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สัปดาห์ที่ 13 weber basic concept

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  • 1. สัปดาห์ที่ 13 เอกสารประกอบการสอนวิชา 427-303 Sociological Theories เทอม 1/2553 เรื่อง Max Weber : Basic Concepts
  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Born in Thuringia, Germany (1864)
    • Was the eldest of eight children
    • Weber was a sickly child
    • - suffer from physical and mental torment
    • His father was a prominent liberal politician and civil servant,
    • His Mother was a moderate Calvinist and very religious.
    • Parents were refugees from catholic persecution
    • Parents had marriage problems because of different beliefs.
    • Both Weber and his brother Alfred became a sociologists and economists.
  • 4.
    • Passionate reader
      • At age of fourteen he was writing essays about references to Homer, Virgil, Cicero, and Livy.
      • Age eighteen he entered University of Heidelberg
        • He was shy and thin, his shyness quickly disappeared when he enter a dueling fraternity.
        • With this he started to drink large quantities of beer
    • He was engage for 6 yrs with his cousin Emmy , ended it because of mentally and physical problems
  • 5.
    • Age eighteen he entered University of Heidelberg
        • He was shy and thin, his shyness quickly disappeared when he enter a dueling fraternity.
        • With this he started to drink large quantities of beer
    • From time to time he would served with the German army in Strasbourg.
    • In 1884, he returned and study at the university of Berlin.
    • He also attended University of Goettingen but was once again interrupted for military training.
  • 6.
    • In 1893 he married his distant cousin Marianne
      • She was later a feminist
      • She collected and published Weber's journal articles as books after his death
      • After his fathers death, Weber became prone to nervousness and insomnia. He developed psychological problems and was institutionalized in a sanitarium.
      • Took over 5years to recover
    • He was encourage to write
      • In 1903 he became co-editor of the “archiv fuer sozialwissenschaft”
      • This became the leading social science journal in Germany.
  • 7.
    • He resumed his teaching duties during WWI
    • In 1904, he visited the U.S, which helped him with his recovery and was fascinated by America.
      • He delivered an essay bout the social structure in Germany in St. Louis for the congress of arts and sciences.
    • Between 1892 and 1905 he wrote a series of essay and speeches, which it address to the failure of German idealism.
      • - this articles dealt with the social and economic conditions in eastern Germany.
      • - his works were rarely published during his lifetime.
      • - his works slowly got translated in English.
      • In 1905, “The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism,” was published
  • 8.
    • War broke out
      • Weber was the first German to opposed to it
      • Criticized the ineffectiveness of German leadership
    • The last few years of his life, he became very political.
      • Wrote many political newspaper articles.
      • He was founding member of and active campaigner for the newly organized “deutsche demokratische partei”.
      • There was proposals to make him a candidate for presidency of the republic failed.
    • Max Weber died of Pneumonia in June 14, 1920
  • 9.
    • Weber’s work
      • The religion of china: Confucianism and Taoism (1916).
      • The religion of India: the sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism (1916-17)
      • The sociology of religion (1921)
  • 10.
    • Adolescent: Greek and Latin classics
      • Homer, Virgil, Cicero & Livy
    • Influences on his work:
      • Comte
      • Marx
      • Nietzsche
      • Kant
      • Neo-Kantians
  • 11.
    • August Comte (1798-1857)
      • Believed in “Hierarchy of Science”:
        • Each science is dependent upon the other
        • This hierarchy ranges from the simplest to more complex forms of science
        • The sciences above rely on the sciences below, therefore he believed that the sciences on top, such as sociology were more abstract and difficult then those on the bottom.
    • Weber disagreed with this theory: He believed there could be as many sciences as needed. “ A method must advance knowledge rather than be faithful to an imaginary ideal of cognition”.
    • Weber’s Methodological approach was influenced by the ideas from Comte
  • 12.
    • Nietzsche & Marx
      • Influence evident in Weber’s sociology of ideas and interests:
          • Weber:
            • material & ideal interests dictate and individual’s conduct
            • World Images are a product of created ideas that an individual has
            • Social action is governed by the dynamic of individual interests
      • Weber believed ideas had a greater significance than Nietzsche & Marx thought
      • Marx’s belief that ideas were expressions of public interest and that they served as weapons in the struggle between classes and political parties also heavily influenced Weber.
  • 13.
    • Marx
      • Weber and Marx agreed that modern methods of the organization increased efficiency and effectiveness of production, but it “threatens to dehumanize its creators”.
      • Economic Order: Weber did not agree with Marx
        • Marx: Economic order was determined by class struggle and owners of production
        • Weber: believed the character of political power and the effect of the military also played important roles in determining power relationships.
          • The protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism:- was a reaction to Marx’s metaphysical view, “that all events of civilization are reducible to a single cause, namely the economic order.
  • 14.
    • Marx
      • Weber’s theories: Stratification and economic behavior are rooted from the Marxian economics of society.
