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  • 1. Report Writing
    We will be discussing: -
    What a Report is?
    Characteristics of a good formal Report.
    Activities involved.
    Purpose & Classification of Reports.
    Anatomy of Report, Parts & Contents.
    Writing References & Bibliography.
    Writing Style.
  • 2. Report
    Word REPORT is derived from the Latin ‘REPORTARE’ : ‘to bring back’
    An orderly, factual, objective & systematic account of a specific business or professional activity.
    Objective quality of report is its unbiased approach.
    Basic ingredient of report is factual information.
  • 3. Characteristics
    Precision: Clearly reflect their purpose. Investigation, analysis & recommendations should be directed by this central purpose.
    Factual Details: Unbiased information.
    Relevance: Purpose should always be kept at the centre while writing other details.
    Reader Orientation: Necessary to keep in mind the person(s) who is (are) going to read it.
  • 4. CharacteristicsContd….
    Objectivity & the question of Impersonal Vs Personal writing: Objectivity is best attained by emphasizing facts rather than the people involved in it.
    In recent years some writers argue that Personal writing is more forceful. There is merit to both sides. Good advice is to use personal style for routine reports & impersonal style for more formal reports.
  • 5. CharacteristicsContd….
    Consistency in Time Viewpoint: There are two time viewpoints: Past & Present. Select one & do not change.
    Need for Transition: Transition means “bridging across”. It is used to connect the parts of the report. Use of topic sentences also helps improve thought flow.
    Simple & unambiguous language: Clear, brief & grammatically accurate.
  • 6. CharacteristicsContd….
    Maintaining interest: Interesting writing is necessary for good communication. Careful word choice, rhythm, concreteness – in fact all the good writing techniques.
    Homogeneity: One topic at a time.
  • 7. Activities Involved
    Determining the purpose.
    Deriving the factors.
    Gathering the information needed.
    Interpreting the information.
    Organising the material.
    Planning the writing of the report.
    Assigning parts to be written.
  • 8. Activities Involved Contd….
    Writing the assigned parts.
    Revising collaboratively.
    Editing the final draft.
  • 9. Purpose
    Presenting data.
    Describing problems & suggesting solutions.
    Discussing & analyzing data.
    Recording events & happenings.
    Analyzing a situation or a condition.
    Giving feedback, suggestions or recommendations.
  • 10. Classification of Reports
    Informational : To convey important information.
    Analytical : Based on critical analysis.
    Routine : Half-yearly, Annual reports.
    Special : Special matters, occasion.
    Oral : Read out.
    Written : Letter type/ Formatted.
    Formal : Impersonal
    Informal : Flexible
  • 11. Anatomy of a Report
    Title page.
    Preface.
    Letter of transmittal.
    Acknowledgements.
    Table of contents.
    List of illustrations.
    Abstract/Executive summary.
  • 12. Anatomy of a Report Contd…
    Introduction.
    Methodology.
    Discussion/Finding/Analysis.
    Conclusion.
    Recommendation.
    Appendices.
    References & Bibliography.
  • 13. Parts & Contents
    Title Page: Report Title, Name of the person/company/organization for whom report is prepared & Name of the person/company/organization by whom the report is prepared.
    Preface: A brief introduction.
    Letter of Transmittal: To let the other party know that a report is being sent to him, a brief idea about the report & requirements.
  • 14. Parts & Contents Contd…
    Acknowledgements: Page of gratitude to those who helped prepare the report.
    Table of contents: Reflection of report structure. Sections & sub-sections are titled & numbered for quick search.
    List of illustrations: List of figures, tables, illustrations numbered according to the chapters.
    Abstract/Executive summary: Generally a single page. Includes Purpose, Background, Source, Findings, Conclusions/Recommendations.
  • 15. Parts & Contents Contd…
    Introduction: Brief but thorough discussion of the problem. Includes Purpose/Objective, Background information, Literature review, Scope, Methodology, Assumptions & Limitations, Plan/Framework.
    Methodology: Theories, Models, Hypotheses, Materials & Methods, used to reach the Results.
    Discussion:/ Finding/Analysis: Detailed discussion regarding the subject matter & findings.
  • 16. Parts & Contents Contd…
    Conclusion: Sum up the main points.
    Recommendation: Give Directions/Propositions on how a problem you have investigated can be solved.
    Appendices: Includes Date Tables, Background calculations, Specification lists, Details of experimental configuration, other information for completeness. Must each have a footer with numbered pages for that appendix.
  • 17. Parts & Contents Contd…
    Work Cited/References/Bibliography: Use alphabetical order. Various styles – MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard, Oxford , Turabian etc.
    APA: Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10. (Reference to a journal)
    Wilson, F.R.(1998). The hand: How it shapes the brain, language & human culture. New York: Pantheon. (Reference to a book)
  • 18. References/Bibliography
    MLA: Wilson, Frank R. The hand: How it shapes the brain, language & human culture. New York: Pantheon, 1998. (Reference to a book)
    Assay, Ronald. “How the Americans made transcendentalism”, Journal of American History 23(1978) : 345-357.(Reference to a journal)
  • 19. Writing style
    Brief writing style
    Omit needless words
    Combine sentences
    Rewrite
    UK English and US English
    International English and Indian English
    Denotation and Connotation
  • 20. Writing style Contd…
    Let me know when you’re free next week for a meeting.
    Could you let me know what times you have free?
    Tone
    Terry is hung up on trivial details.
    Terry is meticulous and takes care of details that others sometimes ignore.
  • 21. A Report on
    Operator Interface Technology
    By
    Ashwini Kumar
    Control Systems Engineer
    Engineering DepartmentPaper Tiger Equipment
    March 12, 2007
  • 22. A Report on
    Operator Interface Technology
    Prepared for
    General distribution at Annual review Conference
    By
    Ashwini Kumar
    Control Systems Engineer
    Engineering DepartmentPaper Tiger Equipment
    March 12, 2007