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Education Sector in India: Status & Opportunities

Education Sector in India: Status & Opportunities

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Education Sector in India Education Sector in India Presentation Transcript

  • A Report on Education in India Status and Opportunities
  • Contents: Status of Education in INDIA • Play School and Pre School Education • Elementary Education • Secondary Education • Higher Education • Vocational Education Opportunities and Role for Private Players • Opportunities for Service Providers • Public Private Partnership (PPP) • Support Services in Education Sector • Indian Education Sector: A Snapshot
  • Status of Education in INDIA
  • Play School and Pre School Education Present Status 1 • Lack of any regulatory mechanism for Play School – Pre School Segment 2 • Population under the age group of 2-6 years is 10-11 Cr ( 9 -10 %) • Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) in pre-school segment is as low as 18% @ Current Trends • Rising awareness about the significance of early education for child development and maintaining high enrolment and retention rates in primary education • Majority of the Play School and Pre School market is concentrated in Urban Areas Market Size and Players • Organised pre school market is dominated by private players a few of them are Kidzee, Eurokids, Treehouse • The current urban market size is estimated to be Rs 6000 Cr @ at government pre schools` Source : Fortress Team Research
  • Elementary Education (Std I-VIII) Present Status The Positives …… • Participation: Rapid improvement in enrollment 2 rates, at least in primary schools • Equity: Social disparity which was very high till 90’s has been reduced significantly. 3 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) gets most of the credit for the improvements in Elementary Education The Problem Areas …….. 4 • Drop out rates : 48 % in elementary Education (std I- VIII) mainly because of socio-economic reasons • Regional disparity: States like Bihar, UP are way behind in terms of GER, Drop outs.. ( Cont..)
  • The Problem Areas ……. ( Cont..) • Infrastructure: 5 5 o Low PTR and teacher absenteeism o 24% Schools in India do not have proper school building 6 o 8 % schools Lack drinking water facilities • Quality of Education: o Pratham’s ASER survey: 60% of children aged 7 to 12 cannot read a simple Para (Pratham is a reputed NGO working towards education in India) Source: DISE, MHRD
  • Overall Performance Aspects Better Performing States Slow Performing States Rajasthan, Delhi , Maharashtra, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Gross enrolment ratio (GER) Uttarakhand Nagaland Assam, Bihar, Mizoram, Drop out rates Kerala , Goa, Haryana, Himachal, Meghalaya Teacher appointments Andhra Pradesh, J&K, Orissa, UP W.Bengal, MP Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, Arunachal Teacher training Tamil Nadu Pradesh Construction of school Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan W. Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand buildings Construction of additional Gujarat, Karnataka, Assam, AP Chattisgarh, UP, Manipur classrooms % of Expenditure on Education & Training of total Assam, Maharashtra, Bihar Delhi J&K, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh Budget Source : Fortress Team Research, DISE, MHRD and Presentation by Mr. Amit Kaushik UNDP Workshop on MDGs And Human Development Lucknow 2006
  • Secondary Education (Std IX-XII) Success of SSA has resulted in a pull effect on Secondary Education System Secondary Education is an important foundation for vocational / higher education Hence expansion of Secondary Education is important for the development of any Nation 8 The problem areas ….. Financing: While India has pursued the drive Participation: At the lower secondary level towards universal elementary education, since 2000 the share of investment financing for (grades 9 and 10), the gross enrollment rate (GER) secondary education has declined significantly. is 52 %, while at the senior secondary level (grade 11 and 12) it is just 28 % (2005-06). Access: Number of secondary Schools are almost half the number of Upper primary schools available 7 in the country Equity: Most secondary students are boys, and disproportionately from urban areas and wealthier segments of the population. Quality : Assessments of student achievement in mathematics by at the secondary and senior secondary level suggest that the quality of instruction and learning is very low. (Source ASER report) Source: Fortress Team Research
