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  • Scotch

    1. 1. SCOTCH
    2. 2. HISTORY • It is believed that the roots of Scottish whisky lie in the Ireland. • First official mention appears in 1494 which record the provision of malt to a certain Friar John Cor to make ‘acqua vitae’ - the Latin equivalent of the Gaelic ‘usige beathe’, or ‘ water of life’. • By 16th & 17th century it had become the true spirit of Scotland.
    3. 3. HISTORY • In 1644 the Scottish Parliament levied the first excise tax on whisky. • In 1713 ‘malt tax’ was imposed in Scotland. • This in fact led to the ‘illicit distilling’ and producing whisky of better quality than the legally produced ones since the distillers used a higher grain content to avoid the malt tax.
    4. 4. HISTORY • In 1823, an act was passed as suggested by Duke of Gordon ( one of Britain’s largest landowners). Legal production of whisky was encouraged, and taxes reduced. • Within 20 - 30 years the illegal distilling declined drastically.
    5. 5. CATEGORISATION • Scotch Whisky is produced in three forms : - Malt Whisky - Grain Whisky - Blends of Malts & Grains
    7. 7. TYPES OF SCOTCH GRAIN WHISKY • It is essentially made from unmalted corn & malted barley cooked in a pressure chamber to break down the sugars. • The wash produced after fermentation is distilled in a patent still at 95 % alcohol. • Grain whisky has particularly no flavour of its own. Is rarely sold and mainly used in blends.
    8. 8. TYPES OF SCOTCH SINGLE MALT WHISKY • The whisky that is produced in one distillery and is not blended or mixed with any other whisky. • Sold as a produce of that one single distillery. • It is exclusive & expensive.
    9. 9. TYPES OF SCOTCH BLENDED MALT • Blending of malt whisky and grain whisky of different vintages & provinces. A “standard blend” can consist of around 40 different whiskies. (Can be one or more malt and one or more grain) • Usually 35-40% is malt whisky, 60-65% is grain whisky.
    10. 10. TYPES OF SCOTCH VATTED MALT WHISKY : • Single malts taken from 2 or more distilleries and blended is called vatted malt whisky. • Eg. Royal Culross, Glenleven, Dewar’s 12 year old vatted, Findlater’s Marlodge.
    11. 11. FACTORS EFFECTING SCOTCH • Malt whisky is the unique result of the effects of – malted barley – Scottish water – pot distilling – wood maturation in the damp air.
    12. 12. MALTING • Single malts are made from Barley only. • Most of the barley used comes from the continent itself or California or Australia. • Ideally barley should be - Fully ripened - Plump - Dry (moisture- 10%) • Malting is done by soaking dried barley in large tanks (steeps) for between 48-70 hours.
    13. 13. MALTING • Water is drained of and the wet barley is spread on the germination tanks to germinate. • The barley is continuously turned by the maltsman using long handled wooden shovel, called skips. • In modern times, mechanical agitators or saladin box are being used. • After 2 or 3 days the barley sprouts rootlets, which in another 4-5 days starts to wither.
    14. 14. FLOOR MALTING
    15. 15. MALTING • The barley which is now soft, straw coloured moisture laden is called the green malt. and • It goes to the kiln and spread on a floor of perforated metal plates or wire mesh. • Ten-fifteen feet below is a slow peat fire. Peat is a partially decomposed, compacted vegetable matter. Usually mosses, used as fertiliser and fuel.
    16. 16. MALTING • The peat gives a pungent, earthy smoke, with its own particular fragrance, which permeates the green malt. This gives the whisky its peat reek. • Coal and Anthracite are later added to the fire to raise the temperature to around 160 deg. F. • The malt dries out to crispy, crumbly, fragrant grain quite different from the original barley. • It is then left to rest for a month or more.
    17. 17. MASHING • Malt is gristed. • The grist goes into mash tun in measured quantities and hot water is added to extract the soluble sugar. • The water is changed to 3 to 4 times and each time the temperature is increased. • The fist two washings form the wort.
    18. 18. MASHING Malt that is delivered in sacks is crushed
    19. 19. MASHING • The third and the fourth wash are called the sparge. It forms the first and second washing of the next batch. • The left over is sold as the cattle feed.
    20. 20. MASH TUN
    21. 21. FERMENTATION
    22. 22. FERMENTATION • The wort is poured in wash tun and the yeast is added. • Fermentation lasts for 36-48 hours. • A clear liquid is obtained called wash at 5% alcoholic strength.
    23. 23. DISTILLATION
    24. 24. DISTILLATION • All malt whiskies are distilled in the pot still. • Each batch of malt whisky requires two pot stills to produce the finished spirit. - The wash still The low wine still
    25. 25. DISTILLATION • The wash in the wash still is heated by coal or oil fire. • The product after distillation and condensation goes into the low wine still where it is distilled to give spirit of higher alcoholic strength of 75%. • The purity of the product is controlled by spirit safe.
    26. 26. SPIRIT SAFE
    27. 27. DISTILLATION • The residue in the wash still the ‘burnt ale’ is used as fertilizer or animal food. • The residue in the low wine still called the ‘spent lees’ is dispersed as steam. • The whisky emerges from the still as, water white, very pungent fiery spirit around 115 to 120 degree proof. • It is reduce to around 110 degree proof with pure spring water.
