• Dysprosody: is characterized by alterations in
intensity, in the timing of utterance
segments, and in rhythm, cadence, and
intonation of words.
• Muteness: is complete inability to speak.
• Articulation disorders: are characterized by
difficulty learning to produce sounds
• Phonemic disorders: are characterized by difficulty in
learning the sound distinctions of a language, so that
one sound may be used in place of many.
• Voice disorders: are impairments, often physical, that
involve the function of the larynx or vocal resonance.
• Dysarthria: is a weakness or paralysis of speech
muscles caused by damage to the nerves and/or
• Apraxia: of speech may result from stroke or be
developmental, and involves inconsistent production
of speech sounds and rearranging of sounds in a
word ("potato" may become "topato" and next
Physical Impairments: Cleft Lip And Palate,
Vocal Abuse Or Misuse.
• Speech therapy
Speech therapy / Speech Language
• In speech language therapy, an sleep language
pathologist (SLP) will work with a child one on
one, in a small group, or directly on a
classroom to overcome difficulties involved
with a specific disorder.
Cognitive or developmental delays
Weak oral muscles
Birth defects such as CL/CP
Motor planning problems
Feeding and swallowing disorders
Traumatic brain injury
1. Language intervention activities:
– A SLP will interact with a child by playing and
talking, using pictures, books, objects or ongoing
events to stimulate language development. The
therapist model correct pronunciation & use
repetition exercises to build speech and language
2. Articulation therapy
- Articulation exercises involve having the therapist
model correct sounds and syllables for a
child, often during play activities. The level of
play is age appropriate and related to the childs
3. Oral-motor / feeding and swallowing
- The SLP will use a variety of oral exercisesincluding facial massage and various
tongue, lip and jaw exercises to strengthen
the muscles of the mouth.