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ppt on cold climate-nagaland

ppt on cold climate-nagaland

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    Nagaland.jpg Nagaland.jpg Presentation Transcript

    • Vernacular Architecture Submitted By:- Sanjana Aggarwal NAGALAND
    • VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE It is derived from the Latin word “Vernaculus” means domestic , native and indigenous. Vernacular architecture is a category of architecture based on localized needs and construction materials, and reflecting local traditions. It is influenced by:- Localized needs Local construction materials Local traditions Hence, varies from areas to areas. It is an epitome of place to which it belongs. Cannot be imported to elsewhere.
    • CLIMATE OF NAGALAND  Nagaland has a largely monsoon climate with high humidity levels. Annual rainfall averages around 1,800 – 2,500 mm and concentrated in the months of may to september. The temperature ranges from 21 ° C - 40 ° C . In winter, the temperature generally do not drop below 4 °C and frost is common at high elevations INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE BELOW 500 mt the temperature is hot and unhealthy . ABOVE 1,500mt it is unpleasant ,cold in winter.  During monsoon the cloud is perpetual. Water scarcity tends to be pre dominant above 1,500mt due to these climatic factors most of the Nagaland villages are located along the hill slope. Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland
    • LOCAL MATERIALS AVAILABLE The primary construction materials were: TIMBER – for structural elements, like the posts BAMBOO – for walls and other structural elements THATCH – as the roofing material. There are three types of houses found here : Earth floor. Earth and raised floor. Only raised floor. Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland
    • A typical Naga house has an elongated rectangular plan, a short side forming the side. A few tribes build in circular shapes as well. The house traditionally faces eastern direction. Plan of a typical Naga House NAGA HOUSES  Broad wooden boards forming the house front are often elaborate carved Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland
    • The interior of the Sema house was ordinarily divided into four parts – The Akishekhoh - or front room where the rice pounding tables were kept. The Abidelabo - a narrow room between the Akishekhoh and the Amiphokiboh (hearth room) where the unmarried girls of the household sleep. The Akuzu-Abo - where the head of the family (father) and his wife sleeps. The Azhi-Bo - the liquor room where rice beer is stored in bamboo jugs. Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland
    • This is where they keep the rice pounding tables. The Akishekhoh is an apse like addition to the front of the house, semicircular in plan with the eaves brought down to within 3 or 4 feet from the ground. In this house, however, the rice pounding tables are kept inside the house, in a room called the apasü – abo (rice pounding table - room). Grain collected from the field is stored in large bamboo woven baskets. The grain is pounded in the large wooden rice pounding tables (apasü) as and when required. The grain is pounded mainly by the women of the household in the mornings or in the evenings, after returning from the fields. Animals - dogs, pigs, chicken are also kept here. The unmarried boys of the household sleep in here. AKISHEKHOH(front room) View of a rich pounding table Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland
    • This is where the unmarried girls of the household sleep. Firewood for the fireplace (Amiphokiboh) is also stored in this room. AKÜZÜ – ABO(head of the family room) The head of the family - the father , in this case chief of the village and his wife or wives sleep here. Inside the Aküzü abo is the Amiphokiboh (hearth room). The father’s bed is nearest to the fireplace and the wife’s bed has a separate, smaller fireplace near her bed. AZHI – BO(liquor room) Azhi’ - liquor, ‘Bo’ - place or room This room is located right at the back of the house. Rice beer is stored in liquor vats in this room. At the back of the house is a backdoor which usually leads to a small kitchen garden. ABIDELABO(narrow room) Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland
    • Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland
    • Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland
    • Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland ORIENTATION The two bamboos forming the gable were prolonged beyond the roof to form horns called the tenhaku - ki (snail horns). These were sometimes decorated with bamboo tassels and imitations of birds. The Semas did not decorate their houses like other tribes - or at least not as much. They usually adorned their houses with the heads of game or Mithan heads which the owner slaughtered. Sometimes, in the chief’s house, human heads were also hung as trophies.
    • Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland REQUIREMENT & RESPONSE These dwellings, located mainly in the hilly regions came under the Cold and cloudy climatic category. The people then, relied mainly on their physical ability to resist the cold. The houses did protect them from the cold winds that blew but did little to retain heat within the house. Openings were kept to a minimum to retain as much heat within the house as possible. The fireplace was situated in the living quarters which helped in raising comfort levels within these spaces. The scale of the private spaces was also smaller which meant that a smaller heat source was required to heat the room. The sloped roofs worked beautifully in keeping the interiors dry. The steep slope of the roof ensured that no water could seep in through the gaps between the thatch and enter the house. The openness of the people did not require such a high degree of privacy. As a result the overall design of the house was kept simple, yet completely functional. It’s function not just extending to it’s activity space relation but it’s social and climatic context. These houses existed during the 1915 to the 1920’s. British anthropologists first discovered these settlements. The exposure of tribal people to civilization subsequent to those initial visits resulted in the rapid disappearance of these traditional systems of construction. After independence, such dwellings almost completely disappeared.
    • Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland The interest shown toward tradition extends only up to social and cultural levels, leaving architecture in the back seat. The only “traditional” architecture considered important to retain, merely as objects of fascination, like those in museums, were the "Morungs". "Morungs" were essentially community built structures present in almost every village of different tribes in Nagaland. There used to be one such structure for boys and one for girls in each village. These buildings were used for community activities. “Morung” in Philimi built on account of a bad harvest (1916) The function of the Morung being the community centre of the village shifted to the Chief’s hut. This in turn resulted in the Chief’s hut being the largest of structures in the whole village. The size of the chief’s hut emphasized his importance in the village society.
    • Vernacular Architecture of Nagaland The interest shown toward tradition extends only up to social and cultural levels, leaving architecture in the back seat. The only “traditional” architecture considered important to retain, merely as objects of fascination, like those in museums, were the "Morungs". "Morungs" were essentially community built structures present in almost every village of different tribes in Nagaland. There used to be one such structure for boys and one for girls in each village. These buildings were used for community activities. “Morung” in Philimi built on account of a bad harvest (1916) The function of the Morung being the community centre of the village shifted to the Chief’s hut. This in turn resulted in the Chief’s hut being the largest of structures in the whole village. The size of the chief’s hut emphasized his importance in the village society.