0
OpenStack
Sankalp Jain
Agenda
• OpenStack Brief Overview
• “Keystone” Identity
• “Storage”
• “Glance” Image
• “Nova” Compute
• “Without Quantum” ...
Open Source Cloud Computing
Software



Eucalyptus



OpenNebula



OpenStack
Open Stack: A Platform for Innovation

“My UI will be easier to
use”

“I need a
different VM
placement policy”

“I have a ...
What is OpenStack?
 Originated at NASA, with Rackspace
 Driven by an open community process
OpenStack Compute
OpenStack ...
Open Source Advantages
Leverage the work of a growing community of
developers

Works across multiple hardware infrastruct...
OpenStack Arhictecture
OpenStack Components (Grizzly
Release)
Agenda
• OpenStack Brief Overview
• “Keystone” Identity
• “Storage”
• “Glance” Image
• “Nova” Compute
• “Without Quantum” ...
Keystone Main Functions
• Provides 4 primary services:
– Identity: User information authentication
– Token: After logged i...
Keystone: Identity
• User information:
– username/password
– Metadata (e-mail, etc.)
– Tenant - organizes users into proje...
Keystone: Token
• Once a user’s identity has been verified with a
acc/pswd pair, a short-lived (24 hr) token is
issued.
• T...
Agenda
• OpenStack Brief Overview
• “Keystone” Identity
• “Storage”
• “Glance” Image
• “Nova” Compute
• “Without Quantum” ...
Storage as a Service
• CAPEX to OPEX based business model.
• Manage storage by well-defined set of remotely
accessible API...
Storage Available
Ephemeral(On-instance) :
-Used for running Operating System and scratch space
-Persists until VM is term...
OpenStack Object Storage Swift
What Is It?

• Object Storage is ideal for cost effective, scale-out storage. It
provides a...
Swift
• Object storage, objects “live” on an endpoint.
– An endpoint could be any storage device

• Every object belongs t...
Duplicated storage, load balancing

↑ Logical view

↓Physical arrangement
← Stores real objects
←Stores object metadata

↑...
Workers can be a account server, a
container server, or an object server
Cinder
What Is It?
• Block Storage allows block devices to be exposed and connected
to compute instances for expanded stor...
Cinder (Contd.)


This is block storage (or volumes) and currently there are blueprints
for filesystems like NFS or CIFS ...
Cinder Capabilities










Cinder manages block storage
Volumes attach to VM Instances
Boot from volume
Volumes...
Cinder call flow
Database

Queue

Cinder API

C- scheduler

Cinder Vol

Cinder Vol
Cinder Vol

iSCSI

NFS
Cinder Service



Cinder-api



Cinder-schedular



Cinder-volume
Agenda
• OpenStack Brief Overview
• “Keystone” Identity
• “Storage”
• “Glance” Image
• “Nova” Compute
• “Without Quantum” ...
Glance
• Image storage and indexing.
• Keeps a database of metadata associated with an
image, discover, register, and retr...
Agenda
• OpenStack Brief Overview
• “Keystone” Identity
• “Storage”
• “Glance” Image
• “Nova” Compute
• “Without Quantum” ...
Nova
• Major components:
– API: public facing interface
– Message Queue: Broker to handle interactions
between services, c...
Nova Messaging and Data
• Messaging is managed through RabbitMQ
– Server that allows messages to be posted to channels.
– ...
Messaging (RabbitMQ)
• Get data from point A to point B
• Decouple publishers and consumers
• Queueing for later delivery
...
Agenda
• OpenStack Brief Overview
• “Keystone” Identity
• “Storage”
• “Glance” Image
• “Nova” Compute
• “Without Quantum” ...
Without Quantum
• Originally, Nova handles all networking by:
– Linux bridge networking
– Virtual interfaces connecting ne...
Original Network Manager
• Each VM network owned by one network host
– Simply a Linux running Nova-network daemon
• Nova N...
Bridged Networking
• One network card acts as
many devices.
• Host does not need an IP
address.
• Hypervisor sets virtual ...
Linux running Nova-network daemon
Network host will act as the gateway
for all the NICs bridged into that
network.
VMs bri...
What does Quantum provide ?



