World of Hot Chilies & Non-conventional
uses of Capsicum spp.
21 June, 2013, @ VRC Bangalore
2. Highlights :
• Hot Pepper Classification
– focus on spicy heat based classification & grouping
• World Hottest Chilli Pepper's
• Uses of Chilli pepper :
- In Medical Science ( Indian Ayurveda & Modern Medical Science)
- In Cosmetics & other industry
- In Weapon ( for self defense & crowed management)
- Other uses
3. Chilli : Historical Facts
• Chili peppers have been a part of the human diet in the Americas since at
least 7500 BC.
• There is archaeological evidence at sites located in
southwestern Ecuador that chili peppers were domesticated more than
6000 years ago,
• Christopher Columbus was one of the first Europeans to encounter them
(in the Caribbean), and called them "peppers" because they, like black
and white pepper of the Piper genus known in Europe, have a spicy hot
• Chilies were cultivated around the globe after Columbus.
• Diego Álvarez Chanca, a physician, brought the first chili peppers to
Spain and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494.
• The spread of chili peppers to Asia & India was most likely a natural
consequence of its introduction to Portuguese traders.
• Chili peppers journeyed from India, through Central Asia and Turkey, to
Hungary, where it became the national spice in the form of paprika.
C. annum C. chinense C. Frutesens C. baccatum C. pubescens
C. annum Var annum
5. Capsicum cultivar
C. annuum var. annuum
Banana pepper, Bell pepper, Bird's eye, Cascabel Cayenne
Chilaca Chungyang Red Pepper Cubanelle De árbol
Dundicut Facing heaven Fresno GuajilloHungarian w ax
Italian sw eet Jalapeño Medusa Mulato New Mexico
(Anaheim) Pasilla Peperoncini Peter Pimento Poblano
Santa Fe Grande Serrano Shishito
C. annuum var. glabriusculum Piq-uín Wild Chil-te-pin
Adjuma Ají dulce Datil Fatalii HabaneroHainan Yellow Lantern
Chili Madame Jeanette Naga Jolokia Red Savina Habanero
Scotch bonnetTrinidad Moruga Scorpion Trinidad Scorpion
C. frutescens African bird's eye Siling labuyo Malagueta Tabasco
C. baccatum Ají Bishop's Crow n Lemon Drop Piquanté
6. Scoville scale
• The Scoville scale is the measurement of the pungency (spicy
heat) of chili peppers.
• The number of Scoville heat units (SHU) indicates the amount of
capsaicin present. Capsaicin is a chemical compound that
stimulates chemoreceptor nerve endings in the skin, especially
the mucous membranes.
• The scale is named after its creator, American pharmacist Wilbur
Scoville. His method, devised in 1912, is known as the Scoville
Organoleptic test. The modern commonplace method for
quantitative analysis uses
high-performance liquid chromatography, making it possible to
directly measure capsaicinoid content.
10. Scoville ratings of peppers
Scoville heat units Examples
1,500,000–2,000,000 Most law enforcement grade pepper spray, Trinidad Moruga Scorpion
Naga Viper pepper, Infinity Chilli, Bhut Jolokia chili pepper, Trinidad
Scorpion Butch T pepper,Bedfordshire Super Naga
350,000–580,000 Red Savina habanero
Habanero chili, Scotch bonnet pepper,Datil pepper, Rocoto, Piri Piri
Ndungu, Madame Jeanette, Peruvian White Habanero, Jamaican
hot pepper,Guyana Wiri Wiri, Fatalii
Byadgi chilli, Bird's eye chili (aka. Thai Chili Pepper),Malagueta
pepper, Chiltepin pepper, Piri piri (African bird's eye), Pequin
Guntur chilli, Cayenne pepper, Ají pepper,Tabasco pepper, Cumari
pepper (Capsicum Chinese), Katara (spicy)
10,000–23,000 Serrano pepper, Peter pepper, Aleppo pepper
Espelette pepper, Jalapeño pepper, Chipotle, Guajillo pepper, New
Mexican varieties of Anaheim pepper, Hungarian wax
pepper, Tabasco sauce
1,000–2,500 Anaheim pepper, Poblano pepper, Rocotillo pepper, Peppadew
100–900 Pimento, Peperoncini, Banana pepper
No significant heat Bell pepper, Cubanelle, Aji dulce
11. Bell Pepper (0-100 SHU)
• Bell pepper, also known as sweet pepper or
a pepper (in the United Kingdom and Ireland)
and capsicum (in India, Australia and New Zealand).
