State Policy Of Prophet Muhammad (Sm.)

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State Policy Of Prophet Muhammad (Sm.)

  1. 1. Presentation on State Policy Of Prophet Muhammad (Sm.) Presented by: 1. Sanjida Haque (ID. 1013ECE00091) 2. Najmoon Nahar Khanom (ID. 1013ECE00093) 3. Afia Anjum Chowdhury (ID. 1117ECE00108) 4. Taslima Akter Surma (ID. 1117ECE00109) 5. Fahmida Shabnaj (ID. 1117ECE00110) November 2, 2013 1
  2. 2. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) Contents: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction About Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) What is state policy? What was Prophet’s policy? State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.1. Islamic state 5.2. Public treasury 5.3. Military policy 5.4. The code of laws in Islamic state 5.6. Political contacts 5.7. Chaliphabet 5.8. Economy 5.9. Slavery system 5.10. Establishing women’s right 6. Conclusion 7. References November 2, 2013 2
  3. 3. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 1. Introduction Islam is a comprehensive and universal religion for all races and classes of people not inclined to serve a specific category or group of people but specially aimed to address the needs of all humanity with its moral, spiritual, social, legal, political and economic systems. The aim of Islam is to establish the ideal human society and brotherhood spreading general benevolence and the divine guidance among men for their betterment and salvation. The Prophethood mission of Prophet Muhammad (Sm.) provides guidance for a perfect balancing of individual and spiritual life with social and material life. “O mankind! The (Prophetic) Messenger has come to you with the truth from your Lord. Then believe; (it is) better for you. But if you disbelieve, still, surely, to Allah belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth, and Allah is ever Knower, Wise.” (4:170) November 2, 2013 3
  4. 4. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 2. About Prophet Muhammad (570 – 632)  The Prophet Mohammad is the greatest and most honourable person that Allah has ever created. “Muhammad is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah , of all things, Knowing.” (Al-Ahzaab 33:40)  Muhammad was born on the month of Rabi’ al-awwal in 570. He belonged to the Banu Hashim clan, one of the prominent families in Mecca. Prophet’s father, Abdullah, died almost six months before He was born. At Six years of age Death of mother Aminah.  Muhammad (Sm.) grew up in His loving uncle's house. At the age of 25 years old He got married with Khadijah bint Khuwailid.  At the age of 40 Prophet Muhammad (Sm.) received the revelation. In 610 when he was 40 the first message came to him from Allah by Zibrail (ah.). The day was Monday 21st Ramadan.  Muhammad (Sm.) breathed his last breath on Monday, 12th Rabi’ al- Awwal 632. November 2, 2013 4
  5. 5. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) Prophet’s excellent Morals November 2, 2013 5
  6. 6. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 3. What is State Policy? Policy is a definite course of action adopted for the sake of expediency, facility. It is a course of action adopted and pursued by a government, ruler, political party. It is an action or procedure conforming to or considered with reference to prudence or expediency: It was good policy to consent. State policy means the set of rules or actions adopted or pursued by a Government or State leader to make the state peaceful & violence free. Islamic State  An Islamic state (Arabic: al-dawlah al-islamīyah) is a type of government, in which the primary basis for government is Islamic religious law. From the early years of Islam, the Caliphate established by Muhammad Himself where Caliph (meaning, "successor" to the Prophet Muhammad)  In an Islamic State, affairs are conducted within limits laid down by the Quraan. Nobody has the right to transgress these limits; in other words, the right to rule belongs to Allah alone. „Surely I have manifest proof from my Lord and you call it a lie; I have not with me that which you would hasten; the Decision (Command / Judgment) is only Allah's; He relates the truth and He is the best of deciders. (Al_Quraan_006.057)‟ November 2, 2013 6
  7. 7. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 4. What was Prophet’s Policy Prophet’s political leadership along with his religious guidance, establishment and observation of the relationships between the newly formed Muslim society and other groups grew in importance.  The political structure in the Arabian Peninsula changed within a quarter century with the developments under the leadership of Prophet Muhammad.  The Prophet who had struggled heavily against the dominant religion, social concepts and institutions also tried to form a new moral and social order in a society rotting in terms of these concepts.  He eliminated tribal animosities, social injustice, and inequalities, putting an end to the superiority concept which is believed to exist by birth.  He removed artificial obstacles that separate individuals in a society.  He founded a society based on fellowship, cooperation and affection.  He prevented the killing of girls and misbehaviors towards women.  He raised the status of women who were living under an oppressive obedience rule to a level that they shared life with men and they had mutual rights and responsibilities.  When the Prophet was in Medina and was Head of State, He declared, “Whoever dies and leaves a wealth behind, it belongs to his or her heir.” 4 November 2, 2013 7