  • Current Trends Actual and ProjectedActual and Projected Demand Education Demand for Secondary for Secondary Education • Enrolment in Government schools has 70 Total Demand decreased in last decades. There is a 60 Lower Secondary trend in Urban as well as rural areas to Millions of Students 50 Senior Secondary opt for private education LS 40 • Sharp increase is expected in the 30 SS Co demand for secondary education in 20 coming decade. (Actual And Projected Demand is shown in Graph) 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 99 01 03 05 07 09 11 13 15 17 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Market Size and Players Source: Presentation by Sam Carlson Education consultant (World Bank) • Share of Private Institutions in Indian School Education is, Primary 7%, Upper Primary 21%, Secondary 32% • Annual private market size for the segment I to XII is estimated at Rs 22-26k Cr • With growth being expected in private unaided institutions the market should witness encouraging growth Source: Fortress Team Research
  • What needs to be done… Policy Level Initiatives • Public classroom and school construction, especially in rural areas where private suppliers are unlikely to venture; • Training and hiring of more teachers, and rationalizing their deployment, so that supply better matches demand; • Investments in curriculum revision, progressive pedagogy, technology and examination reforms, to make schooling more relevant • Provide financial and in-kind assistance for poor and disadvantaged students, to offset direct and indirect costs of schooling, and overcome household reluctance to send their children (especially girls) to school; • Public information campaigns to change attitudes about the benefits of schooling and delayed marriages Government Initiatives • Programs to improve the internal efficiency and quality of Secondary education, so as to increase the number and quality of graduates; example programs like SSA • Promoting ICTs, so that students can take greater control of their learning and skills acquisition from sources other than the teacher and textbook. Source: Fortress Team Research
  • Higher Education (beyond XII) Present Status The positives…… 9 • 348 universities, 17625 colleges, >500,000 teachers; 10.5 million students; • Third largest number of graduates after US & China. • Professional education in English medium • Growing rapidly; Covers all major disciplines; Weakness….. • Low enrolment (13% -2006 ) • Regulatory system 10 over centralized; is • Lack of institutional autonomy and accountability still it fails to maintain standards. • Unplanned expansion • Variable quality; market mismatch; • Little knowledge creation– little interaction with economy, society and other academic/ research institutions • Limited access and regional disparity (80% of technical educational institutions are concentrated in 4 states of MH, AP, TN, KR) • Diminishing and skewed public funding (0.6 % of GDP in 2006) Source: Fortress Team Research
  • What needs to be done…  Increasing Access and Reducing Regional Imbalances  Empowerment and Accountability of Institutions  Academic, Administrative, Financial, Managerial  Improving Quality and Effectiveness  Quality and effectiveness of teaching learning processes  Faculty development  Curriculum reforms  Networking to Enhance Capacity, Improve Quality and Produce Excellence  Networking of institutions with each other, with R&D labs, industry and service sector  Resource sharing of expertise, facilities  Mobilization of Additional Financial Resources  Encourage private funding Need for making Indian higher education globally competitive not only for seizing opportunity for global trade in higher education services ($30 billion last year), but to corner a larger share of fast growing international trade in professional services ($270 billion last year) – higher education feeds into growth of professional services Source: Research Paper by Shashi Shrivastava, Education Consultant , World Bank
