تسويق العلاقات

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تسويق العلاقات

  1. 1. (Relationship Marketing) ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻨﻬﻮﺭﻱ‬ Marketing Research Service‫ﺷﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ) ﻣﻜﺔ ( ، ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺽ ، ﺍﳋﺮﻃﻮﻡ‬ Tel. 0 123001458E-mail. saniali2010@gmail.com, Blog: www.umsudan.blobspot.com 1 ‫اﻟﺻﻔﺣﺔ‬ Hassan Ali SANHORI,e-mail:saniali2010@gmail.com, blog; umsudan.blogspot.com
  2. 2. ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت )‪(Relationship Marketing‬‬ ‫1 . ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ:‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﺟﻪ‬‫اﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎت ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ اﳋﺎرﺟﻴﺔ و ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺸﺌﺎت ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬‫إﱃ ﲢﺪﻳﺎت ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺄة ، و ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺣﺠﻢ اﳌﻨﺸﺄة‬‫و ﻧﻮع اﻟﻨﺸﺎط اﻟﺬي ﺗﻘﻮم ﺑﻪ و ﻟﻜﻦ اﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﳍﺬﻩ اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ ﳝﺜﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻛﱪ اﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺎت اﻟﱵ‬‫ﺗﻮاﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﻫﺬﻩ اﳌﻨﺸﺂت. ﲢﺘﺎج اﳌﻨﺸﺂت إﱃ دراﺳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ دراﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﱵ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ان‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﺟﻬﻬﺎ و ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮار ﰲ اﻟﺴﻮق.‬‫ﺎ اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ، و ﻣﻦ اﻫﻢ اﻻﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت و اﻟﱵ أﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﳒﺎﺣﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺪد ﻣﻦ اﻷﺳﻮاق،‬ ‫اﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت.‬‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﺎء، اﳊﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ و ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء )‪ (customers‬و‬‫‪ . .(Other‬اﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻳﻌﲏ ﻛﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫)‪Stakeholders‬‬ ‫أﺻﺤﺎب اﳌﺼﻠﺤﺔ اﻷﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬‫اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ اﶈﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻹﺑﻘﺎء و ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﺮﲝﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ اﻷﻣﺪ ﺑﲔ‬‫و ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ذﻟﻚ و ﻻﺑﺪ ان ﺗﺘﺠﻪ اﳌﻨﺸﺂت‬ ‫. )6002 ,‪(Shahram Gilaninia et al‬‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ‬‫اﻟﺴﻮداﻧﻴﺔ إﱃ اﳊﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ اﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت و رﻏﺒﺎت اﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﻴﻠﺔ اﻷ‬ ‫2 . ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ:‬‫ﻣﻨﺬ ﻇﻬﻮر اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻛﻌﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﺑﺬاﺗﻪ ﰎ وﺿﻊ اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻌﺎرﻳﻒ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻧﺬﻛﺮ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫اﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ) ‪:(American Marketing Association‬‬‫ﻋﺮﻓﺖ اﳉﻤﻌﻴﺔ اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ‪ AMA‬اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﻪ:" ﻫﻮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲣﻄﻴﻂ وﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ اﻟﺘﺼﻮر‬‫اﻟﺻﻔﺣﺔ 2‬ ‫‪Hassan Ali SANHORI,e-mail:saniali2010@gmail.com, blog; umsudan.blogspot.com‬‬
