0
Flight Control Systems (Conventional &
Digital) & Enhanced Diagnostic Aid (EDNA)
2a. Identify principles of flight with
at...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Overview of Principles of Flight
– Basic Facts and Terms
...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Principles of Flight
– Bernoulli’s Principle
• As air vel...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

– Density
•
•
•
•

As air is compressed, it becomes more de...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

– Humidity
• Higher temperature of air – the more water it ...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

– Relative Wind – the direction of the airflow with
respect...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

– Angle of Attack – angle between the wing chord
line and t...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

– Airfoils
• Any object designed to obtain a reaction upon ...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

– Wing Chord Line
• Distance from the leading edge to the t...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

– Camber
• The curve or departure from the chord line
• Pos...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

– Camber
• Upper Surface – Always positive
• Lower Surface
...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Producing Lift
– High-speed flow is associated with low p...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

– Airfoil is designed to increase the velocity of the
airfl...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Weight – the force of gravity
acting downward upon
anythi...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Lift – acts vertically, by doing so counteracts
weight
– ...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Drag – forward deterrent force (caused by the disruption
...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Thrust – the forward force produced by the jet engine
tha...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Controls and Surfaces
– Stick
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Controls and Surfaces
– Mechanical/Electronic
Controls
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Controls and Surfaces
– Electronic Controls
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Controls and Surfaces
– Rudder Pedals
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Controls and Surfaces
– Flap Controls
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Control/Surface Connection
– Direct Mechanical
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Control/Surface Connection
– Power Assisted Mechanical
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Control/Surface Connection
– Powered, Electronically Cont...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Flight Control Surfaces
– Wings
• Primary means of provid...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Flaps
– Attached to wings
– Moveable surfaces that provid...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Flaps
– Trailing Edge Flaps
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Flaps
– Leading Edge Flaps
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Ailerons
– Moveable surfaces to provide roll control
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Horizontal Stabilizers
– Provides stabilization against u...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Elevators
– Moveable surfaces to provide pitch control
– ...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Moveable Horizontal Stabilizers
– Entire Surface pivots t...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Vertical Stabilizers
– Provides stabilization against unc...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.

• Rudder
– Moveable surfaces to provide yaw control
– Move ...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Combined Surfaces
– Flaperon
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Elevons
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Speedbrake
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Axes of Rotation

– Surfaces are normally “streamline” fo...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Roll

– The longitudal axis is an imaginary line through
...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Roll

– Movement about the axis is roll
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Roll

– Roll is initiated by applying lateral pressure to...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Pitch

– The lateral axis is an imaginary line from the w...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Pitch

– Movement about about the axis is pitch
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Pitch

– Pitch is initiated by applying fore and aft pres...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Yaw

– The vertical axis is an imaginary line through the...
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Yaw

– Movement about the axis is yaw
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Yaw

– Yaw initiated using rudder pedals
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Trim
2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80%
accuracy.

• Summary of Principles of Flight
– Defined Basic Facts and...
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Conventional controls

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Transcript of "Conventional controls"

