• It is believed that the roots of Scottish whisky
lie in the Ireland.
• First official mention appears in 1494 which
record the provision of malt to a certain Friar
John Cor to make ‘acqua vitae’ - the Latin
equivalent of the Gaelic ‘usige beathe’, or ‘
water of life’.
• By 16th & 17th century it had become the true
spirit of Scotland.
• In 1644 the Scottish Parliament levied the first
excise tax on whisky.
• In 1713 ‘malt tax’ was imposed in Scotland.
• This in fact led to the ‘illicit distilling’ and
producing whisky of better quality than the
legally produced ones since the distillers used a
higher grain content to avoid the malt tax.
• In 1823, an act was passed as suggested by Duke of
Gordon ( one of Britain’s largest landowners). Legal
production of whisky was encouraged, and taxes
• Within 20 - 30 years the illegal distilling declined
• Scotch Whisky is produced in three forms :
Blends of Malts & Grains
TYPES OF SCOTCH
• It is essentially made from unmalted corn & malted
barley cooked in a pressure chamber to break down the
• The wash produced after fermentation is distilled in a
patent still at 95 % alcohol.
• Grain whisky has particularly no flavour of its own. Is
rarely sold and mainly used in blends.
TYPES OF SCOTCH
SINGLE MALT WHISKY
• The whisky that is produced in one distillery and is not
blended or mixed with any other whisky.
• Sold as a produce of that one single distillery.
• It is exclusive & expensive.
TYPES OF SCOTCH
• Blending of malt whisky and grain whisky of different
vintages & provinces. A “standard blend” can consist of
around 40 different whiskies. (Can be one or more malt
and one or more grain)
• Usually 35-40% is malt whisky, 60-65% is grain
TYPES OF SCOTCH
VATTED MALT WHISKY :
• Single malts taken from 2 or more distilleries and
blended is called vatted malt whisky.
• Eg. Royal Culross, Glenleven, Dewar’s 12 year old
vatted, Findlater’s Marlodge.
FACTORS EFFECTING SCOTCH
• Malt whisky is the unique result of the effects of
– malted barley
– Scottish water
– pot distilling
– wood maturation in the damp air.
• Single malts are made from Barley only.
• Most of the barley used comes from the continent
itself or California or Australia.
• Ideally barley should be
- Fully ripened
- Dry (moisture- 10%)
• Malting is done by soaking dried barley in large tanks
(steeps) for between 48-70 hours.
• Water is drained of and the wet barley is spread on the
germination tanks to germinate.
• The barley is continuously turned by the maltsman
using long handled wooden shovel, called skips.
• In modern times, mechanical agitators or saladin box
are being used.
• After 2 or 3 days the barley sprouts rootlets, which in
another 4-5 days starts to wither.
• The barley which is now soft, straw coloured
moisture laden is called the green malt.
• It goes to the kiln and spread on a floor of perforated
metal plates or wire mesh.
• Ten-fifteen feet below is a slow peat fire. Peat is a
partially decomposed, compacted vegetable matter.
Usually mosses, used as fertiliser and fuel.
• The peat gives a pungent, earthy smoke, with its own
particular fragrance, which permeates the green malt.
This gives the whisky its peat reek.
• Coal and Anthracite are later added to the fire to raise
the temperature to around 160 deg. F.
• The malt dries out to crispy, crumbly, fragrant grain
quite different from the original barley.
• It is then left to rest for a month or more.
• Malt is gristed.
• The grist goes into mash tun in measured quantities and
hot water is added to extract the soluble sugar.
• The water is changed to 3 to 4 times and each time the
temperature is increased.
• The fist two washings form the wort.
Malt that is delivered in sacks is crushed
• The third and the fourth wash are called the sparge. It
forms the first and second washing of the next batch.
• The left over is sold as the cattle feed.
• All malt whiskies are distilled in the pot still.
• Each batch of malt whisky requires two pot stills to
produce the finished spirit.
The wash still
The low wine still
• The wash in the wash still is heated by coal or oil fire.
