สัปดาห์ที่  10  เอกสารประกอบการสอนวิชา  427-303 Sociological Theories เทอม  1/2553 เรื่อง  Conflict Theory : Introduction
Conflict Theory Introduction <ul><li>Roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marx and Weber  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coercion n...
Modern Conflict Theory  <ul><li>60’s open social conflict  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionalism  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Dahrendorf’s Assumptions <ul><li>Power is not a zero sum game </li></ul><ul><li>World not strictly divided  </li></ul><ul>...
Dahrendorf's Assumptions <ul><li>Dahrendorf believes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionalists are utopian </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Social Structure, Group Interests, and Conflict Groups <ul><li>The central questioned of all social thought </li></ul><ul>...
Utopians V. Rationalists <ul><li>Unless one believes that all philosophical arguments are irrelevant </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Parson’s Functionalism <ul><li>Parsons is not aware of the rationalists conception of society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parson...
Functionalist vs. Conflict Theories <ul><li>Functionalism Theory of Society </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every society is rel...
Conflict Theory of Society <ul><li>Every Society is at every point subject to the processes of change. Change is everywher...
Dahrendorf’s Conflict Theory <ul><li>Using Conflict theory he tries to show: </li></ul><ul><li>How relations of authority ...
Power and Authority <ul><li>Two basic premises: </li></ul><ul><li>Certain people are entrusted with the right to exercise ...
Power Defined <ul><li>The probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his/h...
Authority Defined <ul><li>The probability that a command with a given specific content will be obeyed by a given group of ...
Power v. Authority <ul><li>The difference between P/A  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is essentially tied to the personality ...
Authority and Conflict <ul><li>The reasons why authority always produces conflict: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority relatio...
Imperatively Coordinated Associations <ul><li>An association is the coordination of roles  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Super Ord...
Conflict Analysis <ul><li>Investigates  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the generation of conflict groups created by authority relat...
Conflict Analysis cont. <ul><li>Super ordinate/Sub ordinate dichotomy in all forms of associations  </li></ul><ul><li>Ever...
Power and Authority in Conflict Analysis <ul><li>Is power a zero-sum concept? </li></ul><ul><li>Power is never a zero – su...
Elites in Society (ICA’s) <ul><li>Elites are those who represent the super ordinate group in any ICA </li></ul><ul><li>Gen...
Elite Classes in Society <ul><li>Always conflict between elites in different associations </li></ul><ul><li>The upper stru...
The Masses and Suppressed <ul><li>The masses as typically viewed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignorant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Generalizations about the masses <ul><li>Not necessarily the major of an association </li></ul><ul><li>2. Members are not ...
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Transcript of "สัปดาห์ที่ 10 conflict theory introduction"

  1. 1. สัปดาห์ที่ 10 เอกสารประกอบการสอนวิชา 427-303 Sociological Theories เทอม 1/2553 เรื่อง Conflict Theory : Introduction
  2. 2. Conflict Theory Introduction <ul><li>Roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marx and Weber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coercion not consensus is what maintains social order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marx saw a two tier system of Proletariat and Bourgeoisie struggling for control of the means of economic production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weber – agreed in the importance of wealth, but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>argued that power and status were of equal importance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both saw different groups in conflict over social scarcities. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Modern Conflict Theory <ul><li>60’s open social conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equilibrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dahrendorf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the “two faces” of society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional theory (rulers) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict theory (ruled) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Society is constantly changing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change results from social conflict and dissent. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Dahrendorf’s Assumptions <ul><li>Power is not a zero sum game </li></ul><ul><li>World not strictly divided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power dominates and controls the powerless. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The powerful establish a social structure to maintain control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority positions are widely distributed </li></ul><ul><li>People only have power in some </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Corp v. family reunion </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Dahrendorf's Assumptions <ul><li>Dahrendorf believes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functionalists are utopian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A society with the absence of power struggles or conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real societies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Society maintains tension between stasis and change, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consensus and coercion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>function and conflict </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Social Structure, Group Interests, and Conflict Groups <ul><li>The central questioned of all social thought </li></ul><ul><li>How do societies adhere? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two well established positions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Utopians (Functional Theory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represented by the Functional Theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Rationalists (Conflict Theory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represented by Conflict Theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict between the two positions is old. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle vs. Plato </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hobbes vs. Rousseau </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kant vs. Hegel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the debate has intensified. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Utopians V. Rationalists <ul><li>Unless one believes that all philosophical arguments are irrelevant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the debate was exposed the fundamental alternatives of knowledge, moral and political orientation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utopians are represented by the Functional theory of society </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalists are represented by the Conflict theory of society </li></ul><ul><li>The two positions are mutually exclusive in most fields and people, but not is sociology . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Sociology uses one in A, another in B and both in C. but does not exclude any. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Parson’s Functionalism <ul><li>Parsons is not aware of the rationalists conception of society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parson includes no power struggles in society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He envisions a utopian society of consensus and agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can functionalism explain daily conflict and disequilibria in society? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Functionalist vs. Conflict Theories <ul><li>Functionalism Theory of Society </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every society is relatively persistent, stable structure of elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every society is a well integrated structure of elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every element in a society has a function. (i.e. contributes to the maintenance) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every function in the social structure is based on a consensus of values between members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can the theory explain a situation where employees of one company, go on a strike that leads to a general revolt against society? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Conflict Theory of Society <ul><li>Every Society is at every point subject to the processes of change. Change is everywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Every Society displays at every point dissensus and conflict. Conflict is everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Every Element in a society contributes to its disintegration and change </li></ul><ul><li>Every Society is based on coercion of some members by others. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dahrendorf’s Conflict Theory <ul><li>Using Conflict theory he tries to show: </li></ul><ul><li>How relations of authority become productive of clashes of role interest, which </li></ul><ul><li>Under certain conditions leads to the formation of organized antagonistic groups within limited social organizations and societies. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Power and Authority <ul><li>Two basic premises: </li></ul><ul><li>Certain people are entrusted with the right to exercise effective coercion over others </li></ul><ul><li>There is a differential distribution of power and authority </li></ul><ul><li>The central thesis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The different distribution of authority creates systematic social conflicts (similar to the class conflicts described by Marx) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Power Defined <ul><li>The probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his/her will despite the resistance of others, regardless of the base of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Bases of Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coercive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Authority Defined <ul><li>The probability that a command with a given specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people. </li></ul><ul><li>Does authority require a power base for existence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For Example – expertise or referent </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Power v. Authority <ul><li>The difference between P/A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is essentially tied to the personality of the individual, but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority is always associated with social positions (status) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dahrendorf is only concerned in his presentation with authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority alone is part of the social structure, and therefore permits group conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power only permits personal conflict </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Authority and Conflict <ul><li>The reasons why authority always produces conflict: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority relations are always super and subordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The super ordinate is expected to control the subordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation are attached to status positions rather than the character of the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority relations specify the persons subject to control and the spheres within which control is permissible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary relations or socialized relations, there is a duty to obey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority that is perceived as legitimate threatens negative sanctions for non-compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The function of the legal system to support the exercise of legitimate authority </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Imperatively Coordinated Associations <ul><li>An association is the coordination of roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Super Ordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub Ordinate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tasks require effort coordination by group members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No task -> No coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task introduction -> Coordination requirement </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Conflict Analysis <ul><li>Investigates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the generation of conflict groups created by authority relations in imperatively coordinated associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the unit of analysis is the specific association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the dichotomy of authority positions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do all associations involve super ordinate and sub ordinate positions? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Conflict Analysis cont. <ul><li>Super ordinate/Sub ordinate dichotomy in all forms of associations </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone takes part in a large number of different ICA’s </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes we are super ordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes we are sub ordinate </li></ul>
  20. 20. Power and Authority in Conflict Analysis <ul><li>Is power a zero-sum concept? </li></ul><ul><li>Power is never a zero – sum game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone, in every association has some power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power, while not evenly distributed, is ubiquitous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority is a zero - sum concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No matter how subtitle the distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always a line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those with authority (no matter how little) and those without </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Elites in Society (ICA’s) <ul><li>Elites are those who represent the super ordinate group in any ICA </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, subordinates out number the super ordinate </li></ul><ul><li>But in post industrial society, the number of people clearly subjected to authority decreases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elites are only elite in specific associations </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Elite Classes in Society <ul><li>Always conflict between elites in different associations </li></ul><ul><li>The upper structure of society is not necessarily the elite class </li></ul><ul><li>There is constant change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the given authority relations of the moment </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Masses and Suppressed <ul><li>The masses as typically viewed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignorant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apathetic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dahrendorf View </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Generalizations about the masses <ul><li>Not necessarily the major of an association </li></ul><ul><li>2. Members are not necessarily connected by like culture </li></ul><ul><li>3. Existence is related to a particular association </li></ul>
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