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Knowledge Management


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Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management

Published in: Business, Education

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  • Great work could you please send me a copy of it at
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  • great :)
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  • i understand that we can uncover tons of knowledge in the organization hidden under the 'tacit knowledge'. isn't it that classrooms share similar structure and organization with other learning organizations? now the question is how can we uncover that tacit knowledge in the classroom, say mathematics if the learner doesn't have any previous knowledge at all?

    btw, nice presentation. i've been using SECI in the classroom but i'm having problems regarding 'tacit knowledge'.
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  • 1. Knowledge Management A practitioner’s perspective
  • 2. Agenda
    • What is knowledge management (KM)
      • Definition(s)
      • History
      • Key concepts
  • 3. First, what is knowledge
    • In simplest terms, knowledge is the ability of an actor to respond to a body of facts and principles accumulated over a period of time
    • One way to look at knowledge is as the apogee of the following continuum – data  information  knowledge
      • Data=1 unit of fact; information=aggregation of data; knowledge=potential for action on information
      • Data and information have intrinsic properties, the quality of knowledge depends on the properties of the agent
  • 4. What is knowledge management
    • There is no universal definition for knowledge management
    • At its broadest, KM is the ‘process through which organizations generate value from intellectual and knowledge based assets’
  • 5. Knowledge assets
    • There are two types of knowledge assets –
      • Explicit or formal assets like copyrights, patents, templates, publications, reports, archives, etc.
      • Tacit or informal assets that are rooted in human experience and include personal belief, perspective, and values
  • 6. The value of knowledge assets
    • Knowledge assets are often described as the the intellectual capital of an organization
      • The value of intellectual capital is often intangible
      • A popular measure is the difference between the cost of capital assets and the cost of replacing them
  • 7. The value of KM
    • It is important to manage knowledge assets because –
      • Organizations compete increasingly on the base of knowledge (the only sustainable competitive advantage, according to some)
      • Most of our work is information based (and often immersed in a computing environment)
      • Our products, services, and environment are more complex than ever before
      • Workforces are increasingly unstable leading to escalating demands for knowledge replacement/acquisition
  • 8. The development of KM
    • Knowledge began to be viewed as a competitive asset in the 80s, around the same time that information explosion started becoming an issue
    • The trend was fueled by the development of IT systems which made it simple to store, display, and archive classified, indexed information
    • The process received a fillip after Drucker (and others) stressed the role of knowledge as an organization resource, and Senge popularized ‘learning organizations’
    • Seeds of KM may also be found in business practices like TQM and BPR to which KM is often compared
  • 9. The sources of KM
    • Today, KM draws from a wide range of disciplines/practices –
      • Cognitive science
      • Groupware, AI, KBMS
      • Library and information science
      • Document management
      • Decision support systems
      • Technical writing
      • Organizational science
      • Many more
  • 10. KM today (catch-all?)
    • There is a great risk today of KM over-reaching itself
      • Everything from organizational learning to business and competitive intelligence has become fair game for KM
      • There are KM components to each of these but these spaces are however best left to specialized practitioners
  • 11. The scope of KM
    • Today, most companies define the scope of KM as –
      • KM mechanics (tools for information management)
      • KM culture (knowledge as a social activity)
      • KM systems (knowledge sharing as part of an organization’s DNA)
  • 12. KM mechanics
    • Information management may well be considered the first wave of KM (and is still often considered synonymous with KM)
    • Information management tries to make the right information available to the right person at the right time though a variety of database driven information applications
    • Information management tools try to capture the human experience of knowledge through the collecting, classifying, disseminating, searching, indexing, and archival power of technology
  • 13. Limitations of mechanical KM
    • Reliance on technology produces consensual knowledge (over-reliance on best practices for instance) and may stifle innovation
    • The notion that ‘right information’ is predictable and flows from historical data may be flawed
    • Making information available in not enough; getting people to use it is more critical
  • 14. KM culture
    • All knowledge has a social and evolutionary facet
    • There is a crying need to continuously subject knowledge to re-examination and modification
    • It is important to keep the human and social elements of organization involved in all stored knowledge
  • 15. KM culture through CoP
    • Communities of practice (or thematic groups) are a popular way of injecting KM culture in an organization
    • CoPs are fora where members share information and experiences, develop new insights, assimilate and transform knowledge
    • CoPs emphasize shared interests and work across locations and time zones (often using technology developed during KM’s first wave)
  • 16. KM systems
    • KM succeeds fully when it is woven into the fabric of an organization and becomes intrinsic to an organization’s processes
    • Common practices include –
      • Formal KM leadership
      • Formal rewards and recognition for KM oriented work
      • Tools and mechanisms that encourage knowledge sharing
      • Development of knowledge bases
      • Intellectual asset management
      • Metrics to evaluate KM initiatives
  • 17. KM systems today
    • In many ways, the systemic approach is the logical culmination of KM mechanics and KM culture
    • Many KM systems are however not yet robust enough –
      • KM metrics (surveys, benchmarking, cost/benefit studies, service evaluation) are still an inexact science
      • Knowledge workers are often KM resistant (KM is frequently considered an oxymoron)
  • 18. KM – the report card
    • Clearly, the jury is still out on KM though there is increased acceptance that KM can be central to organizational success
    • The key achievements of KM have been in emphasizing that –
      • There is a tacit dimension of knowledge creation which must be recognized and valued
      • Knowledge is subjective and interpretative and distinct from raw data or information
      • Meaning is central to knowledge creation
      • Knowledge is social and interactive in nature
      • Technology is an inalienable aspect of KM
  • 19. KM readings/references
    • Good sources on the internet include
      • The KM forum ( )
      • The CIO magazine’s knowledge management research center ( )
      • The KMNetwork ( )
      • The KM resource center ( htm )
  • 20. KM readings/references – contd.
    • The KM literature is vast, but good starting points include –
      • Nonaka, Ikujiro, and Hirotaka Takeuchi. The Knowledge-Creating Company.
      • Senge, Peter M. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization
      • Wiig, Karl, M. Knowledge Management Foundations: Thinking About Thinking - How People and Organizations Represent, Create and Use Knowledge
      • Menou, Michel J. (Ed.). Measuring the Impact of Information on Development
      • Harris, Michael H. History of Libraries in the Western World
  • 21. Feedback/Questions