• This is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum
annuum. Cultivars of the plant produce fruits in
different colors, including red, yellow, orange, green,
chocolate/brown, vanilla/white, and purple.
• Bell Peppers are native to Mexico, Central America
and northern South America.
• Pepper seeds were later carried to Spain in 1493 and
from there spread to other European, African and
• Today, China is the world's largest pepper producer,
followed by Mexico and Indonesia.
12. Banana Pepper (100-900SHU)
• The banana pepper (also known as the
yellow wax pepper or banana chili) is a
medium-sized member of the
chili pepper family that has a mild,
tangy taste. While typically bright
yellow, it is possible for them to change
to red or orange as they ripen. It is
often pickled, stuffed or used as a raw
ingredient in foods. It is a cultivar of the
species Capsicum annuum .
• A mature fruit will be about 2-3 inches
(5–8 cm) in length and have a curved
shape and yellow color similar to a
banana, giving rise to the fruit's
• Banana peppers are an optimum food
for inclusion in weight loss diets,
containing low amounts of calories, fat,
and sodium. They are also a good
source of dietary fiber, vitamin A,
potassium and a very good source of
13. Anaheim Pepper ( 1000-2000SHU)
• An Anaheim pepper is a mild variety of chili pepper.
• The chile "heat" of Anaheims typically ranges from 500 to 2,500
on the Scoville scale.
• This chile is used in many Mexican and New Mexican dishes.
14. Hungarian wax pepper ( 3500-8000 SHU)
• The Hungarian wax pepper is a medium
variety of Capsicum annuum with a wide
Scoville Scale range of 1,000 to 15,000
• This pepper is usually harvested before
maturity when still yellow. It measures
between 4"-6" inches in length (10cm-
15cm) which tapers to a rounded point.
Upon maturity, the pepper becomes
orange then red in color .
• This is similar in appearance to banana
peppers when immature, it is a
15. Serrano pepper (10000-23000 SHU)
• The serrano pepper (Capsicum annuum) is
a type of chili pepper that originated in the
mountainous regions of the Mexican states
of Puebla and Hidalgo. The name of the
pepper is a reference to the mountains
(sierras) of these regions.
• Unripe serrano peppers are green, but the
color at maturity varies. Common colors are
green, red, brown, orange, or yellow.
• It is one of the most used chili peppers in
Mexican cuisine. Mexico produce about
180,000 tons of Serranos each year.
16. Guntur Chillies (30,000-50,000 SHU)
• Guntur chilies is a group of cultivars originating in
Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. They are
exported to Asia, Canada, and Europe. The Guntur
district is the main producer and exporter of most
varieties of Chilies and chili powder in India to
countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Middle East,
South Korea, U.K. and USA & Latin America. Chilies
have various colors and flavors because of the level of
Capsaicin in them. Guntur chilies form an important
part of curries and various popular dishes of the state of
Andhra Pradesh in India.
• S4 Type is the most famous type among the chilis and
has a huge demand throughout the world. It widely
grows in Guntur, Warangal, and Khammam districts of
Andhra Pradesh. The skin of crushed chili is thick, red
and hot. It has its peak harvesting season from
December to May. It has an ASTA (American Spice
Trade Association) Color value of 32.11 and Capsaicin
Value of 0.226%.
17. Byadgi Chilli (50000-100000 SHU)
• The business involving Byadagi chillis has the second largest turnover among all
chilli varieties of India .
• An oil, oleoresin extracted from these chillies is used in the preparation of nail polish
• Byadagi chilli is also known for its deep red colour and is less spicy and is used in
many food preparations of South India.
• Byadagi chilli has been accorded Geographical Indication * (GI) in February 2011.Its
GI tag is 144.
• *A geographical indication (GI) is a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds
to a specific geographical location or origin (e.g. a town, region, or country). India, as a member
of the World Trade Organization (WTO), enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods
(Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 has come into force with effect from 15 September 2003.
The GI tag ensures that none other than those registered as authorised users (or at least those
residing inside the geographic territory) are allowed to use the popular product name. Darjeeling
tea became the first GI tagged product in India, in 2004-05.
18. Habanero Chilli (100,000-350,000 SHU)
• Unripe habaneros are green, and they color as they
mature. Common colors are orange and red, but
white, brown, and pink are also seen.
• Typically a ripe habanero chili is 2–6 centimetres
(0.8–2.4 in) long. Habanero chilis are intensely hot,
rated 100,000–350,000 on the Scoville scale.
