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Instruction codes and computer registers
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Instruction codes and computer registers

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Sanjeev Patel 4x

Sanjeev Patel 4x

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  • 1. INSTRUCTION CODES AND COMPUTER REGISTERS Nikhil Gaba 8125
  • 2. Instruction code
    • An instruction code is a group of bits that instruct the computer to perform a specific operation.
    • Two parts-
    • Operation code-specifies the operation
    • Address-specifies operands, registers or memory word
    Address Opcode 0 11 12 15
  • 3. Stored program organization Memory 4096 X 16 Address Opcode 0 11 12 15 Processor register 0 15 Binary operand Instructions (program) Operands (data)
  • 4. Direct and Indirect address
    • When the second part of an instruction code specifies the actual operand instruction is said to have an immediate operand.
    • When the second part specifies the address of operand it is called direct address.
    • When the second part specifies the address of the memory word in which address of the operand is found is called indirect address .
  • 5. Address Opcode 0 11 12 15 I Memory Memory 0 ADD ADD + + AC AC 22 457 operand operand 457 1 300 300 1350 1350 Direct address Indirect address 14
  • 6. Basic computer registers 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 11 15 15 15 0 15 7 7 Program counter Address register Instruction register Temporary register Data register Accumulator Input register Output r
  • 7. Functions
    • DR -Holds memory operand
    • AC -Processor register
    • IR -Holds instruction code
    • TR -Holds temporary data
    • AR -Holds address for memory
    • PC -Hold address of next instruction
    • INPR -Holds input character
    • OUTR -Holds output character
  • 8. Common bus sysytem

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