• The product after distillation and condensation goes into
the low wine still where it is distilled to give spirit of
higher alcoholic strength of 75%.
• The purity of the product is controlled by spirit safe.
• The residue in the wash still the ‘burnt ale’ is used as
fertilizer or animal food.
• The residue in the low wine still called the ‘spent lees’
is dispersed as steam.
• The whisky emerges from the still as, water white, very
pungent fiery spirit around 115 to 120 degree proof.
• It is reduce to around 110 degree proof with pure spring
• Maturation is the mellowing of the whisky by its being
stored in oak barrels.
• By law maturation of single malt is for a minimum of 3
• Is matured in Scottish cask (110 gallons) butts
• The cask come from Jerez in Spain.where they have
been used to mature sherry.
• The sherry has taken much of its woodiness ( tannins )
from the oak and left part of its own character in the
wood, that in turn contributes to the mellowness,
colour and taste of the matured malt.
• In the wood the malt whisky :
– Loses a lot of its pungent character through oxidation.
– Takes on its colour from pale straw to honey
• After the whisky has reached its optimum maturity it is
diluted using spring water to get the strength of 70-75°
• No two variety of single malts are similar inspite of the
same base ingredient and same process.
• It is impossible to produce scotch outside of scotland.
• It has to be both, distilled & matured in Scotland.
• Distilled at less than 98.4 % in such a way that the
distillate has an aroma and flavour derived from the
CLASSIFICATION OF WHISKIES
• Single malt whiskies have been categorised as per
following geographic regions:
• Located Southernmost of the outer western isles.
• Islay has eight distilleries.
• Distilleries produce malts which are traditionally very
heavily peated to give a pungent whisky with deep
• Laphroaig, Jura, Talisker, Bowmore, Lagavulin, Islay
• The eleven Lowland malts are mostly used as filler
malts to give weight to a blend.
• As they tend to lack a distinctive malt character, they do
not add much value to the commercial whisky either.
• Rosebank and RJ Mc Dowells are the best, other
brands are Glenkinchie.
• Blending is the art of combining whiskies from several
distilleries, malt as well as grain.
• Blending has its origin in distant days when distillers
masked the spirit with herbal flavourings.
• Modern blending began around the turn of the century,
when the Scots lightened their whisky with grain spirit,
which became highly popular.
• A blend will consist of anything from 15 to 50 different
single whiskies combined in the formula that is the
secret of the blending company concerned.
• The objective of the blender is to produce a whisky of a
definite and recognizable character and that his blend
should never vary from this standard which customers
all over the world accept.
• A blend of whisky will have 35-40% Sgl malt and 6065% grain whisky.
• The different whiskies are stirred using compressed air
ensuring they are mixed well, and then left to marry,
usually for 6 months or more.
• The final step before bottling is the addition of small
amounts of caramel colouring, to ensure continuity of
colour in the blend.
• Scotland possesses 119 distilleries.
• Some of the major companies who manufacture blended
– Haig - Oldest of modern whisky families.
– John Walker - “Born in 1820, still going strong”
– John Dewars - Started as a grocer.
– White Horse - Based his blend on Lagavulin.
– VAT 69
– Famous Grouse
• The largest company in the world manufacturing scotch
is DCL. Formed by 6 lowland distillers and John Haig
• Their famous brands are
– Black and white
• Other major companies are:
– Hiram Walker
Ballentine’s, Cutty Sark
J&B Rare, Johnnie Walker
(red), Dewar’s White Label
White Horse, Black& White
Johnie Walker (Black)
All single malts, J&B Jet
Bell’s Royal reserve
Johnnie Walker (Blue)
SINGLE MALTS SERVED AT
REGULAR SCOTCH AT OBEROI
• White Horse
• John Haig
• J&B Rare
• Black and White
• Johnnie Walker Red Label
PREMIUM SCOTCH AT OBEROI
• Johnnie Walker Black Label
• Chivas Regal
• J&B Jet
DELUXE SCOTCH AT OBEROI
• Blue Label
• Gold Label
• Royal Salute