• The habanero is a perennial flowering plant,
meaning that with proper care and growing
conditions, it can produce flowers (and thus fruit) for
• In 2000, the habanero was listed in the Guinness
Book of World Records as the world's hottest chili,
but it has since been displaced by a number of other
peppers, the record tending to change hands every
19. Red Savina pepper (350000-580000 SHU)
• The Red Savina pepper is a cultivar of the habanero chili (Capsicum
chinense Jacquin), which has been selectively bred to produce hotter,
heavier, and larger fruit.
• In February 2007, the Red Savina chili was displaced in Guinness World
Records as the hottest chili in the world by the Naga Jolokia pepper. The
Red Savina held the record from 1994 until 2006.
• The Red Savina is protected by the U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act
20. Bhut Jolokia (855,000-1,463,700 SHU)
21. Bhut Jolokia (855,000-1463700 SHU)
• Also known as Bhut Jolokia, ghost pepper, ghost chili pepper, red naga chilli, and
• The Bhut Jolokia is an interspecific hybrid cultivated in the Indian states of
Nagaland and Assam. It grows in the Indian states of Assam, Nagaland and
• There was initially some confusion and disagreement about whether the Bhut was
a Capsicum frutescens or a Capsicum chinense pepper, but DNA tests showed it
to be an interspecies hybrid, mostly C. chinense with some C. frutescens genes.
• In 2007, Guinness World Records certified that the Ghost Pepper (Bhut Jolokia)
was the world's hottest chili pepper ; however, in 2011 it was superseded by
the Trinidad Moruga Scorpion ‘Butch T’.
• The pepper is called by different names in different regions. North of the
Brahmaputra, it is widely called Bhut Jolokia or Bhoot Jolokia, literally translating to
'Ghost Chilli in Assamese and Bengali ("Bhoot" means ghost in most other
Indo-Aryan languages as well).
• In 2000, India's Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) reported a rating of 855,000
heat units (SHU) on the Scoville scale, and in 2004 a rating of 1,041,427 units was
made using HPLC analysis.
22. Bhut Jolokia continue…
• In 2005, at New Mexico State University Chile Pepper Institute near
Las Cruces, New Mexico, regents Professor Paul Bosland found Bhut Jolokia
grown from seed in southern New Mexico to have a Scoville rating of 1,001,304
SHU by HPLC .
• The effect of climate on the Scoville rating of Bhut Jolokia peppers is dramatic. A
2005 study comparing percentage availability of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in
Bhut Jolokia peppers grown in Tezpur (Assam) and Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh),
India showed that the heat of the pepper is decreased by over 50% in Gwalior's
more arid climate .
• Ripe peppers measure 60 to 85 mm (2.4 to 3.3 in) long and 25 to 30 mm (1.0 to
1.2 in) wide with a red, yellow, orange or chocolate color.
• The unselected strain of Bhut Jolokia from India is an extremely variable plant, with
a wide range in fruit sizes and amount of fruit production per plant, and offers a
huge potential for developing much better strains through selection in the future.
Bhut Jolokia pods are unique among peppers, with their characteristic shape, and
very thin skin.
• However, for the red fruit variety, there are two different fruit types, the rough,
dented fruit and the smooth fruit.
23. Characteristics of Bhut Jolokia
Plant height 45–120 cm Fruit shape Sub-conical to conical
Stem color Green Fruit length 5.95–8.54 cm
Leaf color Green Fruit width at shoulder 2.5–2.95 cm
Leaf length 10.65–14.25 cm Fruit weight 6.95–8.97 g
Leaf width 5.4–7.5 cm Fruit surface Rough, uneven or smooth
Pedicels per axil 2 Seed color Light tan
Corolla color Yellow green 1000 seed weight 4.1–5.2 g
Anther color Pale blue Seeds per fruit 19–35
Annular constriction Present below calyx Hypocotyl color Green
Fruit color at maturity
Red is the most common,
with orange, yellow
and chocolate as
Cotyledonous leaf shape Deltoid
24. Trinidad moruga Scorpion Pepper
25. Trinidad Scorpion ‘Butch T’
• Butch T Scorpion pepper is a chili pepper that was formerly the
most pungent pepper. It has been since replaced by the Trinidad Moruga Scorpion
as the world's hottest pepper, from Trinidad and Tobago.
• The pepper is a Capsicum chinense cultivar, derived from theTrinidad Scorpion,
which is indigenous to Trinidad and Tobago.