  • Vocational Education Conventional Vocational Education • Vocational education is very important for building skilled workforce to meet growing demand of a developing country. • Percentage of students applying for vocational education in India is less than 20% compared to developed countries where it is more than 50 % . • Gov ITIs and private ICTs offer 1 1 0 courses under conventional vocational education including engineering and non engineering courses Role of private players in Embedding with Formal ISSUE Up-gradation of courses ITI Education State: Option Available Action taken Scheme for up-gradation No specific action Central : scheme in progress Low awareness, Not updated as per the Bottlenecks Scheme Structuring, Non Up-gradation industry requirements Invite views of private players, Inputs from industry Suggestions Review of schemes Appoint PMC professionals Source: Fortress Team Research
  • New Trends in Vocational Education & Market Size  After economic liberalization the contribution of service sector as a percentage of GDP has increased from 34 % in early 90’s to 56% in 2008.  This has triggered the need for trained manpower leading to flourishing of various private vocational institutes.  In the recent times it has expanded into fields like Finance, Retail, Animation, Hospitality, Media, Aviation etc.  The current market size of private vocational training is estimated as Rs 5k-6k Cr Comparing Govt. run conventional training and private vocational training Conventional Training Private Training Gov Intervention Government controlled /run Lesser/No Gov intervention Profit Motive Not for profit For profit Penetration Deep but highly under utilized Urban Areas, optimum utilization Streams Offered Welding, turning (total 110) IT, Finance, Retail, Media, Animation Up gradation of courses Less/ no up gradation Frequent up gradation Quality Infrastructure Basic and inadequate Advanced and adequate Linkage with industry Lesser tuning with the industry Designed as per industry requirement Job Orientation Yes, low key jobs Yes, medium-top end jobs Source: Fortress Team Research
  • Opportunities and Role for Private Players
  • Opportunities for Service Providers • Teachers training Institutes India has a shortage of around 10-12 Lac teachers in all forms of education. Which means the demand for teachers training and retraining is going to increase in coming years • Setting up Play schools With increasing awareness & no regulatory mechanism in place play schools is one of the most lucrative business • Setting up Universities & Private Colleges . As per the National Knowledge Commission report to raise the GER in Higher education to 15 % by 2020 India will need 1500 Universities and cluster of colleges affiliated to them. • Private Open Universities and Distance education Popular among young workers / professionals who want to pursue further education. The trend is growing in India Case Study : Manipal Universal Learning (Cont…)
  • Case Study: Manipal Universal Learning Revenues FY 09 Background  It is the corporate entity of the Manipal Education Group. Domestic Operations International Operations:  Manipal University is a Deemed university in Karnataka, India since Rs395 crore Rs419 crore 1993  Sikkim Manipal University, an open university under the Sikkim Govt. Distance Antigua university: Education: Rs281 Rs156 crore Courses Offered crore  Various programmes in the areas of medicine, engineering, information sciences, allied health Meritrac: Rs53 Dubai Campus: sciences, biotechnology, dental, etc crore (88%) Rs52 crore  Online MBA programmes.  Potential for industry-academia collaborations by establishing ICICI- Corporate Training: Nepal Campus: Manipal Academy ICICI Manipal: Rs50 crore Rs35 crore  Offers distance education courses through 550 Learning Centers Revenue Professional Skills: Malaysia campus: Rs7 crore 38 crore  Gross revenues of Rs814 Cr . Sponsor-funding $30m from IDFC Private Equity and $40m from Capital International. 70% of the domestic revenues from services to SMU International Center for applied U21: Rs27 crore  Has acquired a stake in U21 Global (revenues of $4.2m) science: Rs12 crore  Program for engineering through its International Centre for Applied Sciences (ICAS) Treasury Income: Others: Rs94 crore Rs8 crore Source: SSKI report, Fortress Team Research
