LOOSE THEIR IMPORTANCE  THREAT TO ESTABLISHED POWER RELATIONSHIP • FEAR OF LOOSING POWER  THREAT TO ESTABLISHED RESOURCE ALLOCATION • FEAR OF LOOSING POWER & IMPORTANCE OVERCOMING RESISTANCE: • EDUCATION & COMMUNICATION • PARTICIPATION • FACILITATION & SUPPORT • NEGOTIATION • MANIPULATION & CO-OPTATION • COERCION APPROACHES TO MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE • KURT LEWIN’S THREE STEP MODEL o UNFREEZING o MOVING o REFREEZING • ACTION RESEARCH o A CHANGE PROCESS BASED ON SYSTEMATIC COLLECTION OF DATA & THEN SELECTION OF CHANGE ACTION BASED ON WHAT THE ANALYZED DATA INDICATE • ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT o A COLLECTION OF PLANNED CHANGE INTERVENTIONS, BUILT ON HUMANISTIC-DEMOCRATIC VALUES THAT SEEKS TO IMPROVE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS & EMPLOYEE’S WELL BEING THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENT LISTENING & HEARING MY BEST WISHES

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