  3. 3. ‫واﻟﺘﺴﻌﲑ واﻟﱰوﻳﺞ ﻟﻸﻓﻜﺎر واﻟﺴﻠﻊ واﳋﺪﻣﺎت وذﻟﻚ ﻹﲤﺎم ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻟﺘﺒﺎدل اﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﺒﻊ أﻫﺪاف‬ ‫ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻷﻓﺮاد واﳌﻨﻈﻤﺎت"‬‫اﻷول إﱃ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﳌﻔﻬﻮم اﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺗﺒﺪأ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺤﻮث‬‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ رﻏﺒﺎت و اﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت اﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ/ اﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ )ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﺪراﺳﺔ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺮى( و اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ إﺷﺒﺎع و ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﺮﻏﺒﺎت و اﻻﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت.‬ ‫3 . ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ:‬‫ﺗﺘﺨﺬ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﺪة ﺻﻮر، ﺗﺸﻤﻞ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﳌﺘﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ، اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ، اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬‫اﳌﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ و اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ...اﱁ. ﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻻ ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﻜﻞ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ،‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ وﺿﺢ )9991 ,‪ (Atul Parvatiyar, Ph.D‬ان ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت و اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬‫اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﻏﲑ ﻣﱰادﻓﺎن، ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻳﺼﻒ ﻧﻈﺮة ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ ﳏﺪدة و ﻫﻲ ﺟﺰء ﺛﺎﻧﻮي ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ أو ﻛﻴﺰ ﳏﺪد ﻟﻠﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ. ﺣﻴﺚ ﻋﺮف ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﺑﺎﻧﻪ ) اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ اﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮة ﻟﻠﺪﺧﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ ﻋﻼﻗﺎت و ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ ﺗﻌﺎوﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﳋﻠﻖ و ﲢﺴﲔ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎدﻟﺔ ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﳐﻔﻀﺔ.(‬‫و ﻗﺪ ﰎ وﺿﻊ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ اﻛﺜﺮ ﴰﻮﻻ ﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت )5002 ,‪ (Murphy et al‬ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬‫) ‪Other‬‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﺎء، ﲢﺴﲔ و دﻋﻢ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻗﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء و أﺻﺤﺎب اﳌﻨﻔﻌﺔ اﻷﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪.(Stakeholders‬‬ ‫4 . ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ:‬‫ﻳﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻔﻬﻮم ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻋﺘﺒﺎر اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﺷﺨﺺ أو وﺣﺪة ﻓﺮدﻳﺔ و ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎت اﳌﻨﺸﺄة‬‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ إﱃ اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ اﳊﺎﱄ اﻋﺘﻤﺎدا ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ و اﳊﻮار وﲢﺎول اﳌﻨﺸﺄة ان ﲢﻘﻖ اﻟﺮﲝﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺧﻼل ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻌﺪل ﲢﻮل اﻟﻌﻤﻼء و ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء، اﳍﺪف اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬‫اﻟﺻﻔﺣﺔ 3‬ ‫‪Hassan Ali SANHORI,e-mail:saniali2010@gmail.com, blog; umsudan.blogspot.com‬‬
  4. 4. ‫)‪ (Fundamental Goal‬ﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ اﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﲟﺮور اﻟﺰﻣﻦ و اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﳝﺜﻞ ﺗﺪﻓﻖ ﺻﺎﰲ رﺑﺢ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺄة. ﻻ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﻓﻘﻂ و ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻬﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﻮاع اﻷﺳﻮاق اﻷﺧﺮى اﻟﱵ ﲢﻴﻂ ﺑﺴﻮق اﻟﻌﻤﻼء، ﻓﻘﺪ ﰎ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﲬﺴﺔ أﺳﻮاق أﺧﺮى ﲢﻴﻂ‬ ‫) ‪Referral‬‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻮق اﻟﻌﻤﻼء وﻫﻲ اﻷﺳﻮاق اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ )‪ ، (Internal Markets‬أﺳﻮاق اﳌﻮﺻﲔ‬ ‫) ‪Recruitment‬‬ ‫‪ ،(Marketing‬أﺳﻮاق اﳌﻮردﻳﻦ )‪ ،(Supplier Markets‬أﺳﻮاق اﻟﺘﻮﻇﻴﻒ‬ ‫‪ (Markets‬و أﺳﻮاق اﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ )‪ (Influence Markets‬ﳑﺜﻠﺔ ﰲ اﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ، ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺎت اﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻞ،‬ ‫ﲨﻌﻴﺎت ﲪﺎﻳﺔ اﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ...اﱁ.‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﻛﻬﺪف أﺳﺎﺳﻲ و ذﻟﻚ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء و ﺧﻠﻖ وﻻء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﳍﻢ دور‬ ‫أﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﰲ ﳒﺎح ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء.‬ ‫5 . ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ:‬ ‫ﺗﺰاﻳﺪ اﳌﻨﺸﺂت اﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻊ و اﳋﺪﻣﺎت و اﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰲ اﻟﺴﻮق دﻋﺖ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ اﳌﻨﺸﺂت‬ ‫إﱃ اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﺘﺒﺎدﱄ )‪ (Transactional Marketing Approach‬إﱃ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت )‪ (Relationship Marketing Approach‬و اﻟﺬي ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ اﻵﺟﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء. ﻗﺴﻢ )‪ (Shahram Gilaninia et al‬اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﱵ ﺗﱪر أﳘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت إﱃ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ أﻧﻮاع رﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ:‬ ‫1. اﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ اﳌﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ: اﻟﻮﺿﻊ اﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻲ ﻣﻦ دﺧﻮل ﻣﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮ ن ﺟﺪد، ﺧﺼﻮ ﺻﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻋﻮﳌﺔ اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة.‬‫2. اﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء: اﻟﻌﻤﻼء اﺻﺒﺤﻮا اﻛﺜﺮ ﺧﱪة و ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت اﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ اﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎت، ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ اﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎت اﻟﻌﻤﻼء.‬ ‫اﻟﺻﻔﺣﺔ 4‬ ‫‪Hassan Ali SANHORI,e-mail:saniali2010@gmail.com, blog; umsudan.blogspot.com‬‬
  5. 5. ‫3. اﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﰲ اﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ: اﻟﺘﻐﲑات اﻟﱵ ﲢﺪث ﰲ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻐﲑات ﰲ اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ، اﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ، اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ، اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ..اﱁ.‬ ‫6 . ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ:‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺠﻪ اﳌﻨﺸﺎة ﺑﺘﻄﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﻻﺳﱰ اﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت إﱃ ﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ، ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﱰ‬ ‫اﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻣﻦ اﳒﺢ اﻻﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺎت اﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ان ﺗﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ اﳌﻨﺸﺂت إﻻ ان ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫اﳌﻨﺸﺄة ﺷﺮﳛﺔ/ ﺷﺮاﺋﺢ اﻟﺴﻮق اﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ اﺳﱰ اﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﲟﺎ ﳛﻘﻖ رﲝﻴﺔ ﳍﺎ،‬ ‫ﻻن اﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻹﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ و دﻋﻢ اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪة اﳌﺘﺒﺎدﻟﺔ ﺑﲔ اﻷﻃﺮاف‬ ‫) ,‪Atul Parvatiyar‬‬ ‫اﳌﻌﻨﻴﲔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺘﲔ:‬ ‫9991,‪(Ph.D‬‬ ‫1. اﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﻌﻤﻼء: ﲣﺪم اﳌﻨﺸﺂت ﻋﺪد اﻟﺸﺮاﺋﺢ ﰲ اﻟﺴﻮق و ﻛﻞ ﺷﺮﳛﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ إﱃ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺎﻋﺎت أو ﻋﻤﻼء )ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮع اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ و ﺣﺠﻢ اﳌﻨﺸﺄة(، ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل دراﺳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﻘﻄﺎﻋﺎت/‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﲣﺘﺎر اﻷﻧﺴﺐ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ اﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت.‬ ‫2. ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت: ﺑﻌﺪ اﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﺗﻘﻮم اﳌﻨﺸﺄة وﺿﻊ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء اﳌﺨﺘﺎرﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻳﺮاﻋﻲ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺷﺮﳛﺔ/ﻗﻄﺎع ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء و‬ ‫رﻏ ﺒ ﺎﻢ و ﺣﺘﻴ ﺟ ﺎﻢ اﳋﺎﺻﺔ.‬ ‫ا ﺎ‬ ‫7 . ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ:‬ ‫‪ (Shelby‬ﲦﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﲤﺜﻞ أﺳﺎس ﳒﺎح اﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ‬ ‫)‪D. Hunt et al‬‬ ‫ﺣﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت:‬ ‫1. ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻋﻼﺋﻘﻴﺔ ) اﻟﺜﻘﺔ، اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ...اﱁ.(‬ ‫اﻟﺻﻔﺣﺔ 5‬ ‫‪Hassan Ali SANHORI,e-mail:saniali2010@gmail.com, blog; umsudan.blogspot.com‬‬
