Network topologies


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Network topologies

  1. 1. Topologies Chapter 2 Chapter 2
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Explain the different topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the structure of various topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between logical and physical topology </li></ul>Chapter 2
  3. 3. Recall <ul><li>Different types of computer networks are LAN, CAN, MAN and WAN </li></ul><ul><li>OSI layers are Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation and Application layer </li></ul><ul><li>The factors of network selection criteria are Performance, Reliability and Security </li></ul><ul><li>Standards organization is unit which develops, maintains, improves, amends and revises standards </li></ul>Chapter 2
  4. 4. Introducing Topologies <ul><li>Topology refers to physical or logical arrangement of network </li></ul><ul><li>Physical topologies are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Node </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2
  5. 5. Single Node Topology - I <ul><li>Single device, at times device called dumb terminal is connected to the server </li></ul><ul><li>Devices operates on files from server and returns them back after completing task </li></ul>Chapter 2
  6. 6. Single Node Topology - II <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to install, configure and manage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single cable is required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network consists of single device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dumb terminal is dependent on server </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2
  7. 7. Bus topology - I <ul><li>All devices are connected to a common cable called backbone/trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Operates in daisy chain fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Medium is shared that’s why creates collision </li></ul>Chapter 2
  8. 8. Bus topology - II <ul><li>Server is at one end and devices are at different positions </li></ul><ul><li>50 ohm terminators are used </li></ul><ul><li>Devices are not responsible for data transmission </li></ul>Chapter 2
  9. 9. Bus topology - III <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation of devices is easy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works better for smaller network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If backbone breaks, entire network gets down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to isolate problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited number of devices can be attached </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2
  10. 10. Star Topology - I <ul><li>Each device is connected to a central device called hub through cable </li></ul><ul><li>Data passes through hub before reaching destination </li></ul>Chapter 2
  11. 11. Star Topology - II <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to install, configure, manage and expand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition or removal of device does not affect the whole network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires more cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of hub affects entire network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Expensive </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2
  12. 12. Ring Topology - I <ul><li>Devices are connected in a closed loop </li></ul><ul><li>All devices have equal access to media </li></ul><ul><li>Device waits for its turn to transmit </li></ul><ul><li>Most common type is Token Ring network </li></ul>Chapter 2
  13. 13. Ring Topology - II <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable and offers greater speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No collisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles large volume of traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More cabling is required compared to bus topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One faulty device affects the entire network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of devices affect network </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2
  14. 14. Dual Ring Topology <ul><li>Consists of two independent primary and secondary rings </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary ring is redundant, used only when primary stops functioning </li></ul>Chapter 2
  15. 15. <ul><li>Use CBT for quiz and for rest topologies </li></ul>Chapter 2
  16. 16. Mesh Topology - I <ul><li>Used in WANs to interconnect LANs </li></ul><ul><li>Every device is connected to every other device </li></ul><ul><li>Use routers to determine the best path of communication </li></ul>Chapter 2
  17. 17. Mesh Topology - II <ul><li>Full mesh topology – All devices are connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Partial mesh topology - Some devices are connected to only those with whom they exchange most of the data </li></ul>Chapter 2 Types Full mesh Partial mesh
  18. 18. Mesh Topology - III <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves fault tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of one link does not affect entire network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized management is not required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to install and manage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each link from one device to other requires individual NIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2
  19. 19. Tree Topology - I <ul><li>Combines the characteristic of linear bus and star topology </li></ul><ul><li>Devices are wired to root hub </li></ul><ul><li>Twisted pair cable is commonly used </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest level devices are smaller computers </li></ul>Chapter 2
  20. 20. Tree Topology - II <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to expand the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-to-point wiring for each device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault detection is easy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to configure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If backbone breaks, entire network goes down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2
  21. 21. Hybrid Topology - I <ul><li>Combines two or more different physical topologies </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Star-Bus or Star-Ring </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as special topology and useful for corporate offices </li></ul>Chapter 2
  22. 22. Hybrid Topology - II <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for creating larger networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles large volume of traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault detection is easy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation and configuration is difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive than other topologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More cabling is required </li></ul></ul>Chapter 2
  23. 23. Case Study 1 Chapter 2 MoneyMaker Bank at Mumbai has implemented a star topology in their IT department. All computers are connected to the central switch. In the Loan department, all computers are connected in closed loop format. Network administrator, John wants to connect these two networks so that data can be shared among different departments.
  24. 24. Problem Chapter 2 Connect two different departments
  25. 25. Suggested Solution Chapter 2 The administrator can join these two star and ring networks to form a hybrid network with the help of Multistation Access Unit (MAU). It is a centralized hub. Ensure that there is no break in the link between two computers in a ring network and switch in star network is working properly.
  26. 26. Logical Vs Physical Configuration <ul><li>Physical topology - Defines how the systems are physically connected </li></ul><ul><li>Logical topology - Defines how the systems communicate across the physical topologies </li></ul>Chapter 2
  27. 27. Summary - I <ul><li>Network is an interconnection of many communicating entities that are connected for the purpose of data communication </li></ul><ul><li>Topology describes the way in which networking devices are connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Physical topologies are how the wires are interconnected, while logical topology is how the network behaves and interoperates </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of topologies are Single Node, Star, Bus, Ring, Mesh, Tree and Hybrid </li></ul>Chapter 2
  28. 28. Summary - II <ul><li>In a single node topology, just a single device called dumb terminal is connected to the server </li></ul><ul><li>Bus topology connects each device to a single cable and at either end of the cable terminator is used to remove unsent data from the cable </li></ul><ul><li>In star topology, multiple devices are connected to a central connection point known as hub or switch </li></ul><ul><li>In a ring topology, data travels around the loop in one direction and passes through each device </li></ul>Chapter 2
  29. 29. Summary - III <ul><li>In a mesh topology, every device is connected to each and every node in the network with many redundant interconnections at least two paths to and from every node </li></ul><ul><li>Tree topology connects multiple star networks to other star networks using bus topology </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid topology is a combination of different topologies such as Star-Bus or Star-Ring </li></ul>Chapter 2