  • Sikkim Manipal  Manipal Universal: Fund Flow • Defines Eligibility Payments UGC • Defines Curriculum • Approves programmes with appropriate Certification Service • Admits Students • Conducts Exams • Award Degrees SMU MUL • Creates Awareness STUDENT • Appoints LCs • Develops Content • Supports admission process • Mails course material • Supports in hiring faculty • Supports student placement LC • Provides infrastructure at local level • Local faculty support for counseling & tutoring • Supports placements Source: SSKI report, Fortress Team Research
  • Opportunities for Service Providers • ICT and E- learning in Education It is a sunrise Industry in India. Increase in Computer Infrastructure , internet users and broadband penetration in last decade means ICT & e learning industry is expected to grow in near future. Products Case Study : Educomp Ltd Pre-schools  Largest provider of technology education products and services for K-12 Private Schools students. Reaches out to over 21,000 schools Smart Class  It leverages its strong understanding of the technology and education needs ICT Solutions of schools(Public & Private) to deliver high quality, cost effective products. Retail & Counseling 6% Business Model Prof. Development 10% • Smart Class: Smart Class  Builds IT infrastructure for private schools and licenses the digital ICT 49% 35% curriculum content  Incurs the initial expenditure in return of which it receives revenues for300 Sales (Rs Crore) 276. the next 5 years 9 200 112. • ICT Segment 2  Builds IT infrastructure for government schools on BOOT model 100 53.7  Incurs the upfront expenditure and receives quarterly payment for 0 services rendered FY06 FY07 FY08 Source: Annual Reports
  • Opportunities for Service Providers • Vocational Training Institutes As Discussed there is a huge scope for private Vocational Training Institutes in areas like IT, Media, Hospitality, Aviation etc Case Study: NIIT Ltd  Started as an IT training Sales (Rs Crore) Finance 3% provider, expanded to Finance, school (ICT), corporate 1006. Corporate 8 IT training etc 795.1 35% 54%  Works on a franchise model 450.7  Setting up university in the current Schools 8% year FY06 FY07 FY08 Courses School Learning Solutions Individual Solutions Corporate solutions Target Customer School children Young adults Working professionals Value Preposition Academics Employability Productivity Customer School Individual Corporate Coverage Multimedia Learning IT/BFSI/Spoken English, Learning products Teacher Training Management education Training delivery & Admin Geographical India India + emerging India + USA + Europe Coverage economies` Source: www.niit.com
  • Opportunities for Service Providers • Coaching Classes and Competitive Test Preparation Private coaching for curriculum and for competitive exam centre is a booming business expected to be worth Rs 8k – 9k Cr • Franchise Investor Franchise Model and Role of Franchise Investor Franchise owner Right to operate business Franchisee Franchisee Fee Profit/Loss in the Franchisee investor business
  • Public Private Partnership (PPP) Opportunities in Education ( Innovative public-private partnership models take advantage of existing underutilized capacity in the public sector and induce a supply response to expand that capacity. Some of the models could be… ) Contracting out (failing) state schools Case Study : Schools run by BMC in Mumbai  BMC runs 1171 Primary and 49 Secondary Schools in Mumbai Region  Over the years enrolment is BMC schools is declining (for primary schools 4,85,000 in 20005-06 to 4,25,000 in 08-09and for secondary schools 55000 in 2005-06 to 43000 in 08-09)  Decrease in enrolment of BMC schools has resulted in Shutting down of around 17 primary schools in last three years.  The Major reason being lack of facilities and quality in BMC run Schools  PPP model can be developed whereby the underutilized School Infrastructure can be used in a better way BMC Low Enrollment Schools on the verge There are 1171 of closure Good Primary and 49 Infrastructure Pays Rent to BMC Secondary Schools Facilities High Spending on run by BMC in Salaries & Mumbai Leased Out Infrastructure Trends of High Private Enrollment in High Student Fees Schools Private Schools Source: Fortress Team Research