  6. 6. ‫2. ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻣﺼﺎدر )ﻣﺼﺎدر ﻣﻜﻤﻠﺔ، ﻣﺼﺎدر ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰة ..اﱁ.(‬ ‫3. ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻗﺪرة ) ﻗﺪرات اﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻔﺎت، و اﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮق(.‬ ‫4. ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻲ.‬ ‫5. ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ اﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت ) اﻟﱪاﻣﺞ "‪ ،"CRM‬اﻷﺟﻬﺰة و اﳌﻌﺪات ...اﱁ.(‬ ‫6. ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﻌﺮوض اﻟﺘﺴﻮﻳﻘﻴﺔ )اﳉﻮدة، اﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎر ...اﱁ.(‬ ‫7. اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﺎرﳜﻴﺔ ) اﻟﺴﻠﻮك ...اﱁ(.‬ ‫8. ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ) ﺣﻘﻮق اﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ، ﻗﺎﻧﻮن اﻟﻌﻘﻮدات ...اﱁ.(‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ ﰎ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﻟﻨﺠﺎح اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺘﺒﺎدﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء:‬ ‫ﻫﻲ اﻟﺜﻘﺔ، اﻻﻟﺘﺰام، اﻟﺘﻌﺎون، ﺣﻔﻆ اﻟﻮﻋﻮد، ﻛﺔ اﻟﻘﻴﻢ و اﻻﺗﺼﺎل.‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎر‬ ‫8 . ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻓﺸﻞ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ:‬‫‪Nelson and Kirkby‬‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ اﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﳛﺘﺎج إﱃ ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ و ﻗﺪ ﺣﺪد )‬ ‫)1002(( ﺳﺒﻌﺔ أﺳﺒﺎب ﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت:‬‫1. ﲡﺎﻫﻞ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت: ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﰲ اﻷﺳﺎس ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻌﻤﻼء، ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت اﳌﻨﺘﺞ،‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﺘﺒﺎدل ...اﱁ. ﳚﺐ ان ﺗﺘﻮﻓﺮ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت وﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ اﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪة ﻣﻦ ﲣﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ.‬‫2. اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺄة: ﻻﺑﺪ ان ﺗﺘﻮ اﻓﻖ اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺎت اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺄة ﻣﻊ اﺳﱰ اﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻮ ﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت.‬‫3. ﻋﺪم ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﲔ إدارة ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺔ اﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت و اﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ اﻷﺧﺮﻳﻦ: ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ اﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ‬‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ اﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت و ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻻﺑﺪ ان ﻳﺸﺎرك اﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﰲ إﺧﺘﻴﺎر اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻠﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬ ‫اﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﻢ.‬‫4. ﻻ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺧﻄﺔ: ﻓﻮاﺋﺪ اﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ اﳌﺪى اﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ، و ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﺿﻊ ﺧﻄﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ ﳌﺪة ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺳﻨﻮات ﻛﺤﺪ ادﱏ.‬‫اﻟﺻﻔﺣﺔ 6‬ ‫‪Hassan Ali SANHORI,e-mail:saniali2010@gmail.com, blog; umsudan.blogspot.com‬‬
