Philoshophy Of Mind

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Philoshophy Of Mind

  1. 1. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND
  2. 2. The Two Central Problems in the Philosophy of Mind The Two Central Problems in the Philosophy of Mind Vs. Thoughts Feelings Sensory experiences etc.
  3. 3. The Problem of Other Minds (cont’d)‏ The Problem of Other Minds (cont’d)‏ Afraid Looking forward to next summer’s holiday Vs.
  4. 4. The Mind – Body Problem The Mind – Body Problem MIND
  5. 5. Two (apparently unique) aspects of mental phenomena Two (apparently unique) aspects of mental phenomena CONSCIOUS-NESS
  6. 6. Intentionality (or aboutness)‏ Intentionality (or aboutness)‏ Bush is a jerk aboutness
  7. 7. Intentionality/aboutness Intentionality/aboutness aboutness
  8. 8. Intentionality/aboutness Intentionality/aboutness aboutness
  9. 9. Intentionality/aboutness Intentionality/aboutness aboutness
  10. 10. Terminological note Terminological note Mental states that have ‘aboutness’ (=‘intentionality’)‏
  11. 11. Intentionality/aboutness Intentionality/aboutness
  12. 12. Why explaining ‘aboutness’ is difficult Why explaining ‘aboutness’ is difficult Bush is a jerk aboutness
  13. 13. An attempt to explain what ‘aboutness’ is An attempt to explain what ‘aboutness’ is Bush is a jerk aboutness Causal chain
  14. 14. Why the causal account doesn’t work Why the causal account doesn’t work It would be fun to ride a unicorn. Causal chain??
  15. 15. Cartesian Dualism Cartesian Dualism Thoughts Feelings Sensory experiences etc. Physical stuff (matter)‏ Mental stuff (minds)‏ Consciousness Intentionality Thought
  16. 16. Problems with Cartesian Dualism (I)‏ Problems with Cartesian Dualism (I)‏
  17. 17. Problems with Cartesian Dualism (II)‏ Problems with Cartesian Dualism (II)‏ I’m going to raise my arm. Causes Mental substance (mind)‏ Matter
  18. 18. Problems with Cartesian Dualism (II)‏ Problems with Cartesian Dualism (II)‏ Sound experience sound waves Causes
  19. 19. Problems with Cartesian Dualism (III)‏ Problems with Cartesian Dualism (III)‏ ?
  20. 20. Problems with Cartesian Dualism (IV)‏ Problems with Cartesian Dualism (IV)‏ Vs. Thoughts Feelings Sensory experiences etc.
  21. 21. “ Materialist” solutions to the Mind – Body Problem “ Materialist” solutions to the Mind – Body Problem
  22. 22. The advance of materialism The advance of materialism earth “ heavens”
  23. 23. The advance of materialism The advance of materialism Spooky stuff?
  24. 24. The advance of materialism The advance of materialism “ life force” Live tiger Dead tiger
  25. 25. The advance of materialism The advance of materialism Spooky stuff??
  26. 26. The “Reductive Materialism” hypothesis The “Reductive Materialism” hypothesis
  27. 27. Behaviorism Behaviorism
  28. 28. ‘ Behaviorism’ in psychology ‘ Behaviorism’ in psychology I am feeling angry
  29. 29. ‘ Behaviorism’ in philosophy ‘ Behaviorism’ in philosophy I am feeling angry EQUALS
  30. 30. Analytical behaviorism Analytical behaviorism
  31. 31. Analytical behaviorism Analytical behaviorism
  32. 32. Behaviorism and the Problem of Other Minds I am feeling angry EQUALS
  33. 33. Problems for behaviorism (I): Undefinable mental states Problems for behaviorism (I): Undefinable mental states
  34. 34. Problems for behaviorism (II): Circular definitions Problems for behaviorism (II): Circular definitions
  35. 35. Problems for behaviorism (II): Circular definitions Problems for behaviorism (II): Circular definitions
  36. 36. Problems for behaviorism (III): The 'inverted spectrum' problem Problems for behaviorism (III): The 'inverted spectrum' problem The flower looks yellow The flower looks yellow
  37. 37. Problems for behaviorism (IV): Some wrong predictions Problems for behaviorism (IV): Some wrong predictions “ How did it feel?” Administer general anaesthetic operation
  38. 38. Problems for behaviorism (IV): Some wrong predictions Problems for behaviorism (IV): Some wrong predictions “ How did it feel?” Administer curare + amnestic operation
  39. 39. ... The problem (an argument against behaviorism): ... The problem (an argument against behaviorism):
  40. 40. The (Type-Type) Identity Theory The (Type-Type) Identity Theory Snow is white Snow is white
  41. 41. The (Type-Type) Identity Theory The (Type-Type) Identity Theory pain Same event (type)‏
  42. 42. How the theory deals with the Other Minds Problem How the theory deals with the Other Minds Problem
  43. 43. Problem for the (Type) Identity Theory: “Chauvinism” about the mental Problem for the (Type) Identity Theory: “Chauvinism” about the mental pain 7x5=35
  44. 44. Functionalism (aka “machine functionalism”)‏ Functionalism (aka “machine functionalism”)‏ ADDING PROGRAM 2 3 5
  45. 45. Programs and physical devices Programs and physical devices
  46. 46. Minds and programs Minds and programs Inputs (mouse clicks, keyboard strokes)‏ Outputs (screen displays; printouts)‏ Inputs (light rays; hammers hitting thumb)‏ Outputs (body movements; screams; sentences spoken)‏ PROGRAM PROGRAM
  47. 47. ‘ Functional states’ ‘ Functional states’ Input 2 Input 3 Output 5 Computer state: ‘remember that a 2 has been input, and get ready to add a 2 nd number’ Computer state: ‘ready to do an add calculation’ Functional states
  48. 48. ‘ Functional states’ cont’d ‘ Functional states’ cont’d Desire to stay dry Belief that there is no shelter at the bus stop Input: See that it’s raining Belief that it’s raining Output: Look for car keys Functional states
  49. 49. What is... What is... pain pain ? ?
  50. 50. Strong AI Strong AI
  51. 51. Can machines think? Can machines think? “ What do you think about Saddam’s trial?” “ I don’t normally approve of the death penalty, but this guy deserves everything he gets.”
  52. 52. Searle’s Critique of Functionalism and Strong AI Searle’s Critique of Functionalism and Strong AI <ul><ul><li>A man went into a restaurant and ordered a hamburger. When the hamburger arrived it was burnt to a crisp, and the man stormed out of the restaurant angrily, without paying for the burger or leaving a tip. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did the man eat the hamburger? </li></ul></ul>No
  53. 53. What Schank’s computer is doing What Schank’s computer is doing Thinking of a restaurant scene aboutness
  54. 54. Searle’s argument Searle’s argument
  55. 55. The setup of the &quot;Chinese room” Input: Output:
  56. 56. Searle’s argument Searle’s argument
  57. 57. Searle’s Account of Intentionality Searle’s Account of Intentionality ADDING PROGRAM 2 3 5 adding Not a “causal product” of the symbol manipulation
  58. 58. Searle’s Account of Intentionality Pick up brick and throw at window Window breaks Causal product of brick being thrown
  59. 59. Searle’s Account of Intentionality Searle’s Account of Intentionality intentionality intentionality ???
  60. 60. A Problem for Searle’s View A Problem for Searle’s View
  61. 61. Some questions for YOU to ponder Some questions for YOU to ponder
  62. 62. Some questions for YOU to ponder Some questions for YOU to ponder
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