  8. 8. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5. State policy Of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.1. ISLAMIC STATE The Islamic state policy was formed on the basis of Quran. The third politically constructive act was to knit the Jews of Medina and the Muslims into one social system for which a written agreement was made which may justly be called the first written constitution of the world.  The Over lordship of Allah and the Divine law were given fundamental importance in the organized society of Medina.  The final political, legal and judicial authority was given to the Prophet.  In the matter of defense the entire population of Medina and its neighborhood was united into a single unit.  This constitutional agreement laid the foundation of an Islamic state and Islamic system of life.  The Prophet possessed unparalleled political vision and persuasive ability.  The greatest event of the Prophet’s life at Medina was his organization of brotherhood between the Muhajirin and the Ansar. November 2, 2013 8
  9. 9. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5. State policy Of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.2. PUBLIC TREASURY The Prophet had established a Baitul mal (public treasury) in which income from the state resources and charities from those who could afford were collected. The Prophet’s order was that the needy should be generously helped. But all the collections of Baitul mal were insufficient to meet the actual needs and to eliminate starvation. Hazrath Bilal was in charge of Baitul mal and in compliance with the Prophet’s orders he did not allow any cash or the provisions to remained locked up. Once the Prophet say a heap of dates lying with Hazrath Bilal who on enquiry said that he had retained it for an emergency. The Prophet snubbed him and said, “Are you not afraid that for retaining this, you will taste the smoke of the hell on the Day of Judgment? Spend it and do not fear shortage from All-Powerful.” November 2, 2013 9
  10. 10. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.3. PROPHET’S MILITARY POLICY  The basic principle of the Prophet’s military policy was not to kill the enemy but to weaken him until either he cooperated or at least gave up his opposition.  Also the Prophet’s policy was not based on destroying or annihilating the Quraish but on making them humble and powerless. On the basis of these principles the Prophet adopted the following measures:  In military tactics Prophet sometimes took the enemy by surprise without allowing him time or chance to prepare for defense, as in the case of conquest of Makkah; sometimes He marched through an unexpected route and kept the enemy ignorant of his movements, as in the Battle of Banu Mustal. In the Battle of Uhad, when due to their mistakes the Muslims had met with a debacle and feelings were greatly strained, some of the companions of the Prophet asked Him to curse the enemy and pray for their destruction. The Prophet replied that he had not been sent to curse but to convey to the people the message of mercy, and He prayed: “O God, send Guidance to my people for they do not know (what thy do)” November 2, 2013 10
  11. 11. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.4. THE CODE OF LAWS IN AN ISLAMIC STATE: Here are some verses of Quran about the code of laws in Islamic State. “O you who believer! Stand out firmly for Allah and be just witnesses and let not enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just that is nearer to piety, and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.” (Al Maidah: 8) “(O Jamaa'atul Mu'mineen) Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord (Allah alone) and do not follow guardians besides Him (The subservience to Divine Laws and not of any human being is the real freedom), how little do you mind.” (Al_Quraan_007:003) November 2, 2013 11
  12. 12. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5. State policy Of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.5. Political Contacts The political contacts of the Prophet were based on three outstanding documents, viz., the first and second pledges of Aqaba, and the constitution of the Islamic state of Medina. In the first pledge of Aqaba which some young men of the Ansar clans of Medina executed with the Prophet, there were matters of belief and morality such as those offering the pledge would not assign partners to God, would not steal or commit adultery, would not kill their children, would not unjustly accuse anyone and would not disobey the Prophet in any act of virtue. Thus the Prophet established political contact with the Ansar and the foundation was laid for an Islamic state. According to Abdullah bin Abu Bakr, the Prophet told these representatives, “You will be responsible for your community just as the companions of Prophet Jesus were responsible to their Prophet, while the Prophet himself will be responsible for his community (of Makkah).” November 2, 2013 12
  13. 13. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.6. FOREIGN RELATIONS: Following the arrival of the Prophet (Sm.) in Medina, the Arabic tribes accepted Islam. The Jews were the only tribe that did not accept Islam. Prophet Muhammad showed that he had no prejudice against them, by announcing in his Medina Document that Jews had equal civil status. Even though the Prophet did not aim to convert them to Islam and only searched for a common agreement ground and an opportunity for a peaceful cooperation, Jews did not provide a solid image of agreement. Holy Prophet acted mildly and generously towards the leaders of other societies and religions and showed respect for them in order to establish peaceful relations and maintain peace. This attitude of him was a part of his foreign policy. Scholars interpreted the following hadith “When a head of a tribe comes to you, treat them well” (Ibn Maja, “Adab”, 19) November 2, 2013 13