• It is named after Butch Taylor, the owner of Zydeco farms who is responsible for
propagating the pepper's seeds. The "scorpion" peppers are referred to as such
because the pointed end of the pepper is said to resemble a scorpion's stinger.
26. Trinidad moruga Scorpion Pepper (1,500,000-2,000,000 SHU)
• The Trinidad Scorpion Moruga Blend (Capsicum
chinense), endemic to the district of Moruga in
Trinidad and Tobago, is currently the world's hottest
Chili pepper cultivated.
• The New Mexico State University's Chilli Pepper
Institute has identified the Trinidad Scorpion Moruga
Blend as the newest hottest chili pepper as of
• According to the Institute, the Trinidad Scorpion
Moruga Blend ranks as high as 2,009,231 SHU on
the Scoville scale, making it the hottest chili pepper
in the world to date.
• Paul Bosland, a chili pepper expert and director of
the Institute, said that, "You take a bite. It doesn't
seem so bad, and then it builds and it builds and it
builds. So it is quite nasty.
• The pepper can be grown from seeds in most parts
of the world; in North America, the growing season is
January–July. In India, there is no official record
27. Protocol for testing
• According to Dr. Paul Bosland, director of the Chile Pepper Institute
at New Mexico State University,:
“The heat levels of a single plant can be up to 78 percent higher than
the average for the field in which it was grown. Thus, one single plant
may be a record setter for that year and location, but it does not prove
the variety as a whole is record setting.
While a single pumpkin can be crowned "the biggest" in pumpkin
size contests, should a single fruit of a very hot Capsicum variety
deserve to be listed as a record breaker?
In order to conduct a scientifically valid test to determine the hottest
chile pepper variety, an ample seed sample must be planted in
replicated trials that include the current hottest variety and
appropriate controls. A random sample of fruit from the replicated
varieties should then be tested at an independent legitimate testing
The variety with the statistically higher heat level could then be
considered as the reigning hottest variety. Single fruits would not
qualify, nor would samples without appropriate comparisons. If the
'Bhut Jolokia' had also been growing in the Butch T field, might it have
been hotter than 1,463,700 SHU? Only a controlled scientific test
would give us the "true" answer.”
28. Uses of Capsicum
• Use as Food & Spice
• Medicinal uses
• Industrial uses
• Use as weapons
• Other uses
29. Medicinal uses
a. Blood Circulation:
• Capsicum has been used for decades as a catalyst for
other herbs. Because Capsicum stimulants circulation
and enhances blood flow.
• it is considered food for the circulatory system, a
common condiment to the diet. It is the most useful of
the systemic stimulants. It stimulates blood flow,
strengthens and feeds the cell structure of the heart,
capillaries and nerves so they will regain elasticity.
• A general tonic, it is also specific for both circulatory
and digestive systems
30. b. Blood pressure
• Capsicum reduces Blood Pressure. Capsicum is said
to be helpful in lowering blood pressure.
• A combination of capsicum with the herbs hawthorn
berries (which strengthens the heart), and garlic
(which is known to lower blood pressure) is a good
preventive of blood pressure problems.
• Its purifies the blood; promotes normal blood pressure
and pulse rate.
31. c. Blood Cholesterol
• Capsicum Lowers Cholesterol - By binding cholesterol
and bile acids in the intestinal tract, the body is able to
excrete more cholesterol.
• Capsicum reportedly significantly lowers serum
cholesterol and triglycerides.
32. d. Heart attack :
• It is helpful for preventing strokes and heart attacks. Cayenne pepper is a
very effective heart tonic especially for older folks.
• In the case of heart attack, a teaspoon of Capsicum to a cup of boiling
water taken internally will bring the patient back to consciousness.
• According to Dr. Christopher, a heaping teaspoon of Cayenne Pepper in
a cup of hot water will stop a heart attack in progress.
• Capsicum Reduces Risk of Blood Clot - Thins the blood by decreasing
blood levels of fibrin, reducing the risk of a heart attack or stroke.
33. e. Digestion :
• It rebuilds the tissue in the stomach and heals the
stomach and intestinal ulcers; in equalizing the blood
• Cayenne produces natural warmth; and in stimulating the
peristaltic motion of the intestines, it aids in assimilation
• Capsicum is an overall digestive aid that stimulates the
production of gastric juices, clears excess mucus from
the stomach, helps to alleviate stomach ulcers from
within, improves the appetite and relieves nausea from
• It is also a carminative that helps to relieve gas. It may be
used in flatulent dyspepsia and colic. Promotes the
cleansing of the entire digestive system.