      • Weber saw democratic ideals come from the Marxian revolutionary ideology.
      • A lot of Weber’s work was influenced by Marx.
  • 15.
    • Nietzsche:
      • Analysis of Psychological Mechanisms: Ideas become rationalizations to use as private aspirations or power and mastery.
        • Both Nietzsche and Weber worried about the future and the 20 th Century. They thought it would be full of tyranny and horror.
        • A lot of Weber’s work was influenced by Nietzsche.
  • 16.
    • Kant & the Neo-Kantians
      • Neo-Kantianism : “was a broad cultural movement focused on an intellectual critique of the currents of positivism, naturalism & materialism which followed the aftermath of the decline of German idealism”.
        • Autonomy of the Individual
        • Became critical of social domination (Gov)
      • Weber: strongly identified with neo-kantian movement because of his Germany
        • Proposed a unified Germany where all people worked toward the German national mission.
        • He demonstrated the advantages of the rational, methodical ethic of work (rational capitalism)
  • 17.
    • considered as one of the "founding fathers" of modern sociology
      • his work is considered to be complex, varied, and open to subjective interpretation
  • 18.
    •     "method" employed by Weber
      • recognized advantage sociologists had over natural scientists, due to the fact that they cannot gain insight to the behavioral patterns of the phenomena they study (example: cannot empathize with the function of an electron or chemical compound)
      • method derives from studying the context of the phenomenon but also empathizing with the individuals involved
      • critiqued as being little more than intuition - an overly soft and subjective method
        • Weber insisted that it's a rational procedure involving systematic research
  • 19.
    • Weber defined sociology as the study of social action between individuals (action defined as meaningful, purposive behavior)
      • This is in contrast to Durkheim's impression of society as "structures that function apart from human purpose and will"
      • Individual action treated as the basic unit of analysis
  • 20.
    • Zweckrational - means to attain a particular goal are rationally chosen
      • example: person pursues college degree to hopefully obtain a job that grants financial security
    • Wertrational - striving for a goal which may not be rational, but is pursued by rational means
      • example: person follows teachings of a prophet, or lives a certain way in hopes of receiving "eternal salvation"
    • Affective action - action via emotional means
      • example: person attends a particular college because their significant other is enrolled there
    • Traditional action - actions are guided by customary habits
      • example: person doesn't really consider college- they have always known it will happen, because their family always has gone/will go
  • 21.
    • Weber maintained that human social action in general has become more formally rational, or careful, planned, and by deliberately matching means to ends
    • Claimed that only in modern societies does formal rationality exist in all spheres of social action
  • 22.
    • A sort of measuring rod, devised of the most "logically consistent" features of a phenomenon
      • example: ideal capitalism has four components- private ownership, pursuit of profit, competition, and laissez-faire economics
  • 23.
    • Weber never explicitly elaborated on rationalization, but it's a theme that's been noted from multiple specific studies
      • The world is becoming increasingly rational.
        • shed light on rationalization via cross-cultural analysis
      • Weber considered modern capitalism to be the root motivation of rationalization
        • the motivation for maximum profits required rational reasoning to develop efficiency
  • 24.
    • Practical rationality - characterized by acceptance of given realities or constraints in society, and simply calculating the best way to deal with them (opposed to threatening to alter the daily routine)
    • Theoretical rationality - attempt to master reality, characterized by transcending daily realities in pursuit of enlightenment such as the "meaning of life"
    • Substantive rationality - courses of action are determined by a value system in which behaviors are limited
    • Formal rationality - courses of action are determined by "universally applied rules, laws, and regulation"
      • Weber saw formal rationality as leading to the "Iron Cage"- rational and established rules prevent individuals from deviating
  • 25.
    • Weber defined bureaucracies as "goal-oriented organizations designed according to rational principles in order to efficiently attain the stated goals"
      • Weber saw the formation and execution of bureaucracies as necessary to complex societies     the ideal bureaucracy has these characteristics:
          • official business is conducted on a continuous basis
          • business is conducted in accordance with stipulated rules
          • every official's responsibility and authority are part of a hierarchy of authority
          • officials do not own the resources necessary for them to perform their assigned functions, but they are accountable for the use of those resources
          • offices cannot be appropriated by their incumbents in the sense of property that can be inherited or sold
          • official business is conducted on the basis of written documents
  • 26.
    • Weber thought it was important to go beyond simply recording events like historians, by also explaining the reasons behind them
    • Weber decided that causal certainty was impossible, and that the best way to measure causality was by probability
  • 27.
    • Human actions cannot be explained in terms of absolute "laws" such as cause and effect.
    • To grasp the meaning of human actions would require a different method from any known to, or required by, practitioners of social science
    • The social scientist's own moral, political, or aesthetic values will enter into their conclusions in a way that those of the natural scientist's do not
  • 28.
