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Food preservation

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Food preservation - necessity & methods. Cold chain.

Food preservation - necessity & methods. Cold chain.

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  • 1. FOOD PRESERVATION Necessity Methods Cold Chain References: 1) R.S.Khurmi, J.K.Gupta 2) Arora & Domkundwar 3) IIT Khragpur Notes
  • 2. Applications of RefrigerationFour major areas: a) Food preservation b) Chemical and process industries c) Special Applications d) Comfort / industrial air-conditioning
  • 3. Food PreservationWhat is food preservation?Retaining food over a period of time without being contaminated by pathogenic organisms or chemicals and without losing its colour, texture, flavour and nutritious value.Why food preservation? Seasonal availability of food Different type of food at different locations
  • 4. Food Preservationa) Food processing: Slow freezing or sharp freezing Quick freezing Air blast freezersb) Food Preservation: Cold storagesc) Distribution: Refrigerated vehicles
  • 5. Food Preservation Advantages: Increases the shelf life of food Retain the quality of food – colour, texture, flavour & nutrition value Increases food supply Adds variety to the food decreases wastage of food
  • 6. Food PreservationFood Product Average Useful Storage life (days) 0oC 22oC 38oCMeat 6-10 1 <1Fish 2-7 1 <1Poultry 5-18 1 <1Dry meats and > 1000 > 350 & >100 &fish < 1000 < 350Fruits 2 - 180 1 – 20 1–7Dry fruits > 1000 > 350 & >100 & < 1000 < 350Leafy vegetables 3 - 20 1–7 1–3
  • 7. RECOMMENDED STORAGE TEMPPRODUCT STORAGE TEMPMILK 4 DEGCBUTTER 2 TO 8 DED CICE CREAM (-) 20 TO (-)22 DEG CVEGETABLES 2 TO 8 DED CFRUITS 0 TO 4 DEG CMEAT (-) 20 DEG CPHARMA PRODUCT 2 TO 8 DED CFROZEN FISH (-) 18 TO (-) 29 DEGCCHEESE (-) 18 DEG CSWEETS 2 TO 8 DED C
  • 8. F .R I D G E
  • 9. Food spoilage Food components: Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals Destruction of any of these component is food spoilage.
  • 10. Cause of food spoilage Spoilage due to physical change impact, bruising and squeezing desiccation or dehydration Spoilage due to chemical change internal spoiling agents : Enzymes external spoiling agents: bacteria, yeast, moulds (fungus)
  • 11. Methods of food preservation  Heat processing  Dehydration  Chemical preservation  Canning  Pasteurization  Freezing
  • 12. Freezing for food preservation Slow or sharp freezing Quick freezing smaller ice crystals no separation of minerals, salts Immersion freezing Indirect contact freezing Air blast freezers
  • 13. Cold stores To store food products after processing Prefabricated insulated panels Air tight door in sandwich construction Safety anti-locking arrangement Temperatures – positive or sub-zero Layout – air lock, sorting-cum-intermediate storage area, store compartments Important points – temperature, RH, air motion, product mix, duration
  • 14. Prefabricated Cold store
  • 15. Cold Storage: FCUs
  • 16. Cold Storage : Interior
  • 17. Cold Storage : MaterialArrangement & Air Movement
  • 18. Cold Chain Cold chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain. Pre-cooling chambers at farm Processing unit – freezing, packing Manufacturer’s cold storage Distributor’s cold storage Retailer’s cold storage Refrigerated display cabinets Residential refrigerator Refrigerated transport
  • 19. COLD CHAIN : TOTAL SOLUTIONS Distribution Center Retail Source Precooling Transport ` Processing Shipping
  • 20. CARRIER COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATIONCold chainFarms/food processors Multinational hypermarkets Distribution Regional supermarkets centers Cash and carry Convenience stores Carrier OMM II 2005 0
  • 21. Pre-Cooling ofFruits & Vegetables
  • 22. Methods of Pre-coolingDifferent methods of Pre-Cooling includes:1) Hydrocooling2) Vacuum Cooling3) Forced Air Cooling4) Contact Icing5) Evaporative CoolingCaution. No matter what cooling method is employed, the produceshould never be allowed to re-warm once it has been cooled.
  • 23. Blast Freezing Application• Seafood• Poultry, Meat• Fruit & Vegetable• Ready Meals
  • 24. Cold Storage Application• Distribution/Logistic Center• Frozen produce• Processing Room
  • 25. CA Storage ApplicationStorage comparisons for a typical Apple: