Introduction• A micro assembler is a computer program that helps prepare a micro program to control the low level operation of a computer in much the same way an assembler helps prepare higher level code for a processor.• If a given computer implementation supports a writeable control store, the micro assembler is usually provided to customers as a means of writing customized microcode.
Introduction• A computer requires programs to function, typically executing the programs instructions in a central processor. The program has that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions.• The same program in its human-readable source form, from which executable programs are derived , enables a programmer to study and develop its algorithms.
Assembly Language• A program written in assembly language it basically contain of a series of instructions- mnemonics that correspond to a stream of executable instructions, when translated by an assembler that can be loaded into memory and executed.• For example, anx86/IA-32processor execute the below instruction as given in machine language.• Binary: 10110000 01100001 (Hexadecimal: B0 61)
Assembler• It translate mnemonic code to opcode.• The use of symbolic references is only the key feature of assemblers, saving tuff calculations and manual address. Most assemblers also include macro facilities for performing textual substitution.
Assembler• More sophisticated high-level assemblers provide language abstractions such as:A. Advanced control structures.B. High-level procedure declarations and invocations.C. High-level abstract data types, including structures, unions, classes, and sets.D. Sophisticated macro processing.E. Object-Oriented features such as encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, interfaces
MAL• MAL(Micro Assembly Language)• It is a kind of program which helps prepare a micro program to control the low level operation of a computer in much the same way an assembler helps prepare higher level code for a processor.• MASM(Microsoft Assembler)
MASM• MASM is a one of the Microsoft development tools that are targeted 16-bit, 32-bit and 64-bit platforms. Versions 6.1 and 6.11 included Phar Laps TNT DOS extender so that MASM could run in MS-DOS.• MASM will write in Intel Syntax.• MASM is used by Microsoft to implement some low- level portions of its Windows Operating systems.• MASM, contrary to popular belief, has been in constant development since 1980, and is upgraded on a needs- basis.• MASM has always been made compatible by Microsoft to the current platform, and executable file types.• MASM currently supports all Intel instruction sets.
MAL• It describes about the lexical, syntactic, and semantic elements of the language, and gives a focus on microprogramming with the mic1 micro-assembler.• Reserved Word: MAR, MDR, PC, Fetch, If, Else, goto , nop, AND, OR, NOT
Application• After power supply it works, instead of asembler. Most boot loader works on this.• Assembly language is also valuable in reverse engineering.• optimized assembler code is written "by hand" and instructions are sequenced manually by the coders in an attempt to minimize the number of CPU cycles used
Benefits• The micro programmed Data General Eclipse S/200 computer is available with a writable control store. The WCS feature of the Eclipse is having extension of the micro programmed control logic of the computers central processing unit. It allows a user to implement specialized instructions at a very low level. Its use is however, discouraged since Data General does not provide software support for the WCS feature