MeaningUnder normal circumstances, most of us would probably define quality of life as healthy living or healthy lifestyle.Under the abnormal circumstance of receiving a cancer diagnosis and undergoing treatment diminishes the healthy lifestyle.
The initial phase is the pre treatment phase, the symptoms experienced by the patients include anxiety, fatigue, and pain.The second phase is the primary treatment phase, during this time patients experience, in addition to the above mentioned symptoms, other disease-specific symptoms.The third phase is the post treatment phase. In this phase, patients often experience treatment- related symptoms. Decreased movement, loss of strength, anxiety, and depression...
The fourth phase is the recurrence phase. Shock, disbelief, anxiety, fear, grief and a feeling of betrayal and anger are common in this phase along with loss of appetite and depression.The fifth and final phase is the end-of-life phase. During this phase there may be a feeling of alienation or isolation. Fear of impending death and concern over the events preceding death.
Physical AspectInvolves variety of aspects that supports physical well-beingBy maintaining good physical health during your course of cancer treatment helps you better cope with your treatment, boost your immune system, better nourished and experience improved quality of life.
PainPeople with cancer can experience pain from different sources: the tumor itself can cause pain the treatment too can cause pain.Severe pain is associated with decreased function, increased interference with daily activities, depression, and anxiety.
Pain Management MethodsHot and cold packs, to relieve painful areas of the body.Massage and physical therapy.Hypnosis and diversional therapy.Stretching and range-of-motion exercises, to maintain strength, flexibility, and mobility.Acupuncture.
Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS).Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR).Guided imagery.
FatigueFatigue is a feeling of tiredness or not having enough energy after rest or a good sleep.Fatigue is most common, as well as one of the most debilitating, side effects experienced by cancer patients.Fatigue is also a frequent side effect of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.
Common signs of fatigue include: Feeling tired even after a good nights sleep Feeling sleepy throughout the day Feeling too weak to stand Finding it difficult to start routine activities Needing to stop in the middle of activities to rest Not being able to do activities for long Difficulty in concentrating Irritability
Methods to reduce fatigueEat a balanced diet.Delegate activities.Sit if you need to when doing tasks.Rest in bed on a very bad day.Use assistive devices to help you reach.Sleep when you are tired.Remember that exercise and moving are ways to lessen fatigue, the more you move the better you will feel overall.
Sleep disorders such as insomnia, multiple awakenings and early waking can be attributed to many side effects of cancer or its treatments. These include depression, anxiety, stress, pain and medication side effects.
Sleep disorders can be reduced by followingmethodsGo to bed and get up at about the same time every day.Dont eat or drink large amounts before bedtime.Avoid nicotine, caffeine and alcohol in the evening.Exercise regularly.Make your bedroom cool, dark, quiet and comfortable.Avoid daytime naps.
Choose a comfortable mattress and pillow.Make sure you have a bed thats comfortable.Go to bed when youre tired and turn out the lights.
NutritionNausea, loss of appetite and changes in taste perception are common side effects of cancer and its treatment.Diarrhoea and constipation also negatively affect your ability to obtain adequate nutrition.A well-balanced diet also prevents the breakdown of body tissue, helps rebuild the tissue that cancer may harm, and helps maintain the bodys immune system.
Healthy eating tips in cancerEat smaller meals more frequently.Keep fat levels low.Increasing protein.Increasing calories.Eat all types of fruits and vegetables a day.Drink lots of water.Multivitamin tablets.
Foods to avoid in cancer Foods containing acrylamide, such as french fries and potato chips. Trans fats. Soda. Processed meats. Fried foods. Foods containing the preservatives BHT, BHA. Smoked and pickled foods.
ExerciseMany patients find that their level of physical activity diminishes due to their disease, its treatment, or some combination of both. This is particularly true for patients who are hospitalized or bedridden. It can also be an issue for all patients suffering from pain, lethargy or depression.One of the best ways to combat these symptoms is to exercise. No matter how seemingly insignificant, move your body!
It will help to tolerate the side effects of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery.Cancer, as well as cancer treatments can increase the risk of blood clots, exercise will help to prevent clot formation.Weight-bearing exercises will help to keep bones strong and healthy and will help to prevent osteoporosis which is a side effect of steroid therapy
Cognitive FunctioningCancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or brain radiation experience increased forgetfulness, a decreased attention span and problems concentrating.In most cases, cognitive dysfunction is minimal and limited to simple forgetfulness or loss of coordination.Mental exercises such as doing mind games, crossword puzzles, playing chess or other games of strategy can keep the mind sharp and focused.
StressThe minds natural tendency is to run off in an infinite number of directions, each with its own stress and fear. Stress reduction techniques such as self- hypnosis, yoga, biofeedback, meditation, and acupuncture, acupressure, healing massage, or keeping a journal cultivate inner peace and may even benefit to reduce your stress.
AnxietyAnxiety is a normal reaction to cancer. Anxiety associated with cancer may increase feelings of pain, interfere with ones ability to sleep, cause nausea and vomiting, and interfere with the patients quality of life.
Tips to reduce AnxietyWhenever possible, lower your risk (for example, avoid alcohol to relieve symptoms).Find a technique that works for you to lower your anxiety & use it (like slow deep breathing, in & out, 15 times).Follow your treatment plan.Take guidance.Keep a diary or journal.
DepressionPeople who face a diagnosis of cancer will experience different levels of stress and emotional upset. Issues in the life causing anxiety in cancer may are Fear of death. Interruption of life plans. Changes in body image and self-esteem. Changes in social role and lifestyle. Money and legal concerns.
CopingCoping refers to the attitudes you develop and the actions you take to maintain your equilibrium and adjust to the stresses caused by cancer.
Tips for CopingRelying on others for support and assistance.Sharing your feelings with others.Seeking professional counseling.Setting realistic goals and readjusting them when necessaryControlling fear and anxiety with stress reduction techniquesAdopting a mantra, or a reassuring phraseGiving yourself time to adjust to and recover from bad news
Tips for CopingAccepting your limitationsRecognizing that you still have control over many aspects of your lifeMoving on from mistakes rather than letting them debilitate or destroy youAlleviating day-to-day stress
Social AspectThe society where a person live plays a important role in shaping the persons perception about the life.Socializing allows you to share your ideas, believes, values and provides an equal opportunity to listen to what others have to say and have a positive attitude towards problems you may face in everyday life.
Family and FriendsThe support of family and friends is an essential part of maintaining your quality of life.Family and friends provide you with emotional support, physical comfort, spiritual guidance, a welcome diversion and assistance.Spending quality time with your friends and family will enrich your life. Share a meal, play a game, or look through an old photograph album together.
Support groups provide patients with an opportunity to see the problems they are confronting through the eyes of others.This can give patients a new perspective on their situation, reduce the inappropriate guilt felt by some, and help patients to recognize that their problems are the result of the cancer.
Spiritual AspectBeing spiritual helps in more than one way. It is good to keep your faith on supreme being whom you trust.We may seek this liaison through prayer and a renewed devotion to God. In the event of treatment failure and progressive disease, spirituality can help ease the pain of separation from loved ones and the things of this world.
Collaborative religious coping- Seeking control in solving problems through a partnership with God.Active religious surrender- Turning control over to God after all else has failed.Pleading for direct intercession- Seeking control indirectly by praying for a miracle or divine intercessionPassive religious deferral- Waiting for God to control the situationSelf-directing religious coping- Believing that God gives individuals the tools and resources to solve problems