Philoshophy Of Mind
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Philoshophy Of Mind

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Philoshophy Of Mind Philoshophy Of Mind Presentation Transcript

  • PHILOSOPHY OF MIND
  • The Two Central Problems in the Philosophy of Mind The Two Central Problems in the Philosophy of Mind Vs. Thoughts Feelings Sensory experiences etc.
  • The Problem of Other Minds (cont’d)‏ The Problem of Other Minds (cont’d)‏ Afraid Looking forward to next summer’s holiday Vs.
  • The Mind – Body Problem The Mind – Body Problem MIND
  • Two (apparently unique) aspects of mental phenomena Two (apparently unique) aspects of mental phenomena CONSCIOUS-NESS
  • Intentionality (or aboutness)‏ Intentionality (or aboutness)‏ Bush is a jerk aboutness
  • Intentionality/aboutness Intentionality/aboutness aboutness
  • Intentionality/aboutness Intentionality/aboutness aboutness
  • Intentionality/aboutness Intentionality/aboutness aboutness
  • Terminological note Terminological note Mental states that have ‘aboutness’ (=‘intentionality’)‏
  • Intentionality/aboutness Intentionality/aboutness
  • Why explaining ‘aboutness’ is difficult Why explaining ‘aboutness’ is difficult Bush is a jerk aboutness
  • An attempt to explain what ‘aboutness’ is An attempt to explain what ‘aboutness’ is Bush is a jerk aboutness Causal chain
  • Why the causal account doesn’t work Why the causal account doesn’t work It would be fun to ride a unicorn. Causal chain??
  • Cartesian Dualism Cartesian Dualism Thoughts Feelings Sensory experiences etc. Physical stuff (matter)‏ Mental stuff (minds)‏ Consciousness Intentionality Thought
  • Problems with Cartesian Dualism (I)‏ Problems with Cartesian Dualism (I)‏
  • Problems with Cartesian Dualism (II)‏ Problems with Cartesian Dualism (II)‏ I’m going to raise my arm. Causes Mental substance (mind)‏ Matter
  • Problems with Cartesian Dualism (II)‏ Problems with Cartesian Dualism (II)‏ Sound experience sound waves Causes
  • Problems with Cartesian Dualism (III)‏ Problems with Cartesian Dualism (III)‏ ?
  • Problems with Cartesian Dualism (IV)‏ Problems with Cartesian Dualism (IV)‏ Vs. Thoughts Feelings Sensory experiences etc.
  • “ Materialist” solutions to the Mind – Body Problem “ Materialist” solutions to the Mind – Body Problem
  • The advance of materialism The advance of materialism earth “ heavens”
  • The advance of materialism The advance of materialism Spooky stuff?
  • The advance of materialism The advance of materialism “ life force” Live tiger Dead tiger
  • The advance of materialism The advance of materialism Spooky stuff??
  • The “Reductive Materialism” hypothesis The “Reductive Materialism” hypothesis
  • Behaviorism Behaviorism
  • ‘ Behaviorism’ in psychology ‘ Behaviorism’ in psychology I am feeling angry
  • ‘ Behaviorism’ in philosophy ‘ Behaviorism’ in philosophy I am feeling angry EQUALS
  • Analytical behaviorism Analytical behaviorism
  • Analytical behaviorism Analytical behaviorism
  • Behaviorism and the Problem of Other Minds I am feeling angry EQUALS
  • Problems for behaviorism (I): Undefinable mental states Problems for behaviorism (I): Undefinable mental states
  • Problems for behaviorism (II): Circular definitions Problems for behaviorism (II): Circular definitions
  • Problems for behaviorism (II): Circular definitions Problems for behaviorism (II): Circular definitions
  • Problems for behaviorism (III): The 'inverted spectrum' problem Problems for behaviorism (III): The 'inverted spectrum' problem The flower looks yellow The flower looks yellow
  • Problems for behaviorism (IV): Some wrong predictions Problems for behaviorism (IV): Some wrong predictions “ How did it feel?” Administer general anaesthetic operation
  • Problems for behaviorism (IV): Some wrong predictions Problems for behaviorism (IV): Some wrong predictions “ How did it feel?” Administer curare + amnestic operation
  • ... The problem (an argument against behaviorism): ... The problem (an argument against behaviorism):
  • The (Type-Type) Identity Theory The (Type-Type) Identity Theory Snow is white Snow is white
  • The (Type-Type) Identity Theory The (Type-Type) Identity Theory pain Same event (type)‏
  • How the theory deals with the Other Minds Problem How the theory deals with the Other Minds Problem
  • Problem for the (Type) Identity Theory: “Chauvinism” about the mental Problem for the (Type) Identity Theory: “Chauvinism” about the mental pain 7x5=35
  • Functionalism (aka “machine functionalism”)‏ Functionalism (aka “machine functionalism”)‏ ADDING PROGRAM 2 3 5
  • Programs and physical devices Programs and physical devices
  • Minds and programs Minds and programs Inputs (mouse clicks, keyboard strokes)‏ Outputs (screen displays; printouts)‏ Inputs (light rays; hammers hitting thumb)‏ Outputs (body movements; screams; sentences spoken)‏ PROGRAM PROGRAM
  • ‘ Functional states’ ‘ Functional states’ Input 2 Input 3 Output 5 Computer state: ‘remember that a 2 has been input, and get ready to add a 2 nd number’ Computer state: ‘ready to do an add calculation’ Functional states
  • ‘ Functional states’ cont’d ‘ Functional states’ cont’d Desire to stay dry Belief that there is no shelter at the bus stop Input: See that it’s raining Belief that it’s raining Output: Look for car keys Functional states
  • What is... What is... pain pain ? ?
  • Strong AI Strong AI
  • Can machines think? Can machines think? “ What do you think about Saddam’s trial?” “ I don’t normally approve of the death penalty, but this guy deserves everything he gets.”
  • Searle’s Critique of Functionalism and Strong AI Searle’s Critique of Functionalism and Strong AI
      • A man went into a restaurant and ordered a hamburger. When the hamburger arrived it was burnt to a crisp, and the man stormed out of the restaurant angrily, without paying for the burger or leaving a tip.
      • Did the man eat the hamburger?
    No
  • What Schank’s computer is doing What Schank’s computer is doing Thinking of a restaurant scene aboutness
  • Searle’s argument Searle’s argument
  • The setup of the "Chinese room” Input: Output:
  • Searle’s argument Searle’s argument
  • Searle’s Account of Intentionality Searle’s Account of Intentionality ADDING PROGRAM 2 3 5 adding Not a “causal product” of the symbol manipulation
  • Searle’s Account of Intentionality Pick up brick and throw at window Window breaks Causal product of brick being thrown
  • Searle’s Account of Intentionality Searle’s Account of Intentionality intentionality intentionality ???
  • A Problem for Searle’s View A Problem for Searle’s View
  • Some questions for YOU to ponder Some questions for YOU to ponder
  • Some questions for YOU to ponder Some questions for YOU to ponder