Computer fundamentals

1,162 views

Published on

Computer Fundamentals Presentation uploaded by Sangeeth Kumar

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,162
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
15
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
143
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Computer fundamentals

  1. 1. COMPUTERSComputer is an electronic device, which canaccept data as input, put into storage, processit according to the instruction and output theinformation.
  2. 2. COMPUTER COMPUTE CALCULATE Generations of Computers: First : Vaccume tubes (ENIAC) Second : Transistors Third : Integrated Circuits (IC) Fourth : Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) Eg: Microprocessors Fifth : Same components as fourth but system possesses Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language Processing capabilities
  3. 3. Types of Computers
  4. 4. 1. Mainframes – many simultaneous users, handle basically huge databases, perform complex mathematical operationsUses:Industry,research & University computing centres2. Minicomputers- can support a smaller number of simultaneous users, typically 50 to 100Uses:Larger business to handle accounting, billing andinventory records.3. Microcomputers – Desktop PC.
  5. 5. HISTORY
  6. 6. Charles Babbage (1791-1871)
  7. 7. Difference Engine
  8. 8. FIRST STEP IN ELECTRONICCOMPUTING Vacuum Tube
  9. 9. FIRST ELECTRONICCOMPUTER
  10. 10. New GenerationComputers With Microprocessors
  11. 11. CHARACTERISTICS  Speed  Accuracy  Power of Remembering  Diligence  Versatility  No I.Q  No Feelings
  12. 12. DESKTOP PC
  13. 13. LAPTOP
  14. 14. NOTEBOOK
  15. 15. HANDHELD PC
  16. 16. TABLET PC
  17. 17. PDA
  18. 18. SIMPUTER
  19. 19. TYPE WITHKEYBOARD
  20. 20. ENTERTAINMENT
  21. 21. Connect to Internet
  22. 22. Click for Photo
  23. 23. SUPER COMPUTER
  24. 24. SUPERCOMPUTER Rear View
  25. 25. MADE IN INDIASuper Computer PARAM PADMA
  26. 26. Mainframe
  27. 27. BASIC COMPUTER OPERATIONS  Inputting  Storing  Processing  Outputting  Controlling
  28. 28. INPUT DEVICES: Key Board Mouse [Pointing Device] Scanners Micro Phone Joysticks Touch Pads Light pens
  29. 29. OUTPUT DEVICES: Visual Display Unit [VDU] Printers Speakers
  30. 30. Primary Storage DevicesRAM - Random Access MemoryROM - Read Only MemorySecondary Storage DevicesFloppy DisksHard DiskCD
  31. 31. Primary Memory  RAM (Random Access Memory) Inevitable Device in Computing, Made of Semiconductor Devices, Program accessible  ROM (Read Only Memory) Contains Firmware, which developed by the manufacturer, used for POST operation, Not used for ComputingSecondary Memory (Auxiliary Memory) Used as Permanent Storage, and User Accessible
  32. 32. Storage Measures Inside the Computer, Digital Signals are used for everyoperation Digital signals are represented by Binary Digits(BITS) ie, 0 & 1 A pattern of 8 Bits can form a character, this pattern is calledByte, & this is the basic unit of storage A 1000 gram is known as Kilo Gram, Like wise a 1024 Byte is aKilo Byte (1KB) 1024 Kilo Byte is a Mega Byte (1 MB) 1024 Mega Byte is a Giga Byte (1GB) 1024 Giga Byte is a Terra Byte (1 TB) and so on…..
  33. 33. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) A very essential hardware Also known as Main Memory Volatile Made of Semiconductor Devices Fast Operation
  34. 34. SECONDARY STORAGE Magnetic Storage Devices Hard Disk Drive (Fixed Disk)Optical Storage FloppyDevices Compact Disk (CD) Zip Disk Digital Versatile Disk( DVD) Tape Cartridge Blue ray Disk(BD) Flash Devices SIMM, MMC etc.
  35. 35. MAGNETIC STORAGE Hard Disk Drive Fixed inside the CPU box Fast Read/ Write operation Huge Capacity to carry Data Magnetic Storage Operation Method is Random
  36. 36. FLOPPY DISK Magnetic Storage Media Available in different size & Capacity Removable storage Operation mode is Random Nowadays used rarely Name Physical Size Capacity Mini 5.25 Inches 360 KB, 1.2 MB Micro 3.5 Inches 720 KB, 1.44 MB, 2.88 MB
  37. 37.  Magnetic Storage Media Used as Backup storage Available in 100MB, 250MB, 750MBCapacities Separate drive( Mechanism) is needed (ZipDrive) Look like a floppy disk Operation Mode is Random
  38. 38. Tape Cartridge Magnetic Storage Media Used as Backup storage Compressed capacity of up to 4GB Operation Mode is Sequential A Mechanism (Tape Drive) is needed to operate
  39. 39. Optical StorageCompact Disk Widely used removable storage Storage for data, Audio, video Available Capacity – 650 MB, 700 MB & 800 MB Operation Mode is random
  40. 40. CD-R & CD-RW CD- R is Recordable CD Often Known as Blank CD CD RW is Re Writable CD This can be used as Floppy You can write, overwrite& erase the data & format themedia
  41. 41. DVD ( Digital Versatile Disk ) Storage Capacity of 4.3 to 17 GB DVD R & DVD RW Same Physical Size of a CD Used to store Data, Audio, & Video
  42. 42. BLU-RAY DISK (BD) Storage Capacity of 50 GBUse Blue Laser beam Same Physical Size of a CD or DVD Used to store Data, Audio, & Video
  43. 43. FLASH DEVICES SIMM- Serial Inline Memory Module MMC- Multimedia Card USB Flash Drive
  44. 44. ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER1. HARDWARE Tangible or physical parts of a Computer System2. SOFTWARE Instruction sets or Programs
  45. 45. HARDWARE  Input Devices  CPU  Output Devices  Other PeripheralsExample:-Key Board , Mouse , Printer ,Display Unit, storingequipment etc...
  46. 46. SOFTWARESystem Software Operating System & Translation ProgramsApplication Software
  47. 47.  Machine Language or Low-Level Language Assembly Language High-Level LanguageExamples: BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, JAVA etc.
  48. 48. OPERATING SYSTEM Definition: An Operating System is an integrated set of programs that is used to manage the various resources and overall operation of a computer Examples: MS DOS, Windows 9x, Windows 2000,Windows NT, Windows XP, Windows CE, Windows Vista, UNIX, LINUX, NetWare, BeOS, OS/2, Solaris, AIX
  49. 49. Application SoftwareWritten to enable the computer tosolve a specific data processingtaskExamples: MS Office, Tally, Auto CADD, DTP Software etc
  50. 50. SERVERServer Manages the client machines, checksthe authentication of users and clientmachines, Serves the data and other services.A server may be a Super Computer, Mainframeor even a PC.
  51. 51. LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM  FREE O.S.  DEVELOPED IN I991FOUNDER: LINUS TORVALDS
  52. 52. ADVANTAGES OF LINUX NETWORK FRIENDLY MULTIUSER ENVIRONMENT OPEN SOURCE RELIABLE COMPATIBLE
  53. 53. FOUNDER OF FREE SOFTWARE  INTRODUCED IN 1983 FROM GNU PROJECTRICHARDSTALLMAN
  54. 54. Govt. ITI for Women, Kozhikode-10 An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution

×