สัปดาห์ที่ 9 suicide

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สัปดาห์ที่ 9 suicide

  1. 1. สัปดาห์ที่ 9 เอกสารประกอบการสอนวิชา 427-303 Sociological Theories เทอม 1/2553 เรื่อง Emile Durkheim : Suicide
  2. 2. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) The Study of Suicide (1897)
  3. 3. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) <ul><li>Along with the German Max Weber, one of the most notable sociologists of the early 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>In some ways, fulfilled Comte’s dream of a scientific sociology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Durkheim cont’d. <ul><li>He was the last of the Social Darwinists and the first of the functionalists </li></ul><ul><li>Centered many of his beliefs around the notion of “function” </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTIONALISM </li></ul><ul><li>All elements of society have positive functions and contribute to the maintenance of the social structure </li></ul><ul><li>Society is a relatively stable structure of elements </li></ul>
  5. 5. Durkheim cont’d. <ul><li>Durkheim is considered the first social researcher </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote The Rules of the Sociological Method (1895), the first research methods textbook </li></ul><ul><li>He conducted the first sociological study– his classic study of Suicide (1897) </li></ul><ul><li>He developed the term ANOMIE, defined as a condition of normlessness or absence of norms (and thus, stability) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Study of Suicide (1897) <ul><li>Durkheim chose to study suicide for several reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>1. He wanted to demonstrate the usefulness of sociology in understanding human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>2. Little was known about the subject and he was interested in the topic </li></ul><ul><li>3. Data was readily available (death records, etc.) making the study fairly easy to conduct </li></ul>
  7. 7. Durkheim’s Variables <ul><li>Based on what was available, Durkheim centered his study on several variables and how they influenced the suicide rate </li></ul><ul><li>A. Gender– male/female </li></ul><ul><li>B. Religion– Catholics/Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>C. Military Status– military personnel /civilians </li></ul><ul><li>D. Economy– good/poor </li></ul><ul><li>E. National Status– wartime/peacetime </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Brief Discussion of Variables <ul><li>There are generally two types of variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Variables (the “cause”) and Dependent Variables (the “effect) </li></ul><ul><li>independent variables “cause” a change in the rate of the dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>If A affects B, A is the I.V., B is the D.V. </li></ul><ul><li>In Durkheim’s study, the suicide rate is always the dependent variable. Ex: The suicide rate for males will be different than if one is female. The I.V. Gender has thus affected the suicide rate (D.V.) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Four Basic Research Methods <ul><li>There are four basic methods of research in sociology: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Survey research </li></ul><ul><li>--questionnaires/interviews </li></ul><ul><li>**2. Analysis of Existing Sources (document studies) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Observational Studies </li></ul><ul><li>4. Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>**Durkheim had to choose this method… why? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Findings in Suicide <ul><li>Who had a higher rate of suicide, </li></ul><ul><li>A. Men or Women? </li></ul><ul><li>B. Catholics or Protestants? </li></ul><ul><li>C. Military personnel or Civilians? </li></ul><ul><li>D. People living in a good or poor economy? </li></ul><ul><li>E. People in wartime or peacetime? </li></ul>
  11. 11. ANSWERS: <ul><li>Men– more violent, more isolated than women physically and emotionally </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants– more detached in faith; personal relationship with God vs. rigid Catholic church hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Military Personnel– more violent, more sacrificial to the needs of others– to the point of giving one’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Poor economic times– money issues cause need to escape problems </li></ul><ul><li>Peacetime– social unity occurs in wartime– not detachment– people are more individualistic in peacetime and thus more detached </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusions <ul><li>Durkheim concluded that there were four distinct types of suicide: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Egoistic– due to emotional detachment (loners, friendless people, isolated individuals) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Anomic– due to normlessness (no apparent escape, no way to change situations) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Altruistic– due to a “higher cause” or purpose (terrorism, kamikaze pilots, God’s call, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fatalistic– due to a lack of hope (terminally ill people, etc.) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Final Thoughts/Critique <ul><li>Be able to name examples of each type… </li></ul><ul><li>CRITIQUE of the study: </li></ul><ul><li>Types are not “mutually exclusive”– a suicide may be the result of several types in combination </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to determine the type associated with an actual suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Take an elderly man who has just lost his wife…and takes his own life. His suicide may occur for any of the above reasons or some combination of them– see if you can figure out the possibilities… </li></ul><ul><li>For the first study in sociology, it is a masterpiece! </li></ul>
  14. 14. For more info, see article at: http:// www.relst.uiuc.edu/durkheim/Summaries/suicide.html

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