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สัปดาห์ที่ 10 conflict theory introduction
 

สัปดาห์ที่ 10 conflict theory introduction

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    สัปดาห์ที่ 10 conflict theory introduction สัปดาห์ที่ 10 conflict theory introduction Presentation Transcript

    • สัปดาห์ที่ 10 เอกสารประกอบการสอนวิชา 427-303 Sociological Theories เทอม 1/2553 เรื่อง Conflict Theory : Introduction
    • Conflict Theory Introduction
      • Roots
        • Marx and Weber
          • Coercion not consensus is what maintains social order
        • Marx saw a two tier system of Proletariat and Bourgeoisie struggling for control of the means of economic production
        • Weber – agreed in the importance of wealth, but
          • argued that power and status were of equal importance
        • Both saw different groups in conflict over social scarcities.
    • Modern Conflict Theory
      • 60’s open social conflict
        • Functionalism
          • Stability
          • Equilibrium
          • Consensus
        • Dahrendorf
          • the “two faces” of society
            • Functional theory (rulers)
            • Conflict theory (ruled)
          • Society is constantly changing
        • Change results from social conflict and dissent.
    • Dahrendorf’s Assumptions
      • Power is not a zero sum game
      • World not strictly divided
        • Winners
        • Losers
        • Power dominates and controls the powerless.
        • The powerful establish a social structure to maintain control
      • Authority positions are widely distributed
      • People only have power in some
        • President Corp v. family reunion
    • Dahrendorf's Assumptions
      • Dahrendorf believes
        • Functionalists are utopian
        • A society with the absence of power struggles or conflict
        • Real societies
      • Society maintains tension between stasis and change,
        • consensus and coercion
        • function and conflict
    • Social Structure, Group Interests, and Conflict Groups
      • The central questioned of all social thought
      • How do societies adhere?
        • Two well established positions:
          • The Utopians (Functional Theory)
            • Represented by the Functional Theory
          • The Rationalists (Conflict Theory)
            • Represented by Conflict Theory
        • Conflict between the two positions is old.
          • Aristotle vs. Plato
          • Hobbes vs. Rousseau
          • Kant vs. Hegel
            • the debate has intensified.
    • Utopians V. Rationalists
      • Unless one believes that all philosophical arguments are irrelevant
        • the debate was exposed the fundamental alternatives of knowledge, moral and political orientation.
      • Utopians are represented by the Functional theory of society
      • Rationalists are represented by the Conflict theory of society
      • The two positions are mutually exclusive in most fields and people, but not is sociology .
        • Good Sociology uses one in A, another in B and both in C. but does not exclude any.
    • Parson’s Functionalism
      • Parsons is not aware of the rationalists conception of society
        • Parson includes no power struggles in society
        • He envisions a utopian society of consensus and agreement
      • How can functionalism explain daily conflict and disequilibria in society?
    • Functionalist vs. Conflict Theories
      • Functionalism Theory of Society
          • Every society is relatively persistent, stable structure of elements
          • Every society is a well integrated structure of elements
          • Every element in a society has a function. (i.e. contributes to the maintenance)
          • Every function in the social structure is based on a consensus of values between members
        • How can the theory explain a situation where employees of one company, go on a strike that leads to a general revolt against society?
    • Conflict Theory of Society
      • Every Society is at every point subject to the processes of change. Change is everywhere.
      • Every Society displays at every point dissensus and conflict. Conflict is everywhere
      • Every Element in a society contributes to its disintegration and change
      • Every Society is based on coercion of some members by others.
    • Dahrendorf’s Conflict Theory
      • Using Conflict theory he tries to show:
      • How relations of authority become productive of clashes of role interest, which
      • Under certain conditions leads to the formation of organized antagonistic groups within limited social organizations and societies.
    • Power and Authority
      • Two basic premises:
      • Certain people are entrusted with the right to exercise effective coercion over others
      • There is a differential distribution of power and authority
      • The central thesis:
        • The different distribution of authority creates systematic social conflicts (similar to the class conflicts described by Marx)
    • Power Defined
      • The probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his/her will despite the resistance of others, regardless of the base of power.
      • Bases of Power
        • Reward
        • Coercive
        • Legitimate
        • Referent
        • Expert
    • Authority Defined
      • The probability that a command with a given specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people.
      • Does authority require a power base for existence?
        • For Example – expertise or referent
    • Power v. Authority
      • The difference between P/A
        • Power is essentially tied to the personality of the individual, but
        • Authority is always associated with social positions (status)
      • Dahrendorf is only concerned in his presentation with authority
        • Authority alone is part of the social structure, and therefore permits group conflicts
        • Power only permits personal conflict
    • Authority and Conflict
      • The reasons why authority always produces conflict:
        • Authority relations are always super and subordination
        • The super ordinate is expected to control the subordinate
        • Expectation are attached to status positions rather than the character of the individual
        • Authority relations specify the persons subject to control and the spheres within which control is permissible
          • Voluntary relations or socialized relations, there is a duty to obey
        • Authority that is perceived as legitimate threatens negative sanctions for non-compliance
          • The function of the legal system to support the exercise of legitimate authority
    • Imperatively Coordinated Associations
      • An association is the coordination of roles
        • Super Ordinate
        • Sub Ordinate
      • Tasks require effort coordination by group members
        • No task -> No coordination
        • Task introduction -> Coordination requirement
    • Conflict Analysis
      • Investigates
        • the generation of conflict groups created by authority relations in imperatively coordinated associations
        • the unit of analysis is the specific association
          • the dichotomy of authority positions
        • Do all associations involve super ordinate and sub ordinate positions?
    • Conflict Analysis cont.
      • Super ordinate/Sub ordinate dichotomy in all forms of associations
      • Everyone takes part in a large number of different ICA’s
      • Sometimes we are super ordinate
      • Sometimes we are sub ordinate
    • Power and Authority in Conflict Analysis
      • Is power a zero-sum concept?
      • Power is never a zero – sum game
        • Everyone, in every association has some power
        • Power, while not evenly distributed, is ubiquitous
      • Authority is a zero - sum concept
        • No matter how subtitle the distribution
        • Always a line
        • Those with authority (no matter how little) and those without
    • Elites in Society (ICA’s)
      • Elites are those who represent the super ordinate group in any ICA
      • Generally, subordinates out number the super ordinate
      • But in post industrial society, the number of people clearly subjected to authority decreases
        • Elites are only elite in specific associations
    • Elite Classes in Society
      • Always conflict between elites in different associations
      • The upper structure of society is not necessarily the elite class
      • There is constant change
        • Based on the given authority relations of the moment
    • The Masses and Suppressed
      • The masses as typically viewed
        • Ignorant
        • Powerless
        • Apathetic
      • Dahrendorf View
        • Intelligent
        • Empowered
        • Interested
    • Generalizations about the masses
      • Not necessarily the major of an association
      • 2. Members are not necessarily connected by like culture
      • 3. Existence is related to a particular association