    • According to Weber, values play a crucial role before, during, and after social research
    • He strongly thought teachers must keep their personal values out of the classroom
    • However, he thought that scholars have a perfect right to include their values
      • "Students should be presented with the facts; attendees at a conference, or some other public gathering, expect to hear opinionated comments supported by facts"
    • Weber believed that quantitative, empirical studies cannot tell people what they "ought" to do.
  • 29.
    • Definitions:
      • Power: the ability to impose one's will onto another, even when the other objects.
      • Authority: legitimate power, power that is exercised with the consent of the ruled
  • 30.
    • Rational-legal authority - established via impersonal, rational rules that have been legally enacted (possibly by contract)
      • Example:  U.S.
    • Traditional authority - power is traditionally transmitted from generation to generation, by inheritance or appointment
      • Example: Monarchies
    • Charismatic authority - based on the appeal of figures who claim to possess extraordinary virtuosity
      • Naturally unstable because power is with the individual
    • Importance
      • Weber was one of the first who treated authority as characteristic of the relation between leaders and followers
  • 31.
    • Weber's view of inequality was heavily derived from Marx
      • Believed that social stratification will always be reduced to the "haves" and "have nots“
        • Certain individuals can bridge the gap (like priests)
  • 32.
    • Weber's best-known work
    • Traced the impact of Protestantism (primarily Calvinism)
      • Believed to be one of the most powerful forces behind capitalism, though not exclusively
        • Profit as a moral crusade - legitimated inequality
        • Found nations with comparable technology and infrastructure lacked the cultural (religious) encouragement
  • 33.
    • Had a nationalistic attitude, supported the assimilation of all minority groups rather than pluralism
      • Not a racist, though- believed minorities could reach their potential if fully assimilated
        • Long-time friend and supporter of Georg Simmel, a Jew who was discriminated against while trying for a full-time position as a teacher
        • Weber was "the most tolerant liberal thinker Germany could offer at the time"
        •   Made a trip to America and sensed racial tension, foreshadowing an outbreak of riots
  • 34.
      • “ Max Weber has had a more powerful positive impact on a wide range of sociological theories than any other sociological theorist…Weber’s work represents a remarkable fusion of historical research and sociological theorizing” (Ritzer)
        • Created the German Association for Sociology (1909)
        • Starting Point for Careers:
          • Karl Mannheim, Han Speier, Hans Gerth, Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton and C. Wright Mills.
        • His work had theoretical and methodological concepts that when combined with his scholarship brought historical data into “ a new and sharper focus”
  • 35.
    • Many significant trends of work were started by Weber:
      • Stratification theory, study of bureaucracy and large scale organization, the study of legitimate authority, the role of power, the sociology of law, the sociology of politics, the sociology of religion and the sociology of music.
  • 36.
    • George Ritzer- The McDonaldization of Society:
      • Shows the relevancy of Weber’s terms
        • Ex: bureaucracy and rationalization
          • “ For Weber, the model of rationalization was the bureaucracy, whereas for Ritzer, the fast-food restaurant serves as the paradigm of McDonaldization”
        • Ex: irrationality of rationality
          • Weber: “Iron Cage” syndrome
            • In today’s society sociologist have identified many dysfunctions of the bureaucracies
          • In Ritzer’s book “he believes that a bureaucracy is like a fast-food restaurant because they both create a dehumanizing work environment.”
  • 37.
    • Robert Reich: The Work of Nations
      • Builds onto Weber’s work:
        • Believes we are moving from bureaucracies toward new kinds of organizations. He provides the “global web” as an example.
        • Bureaucracies may be a thing of the past, and they are a source of frustration for many.
  • 38.
    • Weber:
      • Contributed a lot to sociological theory and methodology:
        • His concept verstehen is still used today: it helps in understanding why some certain behaviors occur.
          • Social Action: subjective meanings that humans attach to their interactions with one another
          • Values: people hold play important role in relationships.
      • Multicausality of Social Phenomenon:
        • There are multiple social forces that affect everyone all the time
        • The more variables research can control the better
  • 39.
    • Complete Objectivity is Impossible
      • Values & Value relevance
    • The Protestant Ethic & The Spirit of Capitalism
      • Certain cultural barriers can prevent an economy from growing or expanding to its full potential
        • Ex: religion
      • Globalization: without change in cultural attitudes poor societies won’t reach their economic potential
  • 40.
    • Social Class and Inequality
      • His beliefs in social stratification variables are influential
        • Ex: have-have nots; labels of We-They
  • 41.
    • Realism vs. Idealism
      • Idealist-> believed no particular reality existed
    • Realism vs. Nominalism
      • Realist-> Social action, though an abstract concept, has real consequences
    • Idealism vs. Materialsm
      • Both… sought material consequences during a period of German Idealism BUT Weber’s concept of Protestantism shaping capitalism started with the abstract ideas of Protestantism, and ended with the material consequences of capitalism

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