Criminal Law Admj. P102 Chapter 4 Bill Henry
Development of Law <ul><li>The development of criminal was </li></ul><ul><li>Not systematic-but episodic (incidental)‏ </l...
Code of Hammurabi <ul><li>Oldest set of known laws </li></ul><ul><li>Victim oriented, based on philosophy of eye-for-an-ey...
Magna Carta <ul><li>Document signed by King John </li></ul><ul><li>Conceded a number of rights to English citizens </li></...
Common Law <ul><li>Common law is different from statutory law </li></ul><ul><li>Based on judicial precedent, customs and p...
Sources of Law <ul><li>There are a variety of sources for law </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutions, federal and state </li></ul...
Types of Law <ul><li>Law performs many different functions in society </li></ul><ul><li>Determines what is and isn’t accep...
Criminal Law <ul><li>Criminal law is used to control the behavior of society.  There are three criteria used to determine ...
Civil Law <ul><li>Referred to as ‘private law’ </li></ul><ul><li>Involves action between two people, an individual and gov...
Civil Law <ul><li>Civil vs. Criminal </li></ul><ul><li>verdicts are majority, not unanimous </li></ul><ul><li>preponderanc...
Substantive Law <ul><li>defines law and its punishments </li></ul><ul><li>results from generations of political and social...
Procedural law <ul><li>Procedural law specifies how the justice system deals with individuals that violate law </li></ul><...
Case Law <ul><li>Case law results from judicial decisions and requires judges to consider previous decisions in similar ca...
Crime <ul><li>Crime is categorized by sanction attached, not received </li></ul><ul><li>felonies-most serious crimes, inca...
Features of Crime <ul><li>For an act to be a crime, three elements or features must be present </li></ul><ul><li>actus rea...
Features of Crime <ul><li>Strict liability crimes are the exception to the mens rea or intent requirement. the fact that t...
Criminal Responsibility and Criminal Defense <ul><li>Burden of proof is on the prosecution </li></ul><ul><li>Defendant mus...
Terms to Know <ul><li>Affirmative defense </li></ul><ul><li>Strict liability crime </li></ul><ul><li>Actus Reas, Mens rea ...
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Criminal Law

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Criminal Law

  1. 1. Criminal Law Admj. P102 Chapter 4 Bill Henry
  2. 2. Development of Law <ul><li>The development of criminal was </li></ul><ul><li>Not systematic-but episodic (incidental)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven (not equitable)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Very political </li></ul><ul><li>Legal systems were built from bits and pieces of earlier systems </li></ul><ul><li>Our system is a mixture of several systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Code of Hammurabi <ul><li>Oldest set of known laws </li></ul><ul><li>Victim oriented, based on philosophy of eye-for-an-eye </li></ul><ul><li>Contained death penalty </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the old testament </li></ul>
  4. 4. Magna Carta <ul><li>Document signed by King John </li></ul><ul><li>Conceded a number of rights to English citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Included fair taxation, freedom of the church, control over imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>First attempt at a “Bill of Rights” </li></ul><ul><li>Had 61 clauses that included the power of Kings and citizen protections </li></ul>
  5. 5. Common Law <ul><li>Common law is different from statutory law </li></ul><ul><li>Based on judicial precedent, customs and past practice </li></ul><ul><li>Largely unwritten </li></ul><ul><li>Is the basis of “stare decisis” </li></ul><ul><li>Based on concept of four elements </li></ul><ul><li>Predictability, reliability, efficiency, equality </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sources of Law <ul><li>There are a variety of sources for law </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutions, federal and state </li></ul><ul><li>Written statutes, federal and state </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Codes; rules developed by agencies consistent with their responsibilities </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Law <ul><li>Law performs many different functions in society </li></ul><ul><li>Determines what is and isn’t acceptable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Serves to control society </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates social conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Controls government </li></ul><ul><li>Determines punishment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Criminal Law <ul><li>Criminal law is used to control the behavior of society. There are three criteria used to determine what behavior is criminal: </li></ul><ul><li>Enforceability (prohibition)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Effects (result is worse than cause)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Existence of other means of protecting society (rehab, medical and psychological treatment)‏ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Civil Law <ul><li>Referred to as ‘private law’ </li></ul><ul><li>Involves action between two people, an individual and government, contracts, personal property and commercial issues </li></ul><ul><li>Aggrieved party is the individual (criminal law, aggrieved party is the state)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Double jeopardy does not apply to civil law </li></ul>
  10. 10. Civil Law <ul><li>Civil vs. Criminal </li></ul><ul><li>verdicts are majority, not unanimous </li></ul><ul><li>preponderance of evidence (weight, importance, influence) vs. beyond a reasonable doubt </li></ul><ul><li>civil ‘torts’ deal with individual harms i.e.. libel, slander, assault, negligence </li></ul>
  11. 11. Substantive Law <ul><li>defines law and its punishments </li></ul><ul><li>results from generations of political and social development </li></ul><ul><li>covers mala en se and mala prohibita </li></ul><ul><li>mala en se are thought to be natural laws inherently wrong in human nature </li></ul><ul><li>mala prohibita laws are prohibited by statute </li></ul>
  12. 12. Procedural law <ul><li>Procedural law specifies how the justice system deals with individuals that violate law </li></ul><ul><li>rules of search and seizure </li></ul><ul><li>rules regarding attorneys </li></ul><ul><li>rules of courtroom procedure, booking procedure </li></ul><ul><li>rules of evidence </li></ul>
  13. 13. Case Law <ul><li>Case law results from judicial decisions and requires judges to consider previous decisions in similar cases. </li></ul><ul><li>case law keeps the system consistent </li></ul><ul><li>evolves as new decisions are applied to new circumstances </li></ul>
  14. 14. Crime <ul><li>Crime is categorized by sanction attached, not received </li></ul><ul><li>felonies-most serious crimes, incarceration for more than a year, state or federal prison </li></ul><ul><li>misdemeanors-incarceration is less than a year county or local jail </li></ul><ul><li>infractions-fine only-no incarceration </li></ul><ul><li>inchoate-offenses not completed </li></ul>
  15. 15. Features of Crime <ul><li>For an act to be a crime, three elements or features must be present </li></ul><ul><li>actus reas: guilty act or deed </li></ul><ul><li>mens rea: guilty mind or intent </li></ul><ul><li>concurrence: relationship of mens rea, actus reas </li></ul><ul><li>Together, all three or referred to as the corpus delicti or ‘body of crime’ </li></ul>
  16. 16. Features of Crime <ul><li>Strict liability crimes are the exception to the mens rea or intent requirement. the fact that the act occurred is sufficient for conviction. Criminal intent is not required </li></ul>
  17. 17. Criminal Responsibility and Criminal Defense <ul><li>Burden of proof is on the prosecution </li></ul><ul><li>Defendant must have the capacity to commit crime </li></ul><ul><li>Defendant must understand the ramifications of their actions </li></ul><ul><li>If an affirmative defense tactic is used, burden of proof shifts to defendant </li></ul><ul><li>In an Affirmative defense, defendant admits act but justifies action </li></ul>
  18. 18. Terms to Know <ul><li>Affirmative defense </li></ul><ul><li>Strict liability crime </li></ul><ul><li>Actus Reas, Mens rea </li></ul><ul><li>categories of crime </li></ul><ul><li>criminal, civil, substantive, procedural and case law </li></ul><ul><li>sources of law </li></ul><ul><li>issues that guide precedent </li></ul><ul><li>stare decisis </li></ul><ul><li>code of Hammurabi </li></ul>

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