34. f. Asthama & Cold:
• Capsicum has a powerful action on the mucous
membrane, and in hoarseness and sore throat, and in
putrid throat a gargle made of Capsicum is particularly
• Capsicum has been used internally as a gargle for
throat irritation or infection. It is excellent in
"prevention and cure of the common cold and flu"
yellow fever, black vomit, decay and putrefaction
"gangrene, and cancers like aids etc.".
• Taken internally as a tea, Cayenne is used for coughs,
colds, and breaking up mucus congestion.A little
Capsicum sprinkled in water and gargled will eliminate
a sore throat. Capsicum is an overall tonic that is said
to build up resistance to illness, sore throats, sinus
infections and colds.
• reduce the symptoms of respiratory illnesses such as
asthma, bronchitis, the common cold and sinusitis.
35. g. Cancers & Ulcers :
• Researchers at the University of Texas have revealed that
specific compounds found in chilli pepper can make cancer cells
• In the current research, skin cancer cells were exposed to two
major components of chilli peppers known as capsaicin and
• The exposure caused them to self-destroy themselves because of
oxygen de-privation . Capsicum Kills Cancer Cells. It was also
found that this ingredient also "killed" prostate cancer cells.
Capsicum also heals ulcers.
36. h. Metabolisim & weight reduction :
• Capsicum speeds up the metabolism of fat and may reduce
weight gain due to a high fat diet by increasing the liver
enzymes accountable for fat metabolism and decreases fat
deposits in the liver caused by high fat diet.
• As an astringent, Capsicum is useful in the treatment of
diarrhea and may arrest bleeding from ulcers.
• An increased resting metabolic rate is good for those
wishing to lose weight as a person with a high metabolic
rate will burn more fat than a person with a low metabolic
rate during any identical physical activity or exercise.
• Capsaicin-stimulated increases in resting metabolic rate
peak at 75 to 90 minutes after the consumption of capsaicin
and persist for up to three hours after consuming capsaicin-
containing hot chillis.
37. i. Vitamins & Minerals :
• Chiles are rich in vitamin C and are believed to have many
beneficial effects on health. The pain caused by
capsaicin stimulates the production of endorphins,
which act as analgesics and produce a sense of well-
It is a rich source of antioxidants containing vitamins A,
C & E. It reduces blood cholesterol especially the
harmful LDL and triglycerides.
Capsicum or Cayenne, derived from chili peppers, is
highly nutritious, containing Vitamin C and B-complex
vitamins as well as iron, calcium, and phosphorous.
The red color of many chili peppers is due to their high
Vitamin A content.
• Make sure that at least one of the World's Healthiest
Foods that are rich in vitamin A, such as bell peppers,
is a daily part of your healthy way of eating.
• Subjects who consumed the lowest amounts of vitamin
C-rich foods were more than three times more likely to
develop arthritis than those who consumed the highest
38. Modern Medical Science view on
• This remedy has been used to treat several conditions. Studies in
humans or animals have not proved that this remedy is safe or
effective for all uses.
• Before using this remedy for a serious condition, you should talk
with your healthcare provider.
• Capsaicin is used in skin creams, lotions, or patches. Some
products have been approved by the
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat:
• Pain from shingles, arthritis etc
• Nerve pain in people with diabetes or AIDS
• Minor aches and pains from muscles or joints
39. Modern Medical Science view on
• However, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not
approve uses for natural remedies. The FDA does not inspect or
regulate natural remedies the way they do prescription medicines.
The following are uses for capsaicin as a natural remedy:
• Capsaicin, as a natural remedy, is taken by mouth to treat:
• Blood clots
40. Modern Medical Science view on Capsicum uses:
• High cholesterol
• Heart disease
• It is also taken by mouth to improve digestion.
Capsaicin is used as a nasal spray to treat:
• Hay fever
• Cluster headaches
• Migraine headaches.
41. Safety Information / Disclaimer
Safety Information / Disclaimer
• Natural remedies are not always safe.
• This is not advice to pregnant or breast-feeding without
healthcare provider's approval. They should not be taken by
infants, children, or older adults without healthcare provider's
• They affect your body and may interact with prescription
medicines that you take.
• Natural remedies are not standardized and may be contaminated.
They may have different strengths and effects.