  • Public Private Partnership (PPP) Opportunities in Education Building School Infrastructure in rural areas through PPP Lack of Secondary Schools in Rural Areas Private players Government PPP model can be developed are reluctant does not have to increase Primary / because of low the funds to Secondary school Return on build the Infrastructure in Rural Areas Investments infrastructure where Private Players are reluctant to go because of low rate of Return Private Player builds the infrastructure Gov. gives tax benefits, Commercial FSI to Private Players
  • Public Private Partnership (PPP) Opportunities in Education Open Schooling Why Open Schooling? 600 Boys Girls 400 282 • Improvement in enrolment at Up 134 191 primary and Secondary level 200 • Drop out rate: 25% (I-V), 49% 202 281 201 (I-VIII), 62% (I-X) 0 • Laborers migrate along with TOTAL - I - TOTAL - VI TOTAL - IX- families, for their children V - VIII X attending schools is difficult Promotion Actual Drop outs in India (12 Cr Appox) Present Status From Government as • NIOS , the central body formed in alternative ‘79 schools Open Schooling • Lower Enrolments (3.4 lac 06-07) Funding • Lower passing rates • No specific funding towards OS Role of Private • No major focus at state level as Players, NGOs Bridge Schools: Sakhar well Concept Shala, Bhatti Shala Development and Project Management Source: Fortress Team Research
  • Scope for support services in Education Sector Concept to commissioning of Private / Gov educational projects like education cities and theme schools Education City Marketing to Implementing Marketing to the Concept Invite Expression Authority Players in Development of Interest (HUDA, MIDC, C Education IDCO) Planning, Handling of the Allocation of land, Commissioning of Project procedures Landscaping project Management (Pre/Post Bid) Design Rajiv Gandhi Education City Gujarat Vittal Innovation City (Valsad, Gujarat) (Sonipat, Haryana) Implementing Authority: HUDA Implementing Authority: GIDC + EMPI Centre INNOPOLIS Consortia HUDA has allocated 700 acres at Sonipat for the University to be located in the GVIC SEZ proposed Education City IT companies also invited to set up their campus in 1 institute of international repute (60-180 acres) + 10 GVIC other institutions (3-25 acre) Executives of the company can also participate as Lease hold/ Free hold land based on area, faculty Payment terms to be decided accordingly As located in SEZ, university will be free to modify curriculum to meet industry needs Source: Fortress Team Research
  • Scope for support services in Education Sector • Project development and management consultants for PPP • Capacity building • Investment Banking • Project Management of supporting implementing various government schemes (some government schemes are as under) Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan Model Schools (RMSA) Scheme Targets of RMSA Genesis of the Schemes • Access to quality and affordable education • 2500 schools to be set up in EBBs under available to all in the age group of 14-18 government (state + center) and 2500 • A secondary school at every 5 km and a higher schools on PPP model secondary school at every 7-10 km • State government to contribute land at • Universal access to secondary education (USE) free of cost by 2017 (GER of 100%) • Emphasis on English language • Universal retention to secondary education by • Classes VI-XII or IX-XII 2020 (0 dropouts) • Special attention towards economically and socially backward sections Source: Fortress Team Research
  • Case Studies: Support Service Providers in Education Sector EdCIL India Limited  A government of India enterprise offering consultancy services in all areas of education and human resource development in India and overseas  Undertakes education projects on turnkey basis from concept to commissioning 18 16.84 Services for Institutional EdCIL Sales 07/08 16 development 14 •Feasibility Studies 8.35 14.74 12 •Preparation of Master Plan 9.52 9.73 10 •Conceptualization of Schemes 8 6.84 4.67 •Engineering Designs 6 •Bid Preparation 4 0.56 •Techno Commercial Evaluation 2.1 2 0.74 •Award of Work 0 •Implementation and Monitoring assistance Institution Placement activities Secondme developm Technical Testing services •Quality Assurance and Inspection ent nt •Construction Management Technical Support to Govt schemes •Institutional Planning •Training Needs & •DPR & Feasibility report •Sector Studies Assessment •Educational Planning and •Curriculum Development •Capacity Development Administration •Developing Computer Infra •Impact Assessment Studies •Manpower Planning • •Evaluation of Projects Source: www.edcil.co.in
