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### Presentation on walls and wall opening

1. 1. WALLS AND OPENINGS Submitted to Ar.Sharmin Khan Submitted by Sangeeta Nazera Nishi Amber
2. 2. WALLS …………………3 FUNCTION OF WALL …..4-5 BUILDING WALLS ……6-7 BOUNDARY WALL ……8-9 RETAINING WALL …..10-11 PARTITION WALL …..12-13 WALL COVERING…….14-25 WOOD.…….15 MIRROR ..…16 EXPOSED BRICK …….17 TILES…….18 PLASTER…….21 GYPSUM WALL …….22 MOSAIC…..23 GLASS …..24 PAINTS…..25 WALL HANGING…… 30-38 OPENINGS ….. 39BIBLIOGRAPHY…. CONTENTS “Design is a plan for arranging elements in such a way as best to accomplish a particular purpose” “For a house to be successful, the objects in it must communicate with one another, respond and balance one another”
3. 3. WALLS •A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. •Most commonly, a wall delineates a building and supports its superstructure, separates space in buildings into rooms, or protects or delineates a space in the open air. •Electrical outlets are usually mounted in walls. •There are three principal types structural walls: • Building walls, • Exterior boundary walls, and • Retaining walls. of
4. 4. FUNCTIONS OF A WALLS FUNCTIONS OF A WALL • Aesthetics: formal walls have smooth surfaces and are symmetrical in the window and door placements. They are also more closed with more of a vertical emphasis. Informal walls are rough, asymmetrical, and are more open with a horizontal feel • Function and Flexibility: why use moveable walls? They offer flexibility for tenants that experience change. Moveable walls provide electrical and data lines (some even offer plumbing) built into the wall system. The flooring is installed continuous so that the walls can be moved and not require the flooring to be changed.
5. 5. FUNCTIONS OF A WALLS •Degree of enclosure and privacy: opaque walls mean that you can’t see thru them. Translucent means that you can see thru the windows. •Light qualities: Psychology of light. White reflects up to 89% of light and black reflect about 2%. Texture also plays a role. Smooth surfaces reflect more light that rough textures. •Durability: the amount of time and money needed to maintain the walls must be considered. This is your responsibility when specifying a wall treatment to understand your clients needs. •Acoustics: smooth, hard surfaces reflect sound while soft, porous surfaces absorb sound. Insulate wall cavities when sound transmission is an issue. •Thermal qualities: comfort and energy efficiency.
6. 6. BUILDING WALLS •Building walls have two main purposes: •To support roofs and ceilings, •To divide space, providing security against intrusion and weather. •Such walls most often have three or more separate components. In today's construction, a building's wall will usually have the structural elements (such as 2×4 studs in a house wall), insulation, and finish elements, or surface (such as drywall or panelling). •In addition, the wall may house various types of electrical wiring or plumbing. •Building walls frequently become works of art externally and internally, such as when featuring mosaic work or when murals are painted on them; or as design foci when they exhibit textures or painted finishes for effect.
7. 7. BUILDING WALLS
8. 8. BOUNDARY WALLS •Boundary walls include privacy walls, boundary-marking walls on property, and city walls. •These intergrade into fences; the conventional differentiation is that a fence is of minimal thickness and often is open in nature, while a wall is usually more than a nominal thickness and is completely closed, or opaque. •More to the point, if an exterior structure is made of wood or wire, it is generally referred to as a fence, while if it is made of masonry, it is considered a wall. •Another kind of wall/fence ambiguity is the ha-ha which is set below ground level, so as not to interrupt a view yet acting as a barrier to cattle for example.
9. 9. BOUNDARY WALLS
10. 10. RETAINING WALLS •In architecture and civil engineering, the term curtain wall refers to the facade of a building which is not load-bearing but functions as decoration, finish, front, face, or history preservation. •Retaining walls are a special type of wall, that may be either external to a building or part of a building, that serves to provide a barrier to the movement of earth, stone or water. •The ground surface on one side of a retaining wall will be noticeably higher than on the other side. •A dike is one type of retaining wall, as is a levee, a load-bearing foundation wall, and a sea wall.
11. 11. RETAINING WALLS
12. 12. PARTITION WALLS •Partition walls typically have an inner hidden support structure and an outer surface that in turn may be covered with surface finish exterior •a) wood strips: it is usually 2”x4”spaced 16” apart and running from floor to ceiling are the most common •partition structure in non fire proof construction. •They provide space for piping ,wiring and ducts. •Where drain pipes are to be seen within a partition 2”x6” strips are used •Traditional methods of partitioning a building interior include the use of masonry walls 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in) thick made of concrete, gypsum, or pumice block, painted or plastered; or wood or metal frames covered with lath over which plaster is spread. •Plasterboard and wallboard are increasingly used.
13. 13. PARTITION WALLS
14. 14. WALL COVERINGS •Wall coverings may be divided into following categories:  Non-Resilient coverings  Plaster.  Wood . Boards Moldings  Metal.  Mirrors.  Plastic.  Ceramic Tiles.  Paints and Finishes.  Mosaic. Resilient Coverings  Wall Carpets.  Rubber Tiles.  Leather Covering.
15. 15. WALL COVERINGS WHY WOOD? •boards can be of any wood type cut in various shapes , stained in any colour and led vertically , horizontally and diagonally. •a wide variety of wood sheet panels same with thin veneers are also available with numerous finishes colors and styles are considerably less expensive.
