427-302 Methods of SocialSciences Research
••                 CTT•   Reliability•   Validity•     SPSS
?••
(Measure)   (Attribute)   (Object)   (Number)                                        , . .
(Measure)             (Attribute)       (Object)         (Number)             ,(Test, Measure)   (Construct Variable)   (S...
TOEFLS    JDI(Job Description   (Job Satisfaction)     Index)
•            (Items)•    (Measure or Test)
••
•         (Objectivity)•   (Difficulty)•        (Discrimination)
ObjectivitySubject   Reality          Object            SubjectivityRealitySubjectReality          ObjectSubject
•   (Reliability)•     (Validity)
Review of Classical Test Theory• Variance o True Scores o Errors
Observed Scores• 75 = 70 + 5• 80 = 70 + 10
True Scores• Reliability  o   Var (T) / Var (X)  o   Var (T) / Var (T) + Var (E)• Reliabilty = Rx1x2
Errors• Systematic Error• Random Error
Random Error
Systematic Error
Reliability VS. Validity• Reliabilty = True Score + Systematic Error  = T + ES• Validity = True Score  =T
Reliability VS. Validity
Reliability VS. Validity
Reliability• Stability (Times)• Equivalence (Forms)• Consistency (Items)
Test-Retest
Stability (Times)• Test-Retest
Parallel Form
Inter-Rater
Equivalence (Forms)• Parallel Form                         2• Inter-Rater          2
Consistency (Items)•   Average Inter-Item Correlation•   Average Item-Total Correlation•   Split-Half Correlation•   Cronb...
Average Inter-Item Correlation
Average Item-Total Correlation
Split-Half Correlation
Cronbach’ s Alpha
Cronbach’ s Alpha• Cronbachs Alpha
(Validity)•    (Research Validity)•                          (Measurement    Validity)
Research Validity
Classicial Classification of                Validity• (Face Validity)• Content Validity• Criterion-Related Validity• Const...
(Face Validity)•
Content Validity•
Criterion-Related Validity••               2         Concurrent Validity    Predictive Validity
Concurrent Validity••
Predictive Validity••                          3
Construct Validity••
Construct Validity
Validity•    o   Face Validity    o   Content Validity•    o   Concurrent Validity    o   Predictive Validity•    o   Cons...
SPSS
••
•         (Objectivity)•   (Difficulty)•        (Discrimination)
••   Pretest
•   (Percent)
• Item-Total Correlation• Corrected Item-Total Correlation• t-test      -
• Reliability• Validity
Reliability•     Correlation    o Test-Retest    o Parallel Forms    o Split Half•     Cronbachs Alpha
Validity•• Known-Group Technique         t-test•   Correlation•   Factor Analysis (EFA vs CFA)•   Multitrait-Multimethod M...
EFA           X1   e1F1         X2   e2           X3   e3           X4   e4F2         X5   e5           X6   e6           ...
CFA           X1   e1F1         X2   e2           X3   e3           X4   e4F2         X5   e5           X6   e6           ...
Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix
Week 11 collecting_data
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Week 11 collecting_data

  1. 1. 427-302 Methods of SocialSciences Research
  2. 2. •• CTT• Reliability• Validity• SPSS
  3. 3. ?••
  4. 4. (Measure) (Attribute) (Object) (Number) , . .
  5. 5. (Measure) (Attribute) (Object) (Number) ,(Test, Measure) (Construct Variable) (Subject) (Variable Values)
  6. 6. TOEFLS JDI(Job Description (Job Satisfaction) Index)
  7. 7. • (Items)• (Measure or Test)
  8. 8. ••
  9. 9. • (Objectivity)• (Difficulty)• (Discrimination)
  10. 10. ObjectivitySubject Reality Object SubjectivityRealitySubjectReality ObjectSubject
  11. 11. • (Reliability)• (Validity)
  12. 12. Review of Classical Test Theory• Variance o True Scores o Errors
  13. 13. Observed Scores• 75 = 70 + 5• 80 = 70 + 10
  14. 14. True Scores• Reliability o Var (T) / Var (X) o Var (T) / Var (T) + Var (E)• Reliabilty = Rx1x2
  15. 15. Errors• Systematic Error• Random Error
  16. 16. Random Error
  17. 17. Systematic Error
  18. 18. Reliability VS. Validity• Reliabilty = True Score + Systematic Error = T + ES• Validity = True Score =T
  19. 19. Reliability VS. Validity
  20. 20. Reliability VS. Validity
  21. 21. Reliability• Stability (Times)• Equivalence (Forms)• Consistency (Items)
  22. 22. Test-Retest
  23. 23. Stability (Times)• Test-Retest
  24. 24. Parallel Form
  25. 25. Inter-Rater
  26. 26. Equivalence (Forms)• Parallel Form 2• Inter-Rater 2
  27. 27. Consistency (Items)• Average Inter-Item Correlation• Average Item-Total Correlation• Split-Half Correlation• Cronbachs Alpha
  28. 28. Average Inter-Item Correlation
  29. 29. Average Item-Total Correlation
  30. 30. Split-Half Correlation
  31. 31. Cronbach’ s Alpha
  32. 32. Cronbach’ s Alpha• Cronbachs Alpha
  33. 33. (Validity)• (Research Validity)• (Measurement Validity)
  34. 34. Research Validity
  35. 35. Classicial Classification of Validity• (Face Validity)• Content Validity• Criterion-Related Validity• Construct Validity
  36. 36. (Face Validity)•
  37. 37. Content Validity•
  38. 38. Criterion-Related Validity•• 2 Concurrent Validity Predictive Validity
  39. 39. Concurrent Validity••
  40. 40. Predictive Validity•• 3
  41. 41. Construct Validity••
  42. 42. Construct Validity
  43. 43. Validity• o Face Validity o Content Validity• o Concurrent Validity o Predictive Validity• o Construct Validity
  44. 44. SPSS
  45. 45. ••
  46. 46. • (Objectivity)• (Difficulty)• (Discrimination)
  47. 47. •• Pretest
  48. 48. • (Percent)
  49. 49. • Item-Total Correlation• Corrected Item-Total Correlation• t-test -
  50. 50. • Reliability• Validity
  51. 51. Reliability• Correlation o Test-Retest o Parallel Forms o Split Half• Cronbachs Alpha
  52. 52. Validity•• Known-Group Technique t-test• Correlation• Factor Analysis (EFA vs CFA)• Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix (MTMM)
  53. 53. EFA X1 e1F1 X2 e2 X3 e3 X4 e4F2 X5 e5 X6 e6 X7 e7F3 X8 e8 X9 e9
  54. 54. CFA X1 e1F1 X2 e2 X3 e3 X4 e4F2 X5 e5 X6 e6 X7 e7F3 X8 e8 X9 e9
  55. 55. Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix
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