42. B ) Industrial uses :
Cosmetics industries :
• The following functions have been reported for the Capsicum-
• Antidandruff agent - Capsicum annuum Fruit Extract
• Cosmetic astringent - Capsicum annuum Fruit Extract
• Hair conditioning agent - Capsicum annuum Fruit Extract
• Skin conditioning agent - miscellaneous - Capsicum annuum
• Skin protectant - Capsicum annuum Fruit Extract
• In cosmetics and personal care products, Capsicum-derived
ingredients are used in the formulation of shampoos and hair
products, as well as skin care, cleansing, and bath products.
43. Cosmetics industries :
44. Cosmetics industries cont…
• Oleoresins or oil in the Chilli contain coloring principles or pigments that
are used as natural colors in many applications including cosmetics
industry in lipsticks , nail polish etc.
• The extractable color content is measured through a Spectrophotometer,
and is expressed on an ASTA color value scale.
• Indian Byadgi chilli known for its brilliant red color and have used in
cosmetics, are known to have ASTA value range b/w 150-200.
45. Liquor Industry :
Pic. Chilli vodka splash
46. Capsicum : Use as weapons
Chilli Bombs :
• Chilli bombs are being used in Africa and part of India toward off elephants
from straying into human habitation.
• The elephant first repelled by a ‘chilli cord’ covered with a combination of chilli
and engine oil that is strung around the periphery of the fields.
• Chilli bomb ‘a combination of chillies, water and dung called chilli bombs hit
the ground and explode in a cloud of very spicy dust, which act as an irritant
that forces them to flee.
• The Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) laboratories
in India are working on a project to develop hand grenades and other
repellants to deal with terrorists and rioters by using the Bhut jolokia.
• They have already carried out trials for hand grenades mixed with the Naga
chilli and are getting ready to introduce in Indian army’s arsenal.
47. • Pepper spray, also known as OC spray (from "Oleoresin
Capsicum"), OC gas, and capsicum spray - a chemical compound
that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and temporary
blindness, used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and
personal self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears.
• Sprays must contain at least 1.0% Capsaicin and Related
• A synthetic analogue of capsaicin, des-methyl-di-hydro-capsaicin,
is used in another version of pepper spray known as PAVA spray
that is used in the United Kingdom.
• Another synthetic counterpart of pepper spray, pelar-gonic acid
morpho-lide, was developed and is widely used inRussia.
48. • Effect: Pepper spray is an inflammatory agent. It causes
immediate closing of the eyes, difficulty breathing, runny nose,
and coughing. The duration of its effects depends on the strength
of the spray but the average full effect lasts around thirty to forty-
• The European Parliament Scientific and Technological Options
Assessment (STOA) published in 1998 "
An Appraisal of Technologies of Political Control" with extensive
information on pepper spray and tear gas. They write:
“The effects of pepper spray are far more severe, including
temporary blindness which lasts from 15–30 minutes, a burning
sensation of the skin which lasts from 45 to 60 minutes, upper
body spasms which force a person to bend forward and
uncontrollable coughing making it difficult to breathe or speak for
between 3 to 15 minutes.”
49. • Self-defense :
It has been
used on the
sucking or nail
used in pepper
spray for self-
50. • In Bangladesh, police started using pepper spray to control opposition movement
but doing this is blamed by many people.
• In Hong Kong, pepper spray is classified as "arms" under the "Laws of Hong
Kong". Chap 238 Firearms and Ammunition Ordinance. Without a valid license
from the Hong Kong Police Force, it is a crime to possess and can result in a fine
of $100,000 and to imprisonment for 14 years.
• In India, pepper spray is legal and does not require any license; however, they are
sold via government-approved companies after performing a background
• In the Philippines, the use of pepper spray for self-defense is legal, and it is freely
available in stores.
• In South Korea, pepper spray containing OC is legal; however, gas-gun types need
a license to own.
• In Japan, there are no laws against possession or use, but using it could result in
imprisonment depending on the damage caused to the target.For info
51. Chilli in Film Industry
In Bollywood :
Mirch Masala was a popular &
bollywood, Hindi movie made
in the 1980s and was based
on a story of ladies working in
a chilli warehouse in Gujarat.
In Hollywood :
A movie name ‘ ‘Woman on
Top’ (2000) directed by
Penelope Cruz story roaming
52. Branding with Chillies :
53. Hot Chilli taste for Challenge :
Want to taste Bhut Jolokia / Trinidad moruga Scorpion ?
*** Thanking you ***
This is Question / Comment hours with taste of World Hottest Chilli (in Video)