Green building - Introduction & general ideas


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This presentation gives you a brief introduction & general idea about green buildings. Though lot more issues could've been put in the show, I just didn't want to overload with contents... I'll refine this presentation in a few days time & a newer version of this presentation will be ready...

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Green building - Introduction & general ideas

  1. 1. <ul><li>What is a Green Building? </li></ul><ul><li>A Green Building, also known as a sustainable building, is a structure that is designed, built, renovated, operated, or re-used in an ecological and resource efficient manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development is maintaining a delicate balance between the human need to improve lifestyles and feeling of well-being on one hand, and preserving natural resources and ecosystems, on which we & future generations depend </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of a green building: </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting occupant health </li></ul><ul><li>Improving employee productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Using energy, water and other resources more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing overall impact to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal environmental and economic performance </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfying and quality indoor spaces </li></ul>
  2. 2. Benefits of Green Buildings <ul><li>Environmental Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the impacts of natural resource consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced operating costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased building valuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimizes life-cycle performance cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health and Safety Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance occupant comfort and health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize strain on local infrastructure and improve quality of life </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Considerations of a green building: <ul><li>Control erosion to reduce negative impacts on water and air quality </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use </li></ul><ul><li>Limit disruption of natural water hydrology by reducing impervious cover, increasing on-site infiltration and managing storm water run-off </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage and recognize increasing levels of self supply through renewable technologies to reduce environmental impacts associated with fossil fuel energy use </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a high level of individual occupant control of ventilation and lighting systems to support good health, better productivity and a comfortable atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a connection between indoor spaces and outdoor environment through the introduction of sunlight and views into the occupied areas of the building </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Sustainable site planning with bioclimatic architectural planning </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate solar passive techniques in a building design to minimize load on conventional systems </li></ul><ul><li>Design energy efficient lighting and HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system </li></ul><ul><li>Use low energy and renewable materials </li></ul><ul><li>Choose construction materials and interior finishes products with zero or low emissions to improve indoor air quality </li></ul><ul><li>Use dimensional planning and other material efficiency strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Design for a gray water system that recovers rain water for site irrigation and a dual plumbing system for use of recycled water for toilet flushing </li></ul><ul><li>Use re-circulating systems for centralized hot water distribution </li></ul>How to make a building green:
  5. 5. <ul><li>Building design </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Building insulation (walls of AEC block and roof with over deck insulation and roof lawn)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Window sizing </li></ul><ul><li>Window shading (fixed overhangs)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Glass selection (with low thermal conductivity, low shading co-efficient and high light transmission)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Envelope efficiency measures contributed to 12% savings over base case </li></ul><ul><li>System design </li></ul><ul><li>Energy efficient lighting (CFLs , efficient tubelights and electronic ballasts)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Daylight sensing (90% lighting energy savings)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient chillers, Variable air volume systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind towers for pre cooling of fresh air. </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting efficiency measures contributed to 15% savings over base case and HVAC efficiency measures contributed 20% savings over base case </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Use efficient systems and controls </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting systems (CFLs, T-5 fluorescent lamps, LEDs, efficient ballasts, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>HVAC systems (Properly sized plants, efficient chillers, VAV based air handling systems, economizers, variable speed drives for pumps, chillers and fans etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Water heating systems (solar assisted water heating systems, efficient boilers etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy management and control system </li></ul>
  7. 7. High Efficiency Pumps High Efficiency AHUs, FCUs High Efficiency Cooling Towers High Efficiency Chillers Reduced HVAC requirements Reduced Energy requirements High Efficiency Water Heating Reduced Lighting requirements Building Envelope design Sensors, Controls Daylighting High Performance Glazing Insulation Passive Systems High Efficiency Lamps, Ballasts, Luminaires Controls: Enthalpy control, Economizer, Reheat by Steam Occupancy Load , Equipment Schedule Whole building energy optimization
  8. 8. High Efficiency Pumps High Efficiency AHUs, FCUs High Efficiency Cooling Towers High Efficiency Chillers HVAC requirements HAP 4.05 Energy requirements VisDOE 3.1 High Efficiency Water Heating Lighting requirements Lumen Designer Building Envelope design Sensors, Controls Daylighting ( Adeline)‏ High Performance Glazing (Window 5.0 )‏ Insulation Passive Systems (CFD,Suntect etc )‏ High Efficiency Lamps, Ballasts, Luminaires Controls: Enthalpy control, Economizer, Reheat by Steam Occupancy Load , Equipment Schedule Whole building energy optimization
  9. 9. Whole design HVAC design Lighting design Water system design Architectural design/Site planning Energy management and control design
  10. 10. Architectural design & Site planning
  11. 11. Bioclimatic architectural principles <ul><li>Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal mass </li></ul><ul><li>Surface to volume ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning of windows , shading </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of materials for wall , roof, windows, including insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Landscaping </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings in hot climate… </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation to cut off sun protected insulated windows external wall insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Lower surface to volume, Lighter finishes, Water as landscape element </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings in cold climate… </li></ul><ul><li>Large windows to capture sun </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal mass to store heat </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum Shading </li></ul><ul><li>Insulated walls and windows </li></ul><ul><li>Darker finishes </li></ul><ul><li>Well protected north </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Effect of orientation on cooling load </li></ul><ul><li>North – south orientation would reduce cooling loads by 1.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of efficient materials </li></ul><ul><li>Roof and wall insulation reduced cooling load by 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Insulated windows reduced cooling load by 9% (window to wall ratio 7%)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Use onsite sources and sinks </li></ul><ul><li>Day lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Earth cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Ventilation (night cooling) </li></ul><ul><li>Earth cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Earth cooling has helped do away with conventional space cooling and heating techniques for about 8 months a year </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lighting Design
