Introduction<br />The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies<br />Common uses of the Internet include sending emails, chatting on voice and video, conferencing, and transferring files and documents. It has become an essential communication tool in today's world.<br />
Birth of Internet<br />The Internet grew out of an experiment in the 1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense. The DoD wanted to create a computer network that would continue to function in the event of a disaster, such as a nuclear war. If part of the network was damaged or destroyed, the rest of the system still had to work. That network was ARPANET, (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) which linked U.S. scientific and academic researchers. It was the forerunner of today's Internet. <br />
Web Browser<br />A web browser is the software program we use to access the World Wide Web, the graphical portion of the Internet. The first browser, called NCSA Mosaic, was developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications in the early 1990s. The easy-to-use point-and-click interface helped popularize the Web. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator are the two most popular ones.<br />
Navigating the web<br />The Web is known as a client-server system. Your computer is the client; the remote computers that store electronic files are the servers. To visit the website, enter the address or URL of the website in your web browser. Browser requests the web page from the web server that hosts the requested site. The server sends the data over the Internet to your computer. Your web browser interprets the data, displaying it on your computer screen. <br />
W3C World wide web Consortium<br />The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. The original idea came from a young computer scientist, Tim Berners-Lee. It is now managed by The World Wide Web Consortium. The WWW Consortium is funded by a large number of corporate members, including AT&T, Adobe Systems, Inc., Microsoft Corporation and Sun Microsystems, Inc. Its purpose is to promote the growth of the Web by developing technical specifications and reference software that will be freely available to everyone. <br />
Connect to Internet<br />Using Modem: It is the most widely available method of connecting to the Internet. Although connecting to the Internet with a modem is a much cheaper solution, it will be a much slower connection.<br />Using Broadband : Broadband is a much faster solution for connecting to the Internet when compared to a modem and allows you to do more exciting things on the Internet, such as watching movies, listening to music, playing games, and have a much more enjoyable experience.<br />
Web Addresses<br />World Wide Web is a network of electronic files stored on millions of computers all around the world. Hypertext links these resources together. Uniform Resource Locators or URLs are the addresses used to locate the files. Every URL is unique and identifies one specific file.<br />Example: <br /> http://www.du.ac.in The home page of Delhi University.<br />
Domain Name<br />Every computer that hosts data on the Internet has a unique numerical address. For example, the numerical address for the White House is 126.96.36.199. But since few people want to remember long strings of numbers, the Domain Name System (DNS) was invented. DNS, a critical part of the Internet's technical infrastructure, correlates a numerical address to a word. To access the White House website, you could type its number into the address box of your web browser. But most people prefer to use "www.whitehouse.gov." In this case, the domain name is whitehouse.gov.<br />
Search Engines<br /><ul><li>To search the Internet we use that are called Internet search engines.
These are easily accessed via our Internet browser. i.e. Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox or Netscape Navigator.
Within the search engine we enter a word or phrase and it will retrieve documents from the Internet based on the information you typed in.</li></li></ul><li>Search Engines<br />
Internet Protocol Address <br />Every computer on the Internet has a unique numerical address, called an Internet Protocol (IP) address, used to route packets to it across the Internet.<br /><ul><li>IPv4
IPv6</li></li></ul><li>IP version 4<br />IPv4 is the most widely used version of the Internet Protocol. It defines IP addresses in a 32-bit format, which looks like 188.8.131.52. Each three-digit section can include a number from 0 to 255, which means the total number of IPv4 addresses available is 4,294,967,296 (256 x 256 x 256 x 256 or 2^32).<br />IPv4 addresses are predicted to run out soon. When we consider that there are over 6 billion people in the world and many people have more than one system connected to the Internet (for example, at home, school, work, etc.), it is not surprising that roughly 4.3 billion addresses is not enough.<br />
IP version 6<br />IPv6, also called IPng (or IP Next Generation), is the next planned version of the IP address system. (IPv5 was an experimental version used primarily for streaming data.). IPv6 uses 128-bit addresses, which increases the number of possible addresses by an exponential amount. IPv6 allows for over 340,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 IP addresses. That should be enough to last awhile.<br />It consists of a four-digit hexadecimal number, which means each digit can be from 0 to 9 and from A to F. An example IPv6 address may look like this:<br />F704:0000:0000:0000:3458:79A2:D08B:4320<br />