API for Networking in OpenStack



Nova Integration



OSI Network Layers L2 + L3




...




Cont...
Not yet full-integraded with Dashboard : only L2 is
working. L3 should be managed from CLI. Horizon
can't ma...
Quantum Openvswitch plugin
The Quantum Openvswitch plugin consists of two
components:
• 1) A plugin loaded at runtime by t...
Plugin
• The component where the ‘virtual networking’ magic
happens. Fulfills API contract by implementing the ‘Plugin
Int...
The Quantum Manager
• Nova’s network manager for Quantum. Forwards network
related requests.
• Also, provides other networ...
Thanks
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
Openstack presentation
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  1. 1. OpenStack Sankalp Jain
  2. 2. Agenda • OpenStack Brief Overview • “Keystone” Identity • “Storage” • “Glance” Image • “Nova” Compute • “Without Quantum” Networking • “Quantum” Networking
  3. 3. Open Source Cloud Computing Software  Eucalyptus  OpenNebula  OpenStack
  4. 4. Open Stack: A Platform for Innovation “My UI will be easier to use” “I need a different VM placement policy” “I have a much better way to snapshot machine images” “I want to report on my customers SLAs” “I’ll build in a way to share revenue with my customer’s” “I let my customers span multiple clouds”
  5. 5. What is OpenStack?  Originated at NASA, with Rackspace  Driven by an open community process OpenStack Compute OpenStack Compute Three existing projects: (VMs & VM Networks) (VMs & VM Networks) OpenStack Compute OpenStack Image Service OpenStack Image Service OpenStack Image Service (Image Library & Management) (Image Library & Management) Open Object Storage Multiple hypervisors: Xen, KVM, ESXi, Hyper-V Releases: OpenStack Object Store OpenStack Object Store (Storage) (Storage) Grizzly: April 2013 Folsom: Oct 2012 Grizzly : April 2013: Current Havana: scheduled for Oct 2013
  6. 6. Open Source Advantages Leverage the work of a growing community of developers  Works across multiple hardware infrastructure  Possible to deploy at service providers and onpremise  Amazon AWS Interface Compatibility  Flexible Clustering and Availability Zones  Access Control List (ACL) with policies management  Network Management, Security Groups, Traffic Isolation 
  7. 7. OpenStack Arhictecture
  8. 8. OpenStack Components (Grizzly Release)
  9. 9. Agenda • OpenStack Brief Overview • “Keystone” Identity • “Storage” • “Glance” Image • “Nova” Compute • “Without Quantum” Networking • “Quantum” Networking
  10. 10. Keystone Main Functions • Provides 4 primary services: – Identity: User information authentication – Token: After logged in, replace account-password – Service catalog: Service units registered – Policies: Enforces different user levels • Can be backed by different databases. – LDAP – SQL – Key Value Stores (KVS)
  11. 11. Keystone: Identity • User information: – username/password – Metadata (e-mail, etc.) – Tenant - organizes users into projects or group. – Role - define a user’s role and permissions in a project. • A user must belong to at least one tenant, and may belong to many tenants • Roles are assigned to user/tenant pairs – Common roles: Member, Admin
  12. 12. Keystone: Token • Once a user’s identity has been verified with a acc/pswd pair, a short-lived (24 hr) token is issued. • Tokens are a stand-in for the acc/pswd. • OpenStack services hold on to tokens and use them to query keystone during operations. • For example, once Nova can use a token to determine if an authenticated user has authorization to delete an instance.
  13. 13. Agenda • OpenStack Brief Overview • “Keystone” Identity • “Storage” • “Glance” Image • “Nova” Compute • “Without Quantum” Networking • “Quantum” Networking
  14. 14. Storage as a Service • CAPEX to OPEX based business model. • Manage storage by well-defined set of remotely accessible APIs • Abstracts the actual storage implementation • This service offers specialized functions: DR, backup, document sharing, etc. Using Storage as a Service • Object • Block • File