  • Case Studies: Scope for support services in Education Sector IL & FS IDC (Infrastructure Development Corporation) It is the infrastructure development arm of IL&FS Roles played by IL&FS IDC • Creation of commercial prototypes, suggest and evolve requisite policy/legislative framework • As a Project Developer & Sponsor, creation of structures and achieve techno commercial closure • As an Advisor, it assists govt, local bodies and sponsors to undertake projects Services to Govt / Govt Agencies • Project conceptualisation • Project Structuring & Development Services to Sponsors • Contractual Documentation • Project Costing • Bid Process management • Bid Structuring • Project Implementation and facilitation • Assistance in financial closure • Quality Assurance and oversight • Merchant banking and fund mobilisation Current Projects  Nursing Training Institutes in NE states  Sports Academy in Jharkhand  ITI in Jharkhand Source: www. iidcindia.co.in
  • Indian Education Market : A Snapshot Market Segment Size (Rs Regulation Key features Growth Drivers Business Potential Cr) Pre + play 6000- No • Urban driven •Peer pressure • Capital intensive school 7000 • Unorganized • Free pricing • Scalability is an issue • Franchise based • Low penetration •Lucrative investment School 20000- High • Largest market • Pref to Pvt. Schools • Newer business models Education 25000 •Low Quality • Aspiration of parents •Large scope for PPP • Structuring issue • High stickiness • Structure: A dampener Higher 15000- Very High •Variety of courses •Growing Economy •Large scope for pvt. education 20000 •Regional disparity •Government Policy technical institutes • Well organized •High Population •Scope in semi urban areas •Scope for Distance edu. Vocational 5000- No • Unregulated pvt • Job/placement •Scope for PPP Education 6000 mkt. • Newer sectors •Capital intensive • Number of streams • Affordable fees •Lucrative Investment • Franchise Based Test Prep 600-800 No • No regulations • Growing enrolments •Niche focused market • High fees • Use of technology • Low stickiness • Trends/Cycles • Free pricing •Scope for new areas like e- learning Coaching 7500- No • No regulations • Quality Education • Scalability Issue Classes 7800 • Highly unorganized • Free pricing • Capital Intensive • Urban driven •Peer pressure Source: Fortress Team Research
  • Footnotes
  • 1. In 2002 86th constitutional amendment made right to education elevated to a fundamental right for age 6-14 only . So constitutionally there is no compulsion for the pre school education and no regulatory mechanism has been devised by the government. 2. The gross enrolment ratio (GER) is a statistical measure used in the education sector. The GER gives a rough indication of the level of education from kindergarten to postgraduate education. In the UN, the GER is calculated by expressing the number of students enrolled in primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of official school age for the three levels GROSS ENROLMENT RATIOS (GER) OF ALL CATEGORIES OF STUDENTS Primary (I-V) Upper Primary (VI-VIII) Elementary (I-VIII) Year Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 1995- 97.1 79.4 88.6 67.8 49.8 59.3 86.9 69.4 78.5 96 2000- 104.9 85.9 95.7 66.7 49.9 58.6 90.3 72.4 81.6 01 2005- 112.8 105.8 109.4 75.2 66.4 71 98.5 91 94.9 06 Source: DISE, MHRD
  • 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a comprehensive and integrated flagship programme of Government of India to attain Universal Elementary Education (UEE), covering the entire country in a mission mode. SSA has been launched in 2001- 2002 in partnership with the State Governments and Local Self Governments. The programme aims to provide useful and relevant, elementary education to all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. It is an initiative to universalize and improve quality of education through decentralized and context specific planning and a process based, time bound implementation strategy. GER (%): Significant improvement DOR (%): Significant reduction from from 2001-02 onwards 2001-02 onwards 120 60 108 109 54 55 53 52 110 55 51 49 96 96 95 98 95 50 100 94 85 45 41 39 90 82 82 83 40 35 80 70 71 35 31 29 70 61 62 30 26 59 60 25 60 20 50 I-V VI-VIII I-VIII I-V I-VIII Source: DISE, MHRD