  14. 14. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.7. Chaliphabet: The term caliphate refers to the first system of government established by Muhammad (S.A.W) in 622 CE, under the Constitution of Medina. It represented the political unity of the Muslim Umma (nation). The essence or guiding principles of an Islamic government or Islamic state, is the concept of 'AlShura'. Different scholars have different understandings or thoughts, with regard to the concept al-Shura, However, most Muslim scholars are of the opinion that Islamic al-Shura should consist of:        Meeting or consultation, that follows the teachings of Islam. Consultation following the guidelines of the Quran and Sunnah. There is a leader elected among them to head the meeting. The discussion should be based on mushawarah and mudhakarah. All the members are given fair opportunity to voice out their opinions. The issue should be of maslahah ammah or public interest. The voices of the majority are accepted, provided that it does not violate with the teachings of the Quran or Sunnah. November 2, 2013 14
  15. 15. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.8. Economy Prophet Muhammad (Sm.) not only formulated principles of social justice but also implemented them. A balanced and equal environment was formed in harmony with human nature. The poor began to wish the rich goodness, and the rich began to protect the poor. The Prophet first determined a market place in Medina for Muslims apart from the market place where mushriks (infidels) and Jews buy and sell. He ordered that market place would not be constricted with no reserved vending spaces. Furthermore, no taxes would be imposed. In this way, Muslims could easily practice Islamic rules in mutual relations and do business in a separate place without the financial authority of mushriks and particularly Jews. The prohibition against reserved vending spaces was important in providing justice among entrepreneurs, omission of privileges, and encouraging industriousness. Prophet Muhammad stated that suppliers gained earnings and black marketers were cursed. He also tried to ensure the continuity of supply the goods to Medina by prohibiting domestic customs taxes that were taken during shipment. November 2, 2013 15
  16. 16. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.9. Slavery system: Slavery was very common among the Arabs. And slavers were treated most inhumanity. The master possessed the authority of life & death over them. they did not have right to get married or lead their life on their own will. Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) was totally against this system, He established some rules against this slavery system. Islam is a collection of freedoms as stated in the holy Qur'an: “. . . He (Prophet Muhammad) relieves them of their heavy burdens and the shackles that were upon them . ..”43 Therefore anything, which is not prescribed by Islam as obligatory or illicit, one is free to engage in. No one may deny or suppress any of the freedoms since, as the Prophet (P) said: “People are masters of their own wealth and lives.”44 November 2, 2013 16
  17. 17. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 5.10. Established women’s right in society: Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was born in a society where women had been subjected to much violence, which often took the form of female infanticide. Daughters were considered a burden; and getting rid of them was sometimes considered a necessity, which they did in a most violent manner: by burying them alive! Prophet Muhammad was very kind and polite toward women. At a time when they were treated very badly, the Prophet gave women honor and dignity equal to men. “They (women) are a vestment for you, and you (men) are a vestment for them”(2:187) “O Prophet! say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers that they let down upon them their over-garments; this will be more proper, that they may be known, and thus they will not be given trouble; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful." November 2, 2013 17
  18. 18. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 6. Conclusion  Muslims accepted Prophet Muhammad’s guidance in both fields and were more interested in his guidance for individual and spiritual life than his activities as the founder of a new social order.  Islamic justice is reflected through the firmness shown by the Prophet Muhammad and his companions who obeyed every commandment from Allah throughout their lives. The Prophet Muhammad taught his companions to respect the rights of others even those of different religions and faiths. “Say: Obey Allah and obey the (Prophetic) Messenger. But if you turn away, he is only responsible for the duty placed on him and you for that place on you, and if you obey him, you will be rightly guided. And the responsibility of the (Prophetic) Messenger is only to convey (the message) clearly.”(24:54)  Prophet also demonstrated social excellence with his transformation of social life. His life represented balance and harmony everywhere. November 2, 2013 18
  19. 19. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) 7. References 1. Mohammad: The Final Messenger by Khan Dr. Majid Ali & Ashraf 2. The Life of The Prophet Muhammad ( Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon Him) by Leila Azzam & Aisha Gouverneur 3. MUHAMMAD (A Prophet for all humanity) by Maulana Wahiduddin Khan 4. www.wikipedia.com November 2, 2013 19
  20. 20. State Policy of Prophet Muhammad(Sm.) November 2, 2013 20

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