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# Computer architecture

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### Computer architecture

1. 1. COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE BY- NITU SRIVASATAVA
2. 2. BINARY ADDER The digital circuit that generates the arithmetic sum of two binary numbers of any length is called a BINARY ADDER.
3. 3. CONSTRUCTION <ul><li>The binary adder is constructed with full- adder circuits connected in cascade, with the output carry from one full-adder connected to the input carry of the next full-adder. </li></ul><ul><li>An n-bit binary adder requires ‘n’ full-adders. </li></ul><ul><li>The n data bits for the inputs A and B comes from registers (such as R1 and R2). </li></ul>
4. 4. 4-BIT BINARY ADDER
5. 5. BINARY ADDER-SUBTRACTOR <ul><li>The addition and subtraction operations can be combined into one common circuit called BINARY ADDER-SUBTRACTOR. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done by including an exclusive-OR gate with each full adder in binary adder. </li></ul>
6. 6. 4-BIT BINARY ADDER-SUBTRACTOR
7. 7. WORKING <ul><li>Each exclusive-OR gate receives input M and one of the inputs of B. </li></ul><ul><li>The mode input M controls the operation. </li></ul><ul><li>When M=0,we have B(+)0=B.The full- adders receives the value of b,the input carry is 0,the circuit performs A+B. </li></ul><ul><li>When M=1,we have B(+)1=B’ and Carry=1.The B inputs are complemented and a 1 is added through the input carry.The circuit performs the operation A plus the 2’s complement of B. </li></ul>
8. 8. 4-BIT BINARY INCREMENTER
9. 9. BINARY INCREMENTER <ul><li>The increment microoperation adds one to a number in a register. </li></ul><ul><li>This increment can be done independent of a register by the means of a combinational circuit called BINARY INCREMENTER. </li></ul>
10. 10. ARITHMETIC CIRCUIT <ul><li>All the arithmetic microoperations can be implemented in one composite arithmetic circuit </li></ul><ul><li>The basic component of an arithmetic circuit is the parallel adder. </li></ul><ul><li>By controlling the data inputs to the adder,it is possible to obtain different types of arithmetic operations. </li></ul>
11. 11. 4-BIT ARITHMETIC CIRCUIT <ul><li>It has 4 full adder circuits that constitute the 4-bit adder and four multiplexers for choosing different operations. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two 4-bit inputs A and B and a 4-bit outout D. </li></ul><ul><li>The 4 multiplexers are controlled by two selection inputs,So and S1. </li></ul>
12. 12. 4-BIT ARITHMETIC CIRCUIT