  14. 14. <ul><li>The passive solar practice of placing windows, or other transparent </li></ul><ul><li>media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural </li></ul><ul><li>sunlight provides effective internal illumination. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of effective solar control strategies (overhangs) and high performance glazings limit associated solar gains. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving this daylight credit will likely increase energy savings in the Energy and Atmosphere credits. This is largely due to savings in the electric lighting that results from well daylit spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Daylighting strategies can have synergies with other energy efficiency strategies such as displacement ventilation. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize site lighting where possible </li></ul><ul><li>Full cutoff-luminaries </li></ul><ul><li>Low-reflectance surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Low-angle spotlights </li></ul>
  15. 15. Water System design
  16. 16. <ul><li>Reduce potable water consumption for landscape by 50% over </li></ul><ul><li>a theoretical baseline design for the specific region. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Drought tolerant plants </li></ul><ul><li>Drip irrigation, moisture-sensing irrigation technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Recycled rainwater system </li></ul><ul><li>Municipally-provided non-potable water source use </li></ul><ul><li>Water Use Reduction, 20% and 30% Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Dual flush water closets </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra low-flow water closets and urinals </li></ul><ul><li>Waterless Urinals </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor-operated, Low-flow lavatories </li></ul><ul><li>Rainwater collection reuse systems </li></ul><ul><li>Graywater reuse systems </li></ul>Landscaping & Water use reduction
  17. 17. Energy management system
  18. 18. <ul><li>Photovoltaic (Solar electric) is a device which produce free electrons </li></ul><ul><li>when exposed to light resulting in power generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Photovoltaic does not release any of the green house gases when in use. </li></ul><ul><li>Photovoltaic uses a non-conventional, renewable source of energy which has no adverse effects on the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>23 kW solar photovoltaic system </li></ul><ul><li>55% energy savings over base building </li></ul>Photovoltaic
  19. 19. Photovoltaic Applications Flat Roofs Facades Roof Top Atria & Skylight Shading Elements
  20. 20. <ul><li>Replace asphalt with concrete where possible </li></ul><ul><li>Plant trees in vegetation strips around parking lots or sidewalks. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate parking into a parking garage </li></ul><ul><li>Bioswales </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration basins (filters) </li></ul><ul><li>Detention Ponds / Retention Ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetated filter strips </li></ul><ul><li>Pervious paving </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetated/Garden Roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Star rated roofing systems </li></ul><ul><li>High reflectivity coatings </li></ul>Sustainability at Site
  21. 21. Heat, Ventilation & Air conditioning
  22. 22. <ul><li>The main purpose of commercial HVAC (Heat, Ventilation & </li></ul><ul><li>Air conditioning) systems is to provide the people working </li></ul><ul><li>inside the building with “conditioned “ air . </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Conditioned&quot; air means that air is clean and odor-free, and </li></ul><ul><li>the temperature, humidity, and movement of the air are </li></ul><ul><li>within certain comfort ranges </li></ul><ul><li>Systems may be clustered at a central location and serve an entire campus of buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Locate system away from acoustically sensitive areas of the building </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting efficient air conditioning based on your climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting the proper type of and efficient heating system for your climate </li></ul><ul><li>Designing and sealing air distribution systems properly. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Replace CFC-based refrigerant. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider non-refrigerant based cooling such as evaporative cooling in dryer climates. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider photovoltaic, solar thermal, geothermal, wind, biomass, and bio-gas energy technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated Electrical Management Systems, Building Automation Systems or Direct Digital Control systems inherently include most of the required monitoring points. </li></ul><ul><li>Combine carbon dioxide monitors with demand based ventilation. </li></ul><ul><li>Include carbon dioxide sensor points in BAS/DDC for system design automation. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider adjustable underfloor air diffusers, or thermostat controlled VAV boxes. </li></ul><ul><li>Operable windows can be used in lieu of comfort controls for occupants of areas that are 20 feet inside of and 10 feet to either side of the operable part of the window </li></ul>
  24. 24. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has established standards which outline air quality for indoor comfort conditions that are acceptable to 80% or more of a commercial building's occupants. Generally, these indoor comfort conditions, sometimes called the &quot;comfort zone,&quot; are between 68 degrees F and 75 degrees F for winter and 73 degrees F to 79 degrees F during the summer. Both these temperature ranges are for room air at approximately 50% relative humidity and moving at velocity of 30 feet per minute or slower
  25. 25. <ul><li>Renewable energy systems </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize energy performance </li></ul><ul><li>Use of integrated building and system design process yields a savings of up to 50-60% over conventionally designed buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency measures typically payback in 1-3 year time </li></ul>
  26. 26. Composite Commercial Building in 2020 <ul><li>Solid state lighting integrated into hybrid solar daylighting systems </li></ul><ul><li>Smart windows </li></ul><ul><li>Photovoltaic roof shingles, walls, and awnings </li></ul><ul><li>Solar heating and superinsulation </li></ul><ul><li>Combined heat and power-gas turbines and fuel cells </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent building systems </li></ul>
  27. 27. Commercial Buildings <ul><li>End uses requiring the greatest energy are lighting, space heating, space cooling, and office equipment. </li></ul>Absorption-based chillers and heat pumps High-efficiency office lighting Primary Energy Consumption, 2002 Source: Table A5. Residential Sector Key Indicators and Consumption, Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Outlook 2004