    28. 28. MATURATION
    29. 29. MATURATION • Maturation is the mellowing of the whisky by its being stored in oak barrels. • By law maturation of single malt is for a minimum of 3 years. • Is matured in Scottish cask (110 gallons) butts
    30. 30. MATURATION • The cask come from Jerez in Spain.where they have been used to mature sherry. • The sherry has taken much of its woodiness ( tannins ) from the oak and left part of its own character in the wood, that in turn contributes to the mellowness, colour and taste of the matured malt.
    31. 31. MATURATION • In the wood the malt whisky : – Softens – Loses a lot of its pungent character through oxidation. – Takes on its colour from pale straw to honey • After the whisky has reached its optimum maturity it is diluted using spring water to get the strength of 70-75° proof.
    32. 32. CHARACTERISTICS • No two variety of single malts are similar inspite of the same base ingredient and same process. • It is impossible to produce scotch outside of scotland. • It has to be both, distilled & matured in Scotland. • Distilled at less than 98.4 % in such a way that the distillate has an aroma and flavour derived from the materials used.
    33. 33. CLASSIFICATION OF WHISKIES • Single malt whiskies have been categorised as per following geographic regions: – Islay – Campbeltown – Lowlands – Highlands
    34. 34. ISLAY • Located Southernmost of the outer western isles. • Islay has eight distilleries. • Distilleries produce malts which are traditionally very heavily peated to give a pungent whisky with deep flavour . • Laphroaig, Jura, Talisker, Bowmore, Lagavulin, Islay Mist,
    35. 35. ISLAY
    36. 36. ISLAY
    37. 37. ISLAY
    38. 38. CAMPBELTOWN • Campbeltown has two distilleries: - Springback makes light mellow and almost sweet malt - Glen Scotia by contrast makes pungent malts
    39. 39. CAMPBELTOWN
    40. 40. HIGHLAND • The Glenlivet - Best single malt. Rich, ripe and mellow and with outstanding malt bouquet. • The Glenfiddich- Pale and peaty.
    41. 41. HIGHLAND
    42. 42. HIGHLAND
    43. 43. LOWLANDS • The eleven Lowland malts are mostly used as filler malts to give weight to a blend. • As they tend to lack a distinctive malt character, they do not add much value to the commercial whisky either. • Rosebank and RJ Mc Dowells are the best, other brands are Glenkinchie.
    44. 44. LOWLANDS
    45. 45. LOWLANDS
    46. 46. BLENDING
    47. 47. BLENDING • Blending is the art of combining whiskies from several distilleries, malt as well as grain. • Blending has its origin in distant days when distillers masked the spirit with herbal flavourings. • Modern blending began around the turn of the century, when the Scots lightened their whisky with grain spirit, which became highly popular.
    48. 48. BLENDING • A blend will consist of anything from 15 to 50 different single whiskies combined in the formula that is the secret of the blending company concerned. • The objective of the blender is to produce a whisky of a definite and recognizable character and that his blend should never vary from this standard which customers all over the world accept.
    49. 49. BLENDING • A blend of whisky will have 35-40% Sgl malt and 6065% grain whisky. • The different whiskies are stirred using compressed air ensuring they are mixed well, and then left to marry, usually for 6 months or more. • The final step before bottling is the addition of small amounts of caramel colouring, to ensure continuity of colour in the blend.
    50. 50. THE DISTILLERIES • Scotland possesses 119 distilleries. • Some of the major companies who manufacture blended scotch are: – Haig - Oldest of modern whisky families. – John Walker - “Born in 1820, still going strong” – John Dewars - Started as a grocer. – White Horse - Based his blend on Lagavulin. – J&B – VAT 69 – Famous Grouse
    51. 51. THE DISTILLERIES • The largest company in the world manufacturing scotch is DCL. Formed by 6 lowland distillers and John Haig • Their famous brands are – – – – – Johnny Walker Haig White Horse VAT 69 Abbots Choice
    52. 52. THE DISTILLERIES – Black and white • Other major companies are: – Seagrams – Hiram Walker – Bells .
    53. 53. BLENDED MALTS
    54. 54. BLENDED MALTS
    55. 55. CATEGORISATION CLASSIFICATION AGING Regular Bulk Premium 5-7 years Premium Super Premium 12 years Deluxe Ultra Premium 20 years EXAMPLES Ballentine’s, Cutty Sark J&B Rare, Johnnie Walker (red), Dewar’s White Label White Horse, Black& White Johnie Walker (Black) Chivas Regal All single malts, J&B Jet Royal Salute Bell’s Royal reserve Johnnie Walker (Blue) Glenfiddich
    56. 56. SINGLE MALTS SERVED AT OBEROI HOTELS • • • • • • • Cardhu Glenfiddich Gragganmore Talisker Oban Lagavulin Glenmorangie
    57. 57. REGULAR SCOTCH AT OBEROI HOTELS • White Horse • John Haig • J&B Rare • Black and White • Johnnie Walker Red Label
    58. 58. PREMIUM SCOTCH AT OBEROI HOTELS • Johnnie Walker Black Label • Chivas Regal • J&B Jet
    59. 59. DELUXE SCOTCH AT OBEROI HOTELS • Blue Label • Gold Label • Royal Salute