International Bar Association


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International Bar Association

  1. 1. Legal Services & Domestic Regulation World Trade Organization March 29, 2004 Prof. Laurel S. Terry Representing the International Bar Association Email: [email_address]
  2. 2. What is the International Bar Assoc.? <ul><li>The IBA is one of two general-purpose, international bar associations </li></ul><ul><li>IBA members include more than 190 bar associations and 16,000 lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>The policy-making body of the IBA is its “Council” </li></ul><ul><li>The IBA Council includes smaller bars and bars from developing countries </li></ul>
  3. 3. Summary of IBA Remarks <ul><li>Background information – legal services </li></ul><ul><li>The IBA’s prior GATS work </li></ul><ul><li>May 2003 IBA GATS Forum </li></ul><ul><li>September 2003 IBA resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Questions the IBA did not consider </li></ul><ul><li>IBA’s response to the WTO consultation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why Are Legal Services in the GATS? <ul><li>Trade in legal services is a large part of the world economy </li></ul><ul><li>Some believe that trade in legal services facilitates other trade </li></ul><ul><li>Legal services are delivered in all 4 Modes </li></ul><ul><li>58 countries “scheduled” legal services </li></ul>
  5. 5. What you should know about lawyers <ul><li>Legal systems vary: examples are civil law, common law, Hindu and Islamic law </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Law : lawyers help the rule of law </li></ul><ul><li>Core values: for all, lawyer values are loyalty, independence & confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Law License: many countries require a law license to practice </li></ul><ul><li>Qualification & Licensing: There is NO consensus on what these terms mean </li></ul>
  6. 6. Terminology Used By the IBA <ul><li>Full License: refers to a Home lawyer who is able to use the Host State title </li></ul><ul><li>Limited License: the Home lawyer has a special, limited title in the Host State </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Legal Consultant or FLC : refers to a lawyer with a limited law license </li></ul>
  7. 7. GATS Track #2 - Disciplines <ul><li>WTO Members agreed to conduct domestic consultations on extending the WTO Accountancy Disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Many countries have not sought bar association input on the Disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>In Dec. 2002, the WTO asked for input from various NGOs, including the IBA </li></ul><ul><li>The IBA’s May 2003 GATS Forum led to 2 IBA resolutions, approved 9/03 </li></ul>
  8. 8. IBA Resolutions Sent to the WTO <ul><li>The IBA’s 98-2001 resolutions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Core values” of the legal profession </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles for establishment of foreign lawyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of Multidisciplinary Practice between lawyers and non-lawyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles for Mutual Recognition Agreements for lawyers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two IBA resolutions are cited in S/C/W/43, the WTO Legal Services Background Note </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003, the IBA sent the WTO its resolutions on Terminology & Accountancy Disciplines </li></ul>
  9. 9. Additional IBA Work on the GATS <ul><li>February 2002 IBA visit to the WTO </li></ul><ul><li>IBA GATS Handbook, available at </li></ul><ul><li>July 2002 IBA Seminar in Geneva </li></ul><ul><li>May 2003 IBA GATS Forum </li></ul>
  10. 10. The IBA May 30, 2003 GATS Forum <ul><li>Purpose: to respond to the WTO’s December 2002 questions </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance: from 6 continents, possibly 90 people from 60 bar associations </li></ul><ul><li>Built heavily on the work of the Canadians and Australians </li></ul><ul><li>Debated specific proposed changes, circulated ahead of time </li></ul><ul><li>Led to unanimous Sept. 2003 IBA resolutions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Questions not Addressed by the IBA <ul><li>The IBA Resolution and debate did not address the following questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Are additional “Disciplines” necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the legal profession have its own “Disciplines”? </li></ul><ul><li>If the legal profession drafted its own “Disciplines”, what would they look like? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Summary of IBA Suggested Changes <ul><li>Art. II(2) : expand “legitimate objectives” to include confidentiality, independence, and avoidance of conflicts of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Art. II(2): clarify the treatment of legal services measures by the Appellate Body </li></ul><ul><li>Art. III(3): expand transparency requirements to lawyer licensing and discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Art. III(4): define “technical standards” as ethical rules & rules of professional conduct </li></ul>
  13. 13. Summary of IBA Suggested Changes <ul><li>Art. IV(8): define “licensing” & “qualification” because these are confusing terms to lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Art. IV(8): Host must consider Home discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Art. IV(12): adds malpractice & pension plans to those requiring recognition, but Host may require lawyers to explain their existing plans </li></ul><ul><li>Art. VI(19): explain that both limited & full licensing have qualification requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Art. VI(20): delete last sentence about qualification exams because misleading </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusion <ul><li>The IBA has taken no position on whether Disciplines are needed </li></ul><ul><li>The IBA has taken no position on whether to have separate Disciplines for lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>IF the Accountancy Disciplines are applied to lawyers, certain changes should be made </li></ul><ul><li>The IBA urges countries to consult their legal professions </li></ul>
  15. 15. Available Resources <ul><li>WTO Secretariat’s Legal Services Background Note S/C/W/43 (6 July 1998)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>IBA GATS Handbook: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>IBA Resolutions </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Laurel Terry’s webpage on the WPDR, Disciplines & the Legal Profession </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>GATS Webpage of the ABA Center for Professional Responsibility: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>