  7. 7. ‫5. ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺸﺄة و ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻴﻞ: ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻳﺮﺗﻜﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء، و ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻻ ﳚﺐ ان ﻳﻄﺒﻖ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﳊﻞ ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ اﳌﻨﺸﺄة اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻴﺔ، )ﻣﻊ ﻣﺮاﻋﺎة‬ (.‫اﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ رﺿﺎء اﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬‫6. اﻟﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ اﻷﱄ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﳋﺎﻃﺌﺔ: ﻣﻌﻈﻢ اﳌﻨﺸﺂت ﻟﺪﻳﻬﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ، و ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬‫ﻣﺮور اﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻮم ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺑﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ أﻫﺪاﻓﻬﺎ، ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت و اﺳﺘﺒﻌﺎد اﻟﱵ‬ .‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮاﻓﻖ ﻣﻊ اﺳﱰاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫7. ﻋﺪم اﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎم ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪرات: ﺗﻀﻊ اﻹدارة‬‫ﺗﺄﻫﻴﻞ اﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﺎ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻣﻠﻮن ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة، ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ وﺟﻮد ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ ﻟﺪورات ﺗﺪرﻳﺒﺔ‬ .‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮة ﻟﺮﻓﻊ ﻛﻔﺎءة اﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ :‫اﻟﻤﺮاﺟﻊ‬1. Shahram Gilaninia et al, 2006, Relationship Marketing: a New Approach to Marketing in theThird Millennium, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(5): 787-799 , ISSN1991-8178.2. Atul Parvatiyar, Ph.D, 1999, THE DOMAIN AND CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS OFRELATIONSHIP MARKETING, Sage Publications.3. Shelby D. Hunt et a,2005, The explanatory foundations of relationship marketing theory,Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing Volume 21 · Number.4. Norton Paley, 2007, The Marketing, Strategy Desktop Guide, Thorogood Publishing.5. John M. Coe , 2004, the Fundamental of business to business Sale & Marketing, McGraw-Hill eBooks.6. Rajagopal ,2007,Marketing Dynamics: Theory and Practice, New Age International (P) Ltd.7. Philip Kotler et al,1999, Principles of Marketing, Prentice Hall Europe.8. Philip Kotler, 2003,Marketing Insights from A to Z, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.9. Harkiranpal Singh, 2006, The Importance of Customer Satisfaction in Relation to CustomerLoyalty. and Retention, Asia Pacific University College of Technology & InnovationTechnology Park Malaysia.10. Kano N. (1984). Attractive quality and must-be quality, The Journal of the JapaneseSociety for Quality Control.11. Halil Zaim, & Selim Zaim, MEASURING EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION IN SMALLANDMEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES, Fatih University, TURKEY.12. Judge, et. al, (1993), “Job satisfaction as a reflection of a disposition : a multiple sourcecausal analysis”, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decisions Processes.13. Dixon and Warner,2010, Employee Satisfaction in Sport:Development of a Multi-Dimensional Model in Coaching, Journal of Sport Management, 2010, 24, 139-168. 7 ‫اﻟﺻﻔﺣﺔ‬ Hassan Ali SANHORI,e-mail:saniali2010@gmail.com, blog; umsudan.blogspot.com
  8. 8. 14. Kotler et al, 2008 , Strategic Marketing for Health Care Organizations, John Wiley &Sons, Inc. All rights reserved15. George, W. (1990) "Internal marketing and organizational behavior: A partnership indeveloping customer-conscious employees at every level", Journal of Business Research, vol20, no 1, 1990, pp 63–7016. Martin Christopher, Adrian Payne, David Ballantyne.(2002), Relationship MarketingCreating Stakeholder Value, Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX28DP225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn MA 01801-204117. Louise Considine et al,2004, relationship marketing in SERVICES, Services MarketingPaper, National University of Ireland, Galway. 8 ‫اﻟﺻﻔﺣﺔ‬ Hassan Ali SANHORI,e-mail:saniali2010@gmail.com, blog; umsudan.blogspot.com

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