  15. 15. Storage Available Ephemeral(On-instance) : -Used for running Operating System and scratch space -Persists until VM is terminated -Access associated with a VM -Implemented as a filesystem underlying OpenStack Compute -Administrator configures size setting, based on flavors -Example: 10GB first disk, 30GB/core second disk For desktop user PC's internal disk drives are ephemeral; persistent storage can be considered similar to an external USB drive.
  16. 16. OpenStack Object Storage Swift What Is It? • Object Storage is ideal for cost effective, scale-out storage. It provides a fully distributed, API-accessible storage platform that can be integrated directly into applications or used for backup, archiving and data retention. • Store 3 Copies & use for web, media files • In production today – Rackspace’s Cloud Files, • Architectural overview: – http://swift.openstack.org/overview_architecture.html
  17. 17. Swift • Object storage, objects “live” on an endpoint. – An endpoint could be any storage device • Every object belongs to a user/account pair. – keystone tenant : swift account – keystone user : swift user – keystone role : swift group • Proxy, Ring, and Workers • Account, Container, Object
  18. 18. Duplicated storage, load balancing ↑ Logical view ↓Physical arrangement ← Stores real objects ←Stores object metadata ↑Stores container / object metadata
  19. 19. Workers can be a account server, a container server, or an object server
  20. 20. Cinder What Is It? • Block Storage allows block devices to be exposed and connected to compute instances for expanded storage, better performance and integration with enterprise storage platforms. • OpenStack provides persistent block level storage devices for use with OpenStack compute instances. Can be exposed to applications as well. • Block storage volumes are fully integrated into OpenStack Compute and the Dashboard allowing for cloud users to manage their own storage needs.
  21. 21. Cinder (Contd.)  This is block storage (or volumes) and currently there are blueprints for filesystems like NFS or CIFS share • Used for adding additional persistent storage to a virtual machine (VM) • Persists until deleted • Access associated with a VM • Mounted via OpenStack Block-Storage controlled protocol (for example, iSCSI) • Sizings based on need • Example: 1TB "extra hard drive”
  22. 22. Cinder Capabilities         Cinder manages block storage Volumes attach to VM Instances Boot from volume Volumes have a lifecycle independent of VM instance Admin can create tiers of storage. e.g. two LVM backends, one with SSD’s and the other with HDD’s. Users can specify a tier they want when creating a volume. A backup is an archived copy of a Volume stored in a object store. A backup is just the data that was written, unlike a snapshot which is the entire block.
  23. 23. Cinder call flow Database Queue Cinder API C- scheduler Cinder Vol Cinder Vol Cinder Vol iSCSI NFS
  24. 24. Cinder Service  Cinder-api  Cinder-schedular  Cinder-volume
  25. 25. Agenda • OpenStack Brief Overview • “Keystone” Identity • “Storage” • “Glance” Image • “Nova” Compute • “Without Quantum” Networking • “Quantum” Networking
  26. 26. Glance • Image storage and indexing. • Keeps a database of metadata associated with an image, discover, register, and retrieve. • Built on top of Swift, images store in Swift • Two servers: – Glance-api: public interface for uploading and managing images. – Glance-registry: private interface to metadata database • Support multiple image formats
  27. 27. Agenda • OpenStack Brief Overview • “Keystone” Identity • “Storage” • “Glance” Image • “Nova” Compute • “Without Quantum” Networking • “Quantum” Networking
  28. 28. Nova • Major components: – API: public facing interface – Message Queue: Broker to handle interactions between services, currently based on RabbitMQ – Scheduler: coordinates all services, determines placement of new resources requested – Compute Worker: hosts VMs, controls hypervisor and VMs when receives cmds on Msg Queue – Volume: manages permanent storage
  29. 29. Nova Messaging and Data • Messaging is managed through RabbitMQ – Server that allows messages to be posted to channels. – Subscribers to channels receive messages. – Services regularly announce availability. – Scheduler regularly reads for availability. – Scheduler makes requests to services. • Persistent data stored in a database. – VM metadata, network topology, volume metadata, known services