  • 4. Dropout rate is defined as the proportion of children that cease to remain enrolled in the schooling system. There are a number of methods for estimating dropout rate. One of them, followed in the Selected Education Statistics (SES) of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, is as follows: ·Gross dropout rates for classes (I-V) = {1-(Enrolment in Class V during the reference year divided by the enrolment in Class I four years ago)}*100. ·Gross dropout rates for classes (I-VIII) = {1-(Enrolment in Class VIII during the reference year divided by the enrolment in Class I seven years ago)}*100. 5.Pupil Teacher ratio refers to the number of teachers in a school or university with respect to the number of students who attend the institution. For example, a student teacher ratio of 10:1 indicates that there are 10 students for every one teacher. A low student-teacher ratio is often used as a selling point to those choosing schools for tertiary education. On the other hand, high student-teacher ratio is often cited for criticizing proportionately underfunded schools or school systems, or as evidence of the need for legislative change or more funding for education. Source: DISE, MHRD
  • 6. SCHOOLS WITH NO BUILDING A & N Islands 17 Karnataka 883 Andhra Kerala 161 Pradesh 16808 Lakshadweep 2 Arunachal Madhya Pradesh 564 Pradesh 16181 Assam 3227 Maharashtra 1410 Bihar 3444 Manipur 98 Chandigarh 3 Meghalaya 816 Chhattisgarh 11305 Mizoram 70 D & N Haveli 43 Nagaland 52 Daman & Diu 3 Orissa 501 Delhi Puducherry 20 Goa 19 Punjab 334 Gujarat 730 Rajasthan 5911 Haryana 795 Sikkim 17 Himachal Tamil Nadu 341 Pradesh 154 Tripura 14 Jammu & Uttar Pradesh 1619 Kashmir 2248 Uttarakhand 351 Jharkhand 13640 West Bengal 8152 Source: DISE, MHRD
  • 7.Growth of Educational Institutions Year Primary Upper Primary Sec/ Sr. Secondary 1995-96 593410 174145 99274 2000-01 638738 206269 126047 2005-06 772568 288493 159667 Number of primary institutions have considerably increased since (90-91) to (05-06) as compared to upper primary and secondary schools. There is an urgent need to boost the number of secondary institutions so as to support the increasing number of enrollments in elementary section 8. Public Expenditure on Education 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Elementary Education 11219 15952 16934 19777 19682 Secondary Education 1591 1837 3793 5140 6170 Adult Education 263 408 363 408 410 Language Development 152 194 152 180 200 University & higher Education 2108 2774 3892 5235 6637 Technical Education 1600 1718 3870 3963 4749 General Education 3908 2286 4665 6084 7594 Distance Learning 0 0 0 160 187 Information & Technology 0 0 0 452 497 Total Expenditure 20841 25169 33669 41442 46126 Government of India promised to allocate at least 6% of national income to education , a goal set for realization by the end of ninth five year plan i.e. by 2002 SOURCE: indiabudget.nic.in UNESCO WORLD STATS
  • 9.Growth of Higher Education in India Source: MHRD
  • 10. Existing Regulatory System : Structure & Process • Centre, UGC and 14 statutory central professional councils (as examples AICTE, MCI) govern the entire system • Regulatory bodies are under direct control of the government • UGC controls the entire university system including curriculums, degrees, fees, faculty qualifications and approval to new universities. Setting up Universities in India • Central universities established by Acts of Parliament and State universities established by Acts of State Legislative Assemblies; • Private universities also require central or state legislation; • Institutions “deemed” to be universities by the UGC and, thus, given university status under the UGC Act 1956 • Degree-awarding institutions of national importance, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT), established by Acts of Parliament and outside the purview of the UGC. Setting Up Private Colleges • Approval from UGC and respective governing council • Must be affiliated to a central or state university (private and deemed universities are unitary and not allowed to affiliate colleges) Whereas, most nations in the World are working towards loosening of statutory control over higher education, India is moving in reverse direction (The Economist, 2005). Source: Fortress Team Research
  • Thank You !