Biological model

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Biological model

  1. 1. BIOLOGICAL MODEL OF ABNORMALITY PAPER - III
  2. 2. The Biological Model • Typically focus on the brain. • Psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of the organism.
  3. 3. Brain anatomy • The brain is composed of 100 billion nerve cells (called neurons) and thousands of billions of support cells (called glia) • Clinical researchers have discovered connections between certain psychological disorders and problems in specific brain areas
  4. 4. Example: brain abnormality • Enlarged ventricles
  5. 5. Brain chemistry 5
  6. 6. – Mental disorders are sometimes related to abnormal chemical activity in the endocrine system. – Abnormal secretions have been linked to psychological disorders • Example: cortisol release is related to anxiety and mood disorders
  7. 7. Genetics Studies suggest that inheritance plays a part in •mood disorders, •schizophrenia, •Alzheimer’s disease, •other mental disorders.
  8. 8. EVOLUTION • Evolutionary theorists argue that we can best understand abnormality by examining the millions of years of human evolution • This model has been criticized and remains controversial, yet it receives considerable attention.
  9. 9. Viral infections •Another possible source of abnormal brain structure or biochemical dysfunction is viral infection •Example: schizophrenia and prenatal viral exposure, anxiety and mood disorders
  10. 10. Biological Treatments • Three types of biological treatment: – Drug therapy – Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) – Psychosurgery
  11. 11. Drug therapy – 1950s = advent of psychotropic medications • Greatly changed the outlook for a number of mental disorders – Four major drug groups: • Antianxiety drugs (anxiolytics; tranquilizers) • Antidepressant drugs • Antibipolar drugs (mood stabilizers) • Antipsychotic drugs
  12. 12. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) – Used for depression when drugs and other therapies have failed • In 60% of cases, ECT can lift symptoms within a few weeks
  13. 13. Psychosurgery (or neurosurgery) • Considered experimental and used only in extreme cases • Biological practitioners attempt to pinpoint the physical source of dysfunction to determine the course of treatment
  14. 14. Assessing the Biological Model Strengths: – Enjoys considerable respect in the field – Constantly produces valuable new information – Brings great relief – Fruitful • Creates new therapies • Suggests new avenues of research Weaknesses: – Can limit, rather than enhance, our understanding • Too simplistic – Evidence is incomplete or inconclusive – Treatments produce significant undesirable (negative) effects
  15. 15. References • Bennett, Paul (2003). Abnormal and Clinical Psychology. Open University Press. ISBN 978-0-335-21236-1. • Hansell, James; Lisa Damour (2005). Abnormal Psychology. Von Hoffman Press. ISBN 0-471-38982-X. • Barlow, David H.; Vincent Mark Durand (2004). Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-63362-5. • Zvolensky, M. J.; Kotov, R.; Antipova, A. V.; Schmidt, N. B. (2005). "Diathesis stress model for panic-related distress: A test in a Russian epidemiological sample". Behaviour Research and Therapy 43 (4): 521– 532. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2004.09.001. PMID 15701361
  16. 16. THANK YOU SANIKA SATHE MA PART 2 SEM 4 COUNSELLING

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