  30. 30. Messaging (RabbitMQ) • Get data from point A to point B • Decouple publishers and consumers • Queueing for later delivery • Load balancing and scalability • RabbitMQ is an AMQP messaging broker • Advanced Message Queueing Protocol • Network wire-level protocol • Internet protocol - like HTTP, TCP - but ASYNCHRONOUS
  31. 31. Agenda • OpenStack Brief Overview • “Keystone” Identity • “Storage” • “Glance” Image • “Nova” Compute • “Without Quantum” Networking • “Quantum” Networking
  32. 32. Without Quantum • Originally, Nova handles all networking by: – Linux bridge networking – Virtual interfaces connecting network through the physical interface – Assigns VM IP address – Fixed IP: Returns when VM shuts down – Floating IP: Can be reassigned online • Network Manager provides VN to enable compute servers to interact with each other and the public network • A Blog states currently 90% Nova bugs are network related
  33. 33. Original Network Manager • Each VM network owned by one network host – Simply a Linux running Nova-network daemon • Nova Network node is the only gateway • Flat Network Manager: – Linux networking bridge forms a subnet – All instances attached same bridge – Manually Configure server, controller, and IP • Flat DHCP Network Manager: – Add DHCP server along same bridge • Later: VLAN Network Manager
  34. 34. Bridged Networking • One network card acts as many devices. • Host does not need an IP address. • Hypervisor sets virtual MAC address for guest machine. • ACISS uses bridges, along with Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) to segment traffic and assign network addresses.
  35. 35. Linux running Nova-network daemon Network host will act as the gateway for all the NICs bridged into that network. VMs bridged in to a raw Ethernet device The only gateway With security measures
  36. 36. What does Quantum provide ?  API for Networking in OpenStack  Nova Integration  OSI Network Layers L2 + L3    Decouples Logical / Tenant view of the network from Physical / Provider Provides connectivity to VMs, Decouples logical /Tenant view of the network from Physical/Provider. Manage OSI Network Layers L2 & L3 with an API.
  37. 37.   Cont... Not yet full-integraded with Dashboard : only L2 is working. L3 should be managed from CLI. Horizon can't manage L3 (routers + floatings IP). Networking backed by plugins : Open-vSwitch, Linux Bridge, Cisco, OpenFlow (BigSwitch, Floodlight, NEC, Ryu, etc), Midonet (Midokura) and NVP (Nicira /Vmware).
  38. 38. Quantum Openvswitch plugin The Quantum Openvswitch plugin consists of two components: • 1) A plugin loaded at runtime by the Quantum service. The plugin processes all API calls and stores the resulting logical network data model and associated network mappings in a database backend . • 2) An agent which runs on each compute node (i.e., each node running nova-compute). This agent gathers the configuration and mappings from the central mysql database and communicates directly with the local Open vSwitch instance to configure flows to implement the logical data model.
  39. 39. Plugin • The component where the ‘virtual networking’ magic happens. Fulfills API contract by implementing the ‘Plugin Interface’ • Tenants expect same behavior from Quantum API regardless of the particular plugin employed • Available Quantum Plugins: – Open vSwitch: Builds isolated networks with OVS and L2-in-L3 tunnels. – Cisco UCS: Isolation based on VLAN and net-profiles applied to Cisco UCS – converged network adapters – Linux Bridge: Build isolated networks with VLAN interfaces and linux bridge – NTT-Data Ryu: Acts as a proxy for the NTT Ryu platform – Nicira NVP: Acts as a proxy for the Nicira NVP platform
  40. 40. The Quantum Manager • Nova’s network manager for Quantum. Forwards network related requests. • Also, provides other network services such as IP address management, DHCP, NAT, Floating IPs… • Virtual Networking: A label nowadays applied to too many solutions and products. – Securely partitioning the network – Defining virtual network topologies – Automating network provisioning
  41. 41. Thanks
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