สัปดาห์ที่ 16 phenomenology

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สัปดาห์ที่ 16 phenomenology

  1. 1. สัปดาห์ที่ 16 เอกสารประกอบการสอนวิชา 427-303 Sociological Theories เทอม 1/2553 เรื่อง Phenomenology
  2. 2. Continued…. <ul><li>The sociology of everyday life is a sociological orientation concerned with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiencing, Understanding ,Describing, Analyzing, communicating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With this people interact in concrete situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The studies face to face social interactions by observing and experiencing them in natural situations, that is, in situations that have not been scientifically manipulated. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sociologies of Everyday Life <ul><li>Phenomenology studies common sense, conscious experience, and routine daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be placed in the category of sociologies of everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>In the article, Sociologies of everyday life, by Jack Douglas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argues that sociologist have years been rebuilding the and thus rebuilding the foundation of all theory and method in the social sciences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five major bodies of theoretical ideas found </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic interactionism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dramaturgical analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labeling theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenomenology and ethnomethodology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>existentialism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Role of Consciousness <ul><li>There are several difference between phenomenology and sociology. </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenology relies on reflexive experience as it takes form in consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>The research assumes intentional consciousness of the researcher. </li></ul><ul><li>Through the techniques of reduction in variation, phenomenology is able to find the rudimentary structures and processes of experience. </li></ul><ul><li>From this perspective, the researcher takes the perspective of the other and imposes a sense of order on the environment. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Continued…. <ul><li>Phenomenologist are more concerned with the way individuals construct in their own conscious the meanings of things. </li></ul><ul><li>They are characterized as a subjective or creative sociology because it seeks to understand the world from the point of view of the acting subject and not from the perspective of the scientific observer. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings come from interacting through a negotiation in their everyday lives. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Phenomenological Approach <ul><li>Edmund Husserl developed the phenomenological approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Designates two things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new kind of descriptive method that made a breakthrough in philosophy at the of the nineteenth century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A science which is intended to supply the basic instrument for a rigorously scientific philosophy and in its consequent application to make possible a methodological reform of all the science. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots of Phenomenological: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entrenched in the German tradition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the most important intellectual debates taking place between the world wars. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Continued… <ul><li>The ideas that came under the phenomenology umbrella </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generated in an atmosphere of heightened social conflict and anxiety about the future. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Husserl wanted to examine the phenomena of conscious and bracket them in order to test their truth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence by Descartes, Hume, and Kant </li></ul><ul><li>Descartes Mediations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Husserl’s first conceived of the possibility of seeking a universally rational “science of being” by turning his theoretical focus on an objective world to a reflective one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descartes argued that the social world exist only in the context of presentations of experiences of people. He also promoted the idea of transcendental subjectivity, a philosophy founded through a psychology of inner experience. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Edmund Husserl <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was sent away to school in Vienna at age 10 to began his German classical education at a “real gymnasium.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities attended were Leipzig (math, physics, and philosophy), Berlin (math), Vienna (doctoral Work) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of phenomenology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His ideas were complex and confusing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His work was translated from German to English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was Jewish, the Jewish population was controlled by marriage licenses; only 328 Jewish families were allowed in 1787 and stopped in 1849. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Married Malvine Charlotte Steinschneider and had three children. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Continued… <ul><li>Held a position of Privatdozent at Halle University. </li></ul><ul><li>He accepted a professorship at Freiburg in Breisgau in 1916 and stayed there until retirement in 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>Calvin O. Schrag wrote in the introduction to The phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the main themes and ideas that emerged throughout this development were: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A critique of psychololgism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The phenomenological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eidetic reduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The phenomenological ego </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transcendental intersubjectivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time consciousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The life world </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Phenomenology <ul><li>Begins with the assumption that every certainty is questionable. </li></ul><ul><li>In Ideem I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Husserl describe phenomenology as a “doctrine of essences” and a doctrine concerned with what things are not with whether they are. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was not looking to establish absolute presupposition on which to build a whole system of knowledge. Therefore, he was not interested in being a system builder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was always a beginner, reexamining the foundations of his investigations, resisting all fixed formulations and final conclusions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy, was never ending pursuit of serious and open-ended questions, which lead to further questions that may require a resetting of the original questions. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Continued… <ul><li>Nakhnikian described “Husserl’s phenomenology as an outgrowth of his attack on psychologism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologism is a species of the view that philosophy is reducible to a factual science, in this case to psychology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also is an attempt to reduce the fundamental laws of logic and mathematics to psychological generalizations about the way people think; it is a type of scientific generalization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Husserl is against ‘biologism’ and anthropologism as he is against pschologism. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Continued… <ul><li>In short, phenomenology is not a science of facts, but a science of essential being, an eidetic science (meaning an insubstantial empirical science; it is a science that aims at establishing the “knowledge” of essence. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguished between facts and essence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Described sciences of experience as sciences of “fact” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts are determined by acts of cognition which underline human experiences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Something is real and thus a fact because it possesses a spatiotemporal existence, having a particular duration of its own and a “real” content. </li></ul></ul>

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