COMPUTERSComputer is an electronic device, which canaccept data as input, put into storage, processit according to the instruction and output theinformation.
COMPUTER COMPUTE CALCULATE Generations of Computers: First : Vaccume tubes (ENIAC) Second : Transistors Third : Integrated Circuits (IC) Fourth : Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) Eg: Microprocessors Fifth : Same components as fourth but system possesses Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language Processing capabilities
1. Mainframes – many simultaneous users, handle basically huge databases, perform complex mathematical operationsUses:Industry,research & University computing centres2. Minicomputers- can support a smaller number of simultaneous users, typically 50 to 100Uses:Larger business to handle accounting, billing andinventory records.3. Microcomputers – Desktop PC.
OUTPUT DEVICES: Visual Display Unit [VDU] Printers Speakers
Primary Storage DevicesRAM - Random Access MemoryROM - Read Only MemorySecondary Storage DevicesFloppy DisksHard DiskCD
Primary Memory RAM (Random Access Memory) Inevitable Device in Computing, Made of Semiconductor Devices, Program accessible ROM (Read Only Memory) Contains Firmware, which developed by the manufacturer, used for POST operation, Not used for ComputingSecondary Memory (Auxiliary Memory) Used as Permanent Storage, and User Accessible
Storage Measures Inside the Computer, Digital Signals are used for everyoperation Digital signals are represented by Binary Digits(BITS) ie, 0 & 1 A pattern of 8 Bits can form a character, this pattern is calledByte, & this is the basic unit of storage A 1000 gram is known as Kilo Gram, Like wise a 1024 Byte is aKilo Byte (1KB) 1024 Kilo Byte is a Mega Byte (1 MB) 1024 Mega Byte is a Giga Byte (1GB) 1024 Giga Byte is a Terra Byte (1 TB) and so on…..
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) A very essential hardware Also known as Main Memory Volatile Made of Semiconductor Devices Fast Operation
SECONDARY STORAGE Magnetic Storage Devices Hard Disk Drive (Fixed Disk)Optical Storage FloppyDevices Compact Disk (CD) Zip Disk Digital Versatile Disk( DVD) Tape Cartridge Blue ray Disk(BD) Flash Devices SIMM, MMC etc.
MAGNETIC STORAGE Hard Disk Drive Fixed inside the CPU box Fast Read/ Write operation Huge Capacity to carry Data Magnetic Storage Operation Method is Random
FLOPPY DISK Magnetic Storage Media Available in different size & Capacity Removable storage Operation mode is Random Nowadays used rarely Name Physical Size Capacity Mini 5.25 Inches 360 KB, 1.2 MB Micro 3.5 Inches 720 KB, 1.44 MB, 2.88 MB
Magnetic Storage Media Used as Backup storage Available in 100MB, 250MB, 750MBCapacities Separate drive( Mechanism) is needed (ZipDrive) Look like a floppy disk Operation Mode is Random
Tape Cartridge Magnetic Storage Media Used as Backup storage Compressed capacity of up to 4GB Operation Mode is Sequential A Mechanism (Tape Drive) is needed to operate
Optical StorageCompact Disk Widely used removable storage Storage for data, Audio, video Available Capacity – 650 MB, 700 MB & 800 MB Operation Mode is random
CD-R & CD-RW CD- R is Recordable CD Often Known as Blank CD CD RW is Re Writable CD This can be used as Floppy You can write, overwrite& erase the data & format themedia
DVD ( Digital Versatile Disk ) Storage Capacity of 4.3 to 17 GB DVD R & DVD RW Same Physical Size of a CD Used to store Data, Audio, & Video
BLU-RAY DISK (BD) Storage Capacity of 50 GBUse Blue Laser beam Same Physical Size of a CD or DVD Used to store Data, Audio, & Video
FLASH DEVICES SIMM- Serial Inline Memory Module MMC- Multimedia Card USB Flash Drive
ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER1. HARDWARE Tangible or physical parts of a Computer System2. SOFTWARE Instruction sets or Programs
HARDWARE Input Devices CPU Output Devices Other PeripheralsExample:-Key Board , Mouse , Printer ,Display Unit, storingequipment etc...
SOFTWARESystem Software Operating System & Translation ProgramsApplication Software
Machine Language or Low-Level Language Assembly Language High-Level LanguageExamples: BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, JAVA etc.
OPERATING SYSTEM Definition: An Operating System is an integrated set of programs that is used to manage the various resources and overall operation of a computer Examples: MS DOS, Windows 9x, Windows 2000,Windows NT, Windows XP, Windows CE, Windows Vista, UNIX, LINUX, NetWare, BeOS, OS/2, Solaris, AIX
Application SoftwareWritten to enable the computer tosolve a specific data processingtaskExamples: MS Office, Tally, Auto CADD, DTP Software etc
SERVERServer Manages the client machines, checksthe authentication of users and clientmachines, Serves the data and other services.A server may be a Super Computer, Mainframeor even a PC.
LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM FREE O.S. DEVELOPED IN I991FOUNDER: LINUS TORVALDS
ADVANTAGES OF LINUX NETWORK FRIENDLY MULTIUSER ENVIRONMENT OPEN SOURCE RELIABLE COMPATIBLE
FOUNDER OF FREE SOFTWARE INTRODUCED IN 1983 FROM GNU PROJECTRICHARDSTALLMAN
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