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Antisocial personality disorder

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  • 1. Antisocial personality disorder
  • 2. Antisocial personality disorder • Antisocial (or dissocial) personality disorder is a personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. • There may be an impoverished moral sense or conscience and a history of crime, legal problems, impulsive and aggressive behavior. • Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is the name of the disorder as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). • Dissocial personality disorder is the name of a similar or equivalent concept defined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), where it states that the diagnosis includes antisocial personality disorder. • ASPD falls under the dramatic/erratic cluster of personality disorders.
  • 3. Diagnosis • The APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV-TR), defines antisocial personality disorder (in Axis II Cluster B) • A) There is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three or more of the following::failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest; deception, as indicated by repeatedly lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure; impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults; reckless disregard for safety of self or others; consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations; lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.
  • 4. Diagnosis • B) The individual is at least age 18 years. • C) There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before age 15 years. • D) The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode . In the DSM-5, the diagnosis antisocial personality disorder is kept, but it is no longer on another axis as the other mental disorders.
  • 5. Causes • Personality disorders seem to be caused by a combination of these genetic and environmental influences. • Genetically, it is the temperament and the kind of personality a person is born with, and environmentally, it is the way in which a person grows up and the experiences they have had.
  • 6. Pathophysiology • • • • Hormones and neurotransmitters Limbic neural maldevelopment Cultural influences Head injuries
  • 7. Treatment • ASPD is considered to be among the most difficult personality disorders to treat. Because of their very low or absent capacity for remorse, individuals with ASPD often lack sufficient motivation and fail to see the costs associated with antisocial acts. • They may only simulate remorse rather than truly commit to change: they can be seductively charming and dishonest, and may manipulate staff and fellow patients during treatment.
  • 8. Prognosis • According to Professor Emily Simonoff, Institute of Psychiatry, "childhood hyperactivity and conduct disorder showed equally strong prediction of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and criminality in early and mid-adult life. Lower IQ and reading problems were most prominent in their relationships with childhood and adolescent antisocial behaviour."
  • 9. REFERENCES • David P. Farrington, Jeremy Coid (2003-06-16). Early Prevention of Adult Antisocial Behavior. Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-521-65194-3. Retrieved 2008-01-12. • Patrick, Christopher (2005). Handbook of Psychopathy. Guilford Press.ISBN 9781606238042. Retrieved 18 July 2013. • American Psychiatric Association (2000). "Diagnostic criteria for 301.7 Antisocial Personality Disorder". BehaveNet. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Retrieved 8 July 2013