  1. 1. Flight Control Systems (Conventional & Digital) & Enhanced Diagnostic Aid (EDNA) 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy.
  2. 2. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Overview of Principles of Flight – Basic Facts and Terms – Controls and Surfaces – Axes of Rotation
  3. 3. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Principles of Flight – Bernoulli’s Principle • As air velocity increases, pressure decreases • As air velocity decreases, pressure increases • Venturi tube
  4. 4. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. – Density • • • • As air is compressed, it becomes more dense Air has less density at high altitude Air expands as it is heated – occupies more space Changes in air density affect flight – Climate is cold, altitude is low = dense air » Aircraft achieves takeoff speed more quickly » Takes off with less runway – High Altitude = low density (airplane flies faster)
  5. 5. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. – Humidity • Higher temperature of air – the more water it can absorb • Temperature the same – density of air varies with humidity • Damp days – Density is less than it is on dry days – Airplane requires longer runway for takeoff
  6. 6. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. – Relative Wind – the direction of the airflow with respect to the wing
  7. 7. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. – Angle of Attack – angle between the wing chord line and the direction of the relative wind
  8. 8. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. – Airfoils • Any object designed to obtain a reaction upon itself from the air through which it passes
  9. 9. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. – Wing Chord Line • Distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge • Represented by a straight line called the chord line
  10. 10. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. – Camber • The curve or departure from the chord line • Positive – Convex Surface • Negative – Concave Surface
  11. 11. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. – Camber • Upper Surface – Always positive • Lower Surface – Positive (usually) – Zero – Negative
  12. 12. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Producing Lift – High-speed flow is associated with low pressure – Low-speed flow is associated with high pressure
  13. 13. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. – Airfoil is designed to increase the velocity of the airflow above the surface – decreases pressure above the airfoil – Impact of air on lower surface increases pressure below – Pressure differential causes lift
  14. 14. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Weight – the force of gravity acting downward upon anything that goes into the aircraft – Reduced as fuel is burned – Reduced as missles and bombs are released – Reduced the aircraft will climb
  15. 15. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Lift – acts vertically, by doing so counteracts weight – Increases to a certain point with • AOA • Air Density • Airspeed – Lift is increased – aircraft will climb – Lift is reduced – aircraft will descend
  16. 16. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Drag – forward deterrent force (caused by the disruption of the airflow by the wings, fuselage and protruding objects) – Increases with • Airspeed • AOA (drag increases much more rapidly than lift as AOA increases) – Decreases with increased altitude due to decrease in air density
  17. 17. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Thrust – the forward force produced by the jet engine that overcomes the force of drag – Increased thrust increases airspeed – Decreased thrust is needed at higher altitude to achieve the same airspeed due to less air density and drag – Thrust is decreased, airspeed will decrease
  18. 18. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Controls and Surfaces – Stick
  19. 19. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Controls and Surfaces – Mechanical/Electronic Controls
  20. 20. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Controls and Surfaces – Electronic Controls
  21. 21. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Controls and Surfaces – Rudder Pedals
  22. 22. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Controls and Surfaces – Flap Controls
  23. 23. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Control/Surface Connection – Direct Mechanical
  24. 24. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Control/Surface Connection – Power Assisted Mechanical
  25. 25. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Control/Surface Connection – Powered, Electronically Controlled
  26. 26. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Flight Control Surfaces – Wings • Primary means of providing lift for the aircraft
  27. 27. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Flaps – Attached to wings – Moveable surfaces that provide increased lift
  28. 28. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Flaps – Trailing Edge Flaps
  29. 29. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Flaps – Leading Edge Flaps
  30. 30. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Ailerons – Moveable surfaces to provide roll control
  31. 31. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Horizontal Stabilizers – Provides stabilization against uncontrolled pitching of the aircraft – Attached to aft section of aircraft
  32. 32. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Elevators – Moveable surfaces to provide pitch control – Attached to trailing edge of horizontal stabs
  33. 33. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Moveable Horizontal Stabilizers – Entire Surface pivots to provide pitch control – Does not require elevators
  34. 34. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Vertical Stabilizers – Provides stabilization against uncontrolled yawing of the aircraft
  35. 35. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Rudder – Moveable surfaces to provide yaw control – Move symmetrically
  36. 36. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Combined Surfaces – Flaperon
  37. 37. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Elevons
  38. 38. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Speedbrake
  39. 39. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Axes of Rotation – Surfaces are normally “streamline” for straight and level flight
  40. 40. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Roll – The longitudal axis is an imaginary line through center of straight and level flight
  41. 41. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Roll – Movement about the axis is roll
  42. 42. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Roll – Roll is initiated by applying lateral pressure to the side stick controller
  43. 43. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Pitch – The lateral axis is an imaginary line from the wing tip to wing tip
  44. 44. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Pitch – Movement about about the axis is pitch
  45. 45. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Pitch – Pitch is initiated by applying fore and aft pressure on the side stick controller
  46. 46. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Yaw – The vertical axis is an imaginary line through the center of the aircraft from top to bottom
  47. 47. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Yaw – Movement about the axis is yaw
  48. 48. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Yaw – Yaw initiated using rudder pedals
  49. 49. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Trim
  50. 50. 2a. Identify principles of flight with at least 80% accuracy. • Summary of Principles of Flight – Defined Basic Facts and Terms – Covered Controls and Surfaces – Axes of Rotation
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