16. 16. WALL COVERINGS WHY MIRROR? •Mirrors can expand an area visually which is an advantage in todays diminished spaces. •Mirrors are available in large sheet and pre cut panels. •ready to install and they cover the entire wall or be spaced on a wall for function and a double wall with two separate sets of struts can impos acoustical isolation between spaces.
17. 17. WALL COVERINGS WHY EXPOSED BRICK ? it was far less expensive to expose the brick in older homes then it was to repair or replace the damaged plasterwork. they add character and rustic charm to any interior and can make any room looks quite industrial. especially popular they are in modern lofts and in historical buildings.
18. 18. WALL COVERINGS WHY TILES? • light and easy to install. • cost-effective and environmentally friendly. • made from natural clay and often from other (recycled) materials. • durable • does not necessitate the use of heavy chemicals. •Tile, thin slab of glazed or unglazed fired clay used structurally or decoratively on walls.
19. 19. WALL COVERINGS TYPES OF TILES • • • • • • • • • ceramic tiles quarry tiles porcelain tiles mosaic tiles marble tiles natural stone tiles travertine tiles slate tiles subway tiles
20. 20. WALL COVERINGS CERAMIC TILE • • • COMES IN TWO FORMS: GLAZED (PORCELAIN) AND UNGLAZED (QUARRY). MADE FROM CLAY AND THEN HEATED. THE GLAZE IS ADDED AFTER THE FIRING OF THE CLAY TILE, WHICH CREATES THE COLOR OF THE TILE. INEXPENSIVE,DURABLE AND NATURAL OPTIONS. MARBLE TILE • • MOST BEAUTIFUL, VERSATILE AND DURABLE NATURAL STONES. STRONG
21. 21. WALL COVERINGS Plaster: An old technique in which plaster is applied over the wallboard or concrete block using a lath. Textures range from smooth to stucco. This technique is almost a lost trade and is not used in new homes. It often chips and cracks as a house settles over the years.
22. 22. WALL COVERINGS Gypsum Wallboard - Drywall Gypsum wallboard is the most commonly used material to cover walls in interior projects. It has evolved into a versatile, dependable material that is quick to install and easy to repair. Made from a natural crystallized mineral, wallboard is naturally fire resistant and can also act as a sound barrier. Gypsum board of 4’ wide sheets x 8’, 9’, or 10’ high is attached directly to the stud walls. The joints are taped, spackled and sanded so the seams do not show. Texture may be applied or various other finish techniques. Note: Sheetrock is brand name but used as a generic term.
23. 23. WALL COVERINGS WHY MOSAIC? Mosaics, works of art of surface decorations, composed of variously colored small pieces of glass, stone, ceramics, or other materials. •thin slabs of marble or of colored stone were cut into strips, which were then cut or broken into cubes.
24. 24. WALL COVERINGS WHY GLASS? • • • CLEAR GLASS PARTITIONS PROVIDE AN INNOVATIVE WAY OF CREATING SEPARATE WORKING AREAS . GIVING A MODERN & SPACIOUS LOOK. THEY ARE AN INNOVATIVE, MODERN AND STYLISH ALTERNATIVE TO TRADITIONAL PARTITIONS.
25. 25. WALL COVERINGS WHY PAINTS? •Paints come in numerous colours producing unlimited shades tones and tints. •Paints are made from a vast array of synthetic and legend materials •Types of paints: •Alkyd •Acrylic •Latex •Enamel •Varnish •Shellac
26. 26. PAINTS DESIRED DECORATIVE EFFECT IS CREATED BY GLAZE. COLOURS OF OUR CHOICE AND IS INVARIABLY APPLIED OVER A BASE COLOUR,. THE COLOUR OF THE GLAZE SHOULD CONTRAST WELL WITH THE BASE COAT, SO USE THE SAME COLOUR, BUT EITHER A SHADE DARKER OR LIGHTER. INSTANCE A STIPPLING EFFECT IS CREATED IN BANDS OF COLOUR – STARTING FROM THE LIGHTEST SHADE AT THE TOP AND FINISHING WITH THE DARKEST SHADE AT THE BOTTOM.
27. 27. PAINTS COMBING IS A QUICK AND EASY TECHNIQUE .DIFFERENT COMBS CREATE DIFFERENT EFFECTS – THESE ARE AVAILABLE IN METAL, CARD OR RUBBER. MASKING INVOLVES PAINTING IN BETWEEN THE LINES OF THE TAP. SIMPLY POSITION THE TAPE ON THE WALL IN SOFT SWEEPING CURVES. THIS EFFECT WAS ACHIEVED USING THREE DIFFERENT SHADES OF BLUE.
28. 28. PAINTS STAMPING AND BLOCKING TECHNIQUE.T HE IDEA IS TO PAINT THE STAMP WITH A SMALL ROLLER AND THEN SIMPLY POSITION THE STAMP ONTO THE WALL USING FIRM PRESSURE SO THAT THE ENTIRE STAMP HAS MADE CONTACT WITH THE SURFACE. RAG-ROLLING TECHNIQUE .USE A COLOUR GLAZE THAT IS SIMILAR IN HUE OR TONE TO THE EMULSION PAINTED ON THE WALL. THE EFFECT ACHIEVED IS SOFT AND SUBTLE IN TEXTURE.
29. 29. WALL HANGING
30. 30. WALL HANGING SOME OF THE TYPES OF WALL HANGINGS PROMINENTLY USED TO DECORATE INTERIORS ARE •PAINTINGS •MURALS •PHOTOGRAPHS •CLOCKS
31. 31. WALL HANGING There are many different types of wall hangings. Some of the more common are wall art, tapestries and mirrors. Framed photos, sconces, baskets and vinyl images are other kinds. There are so many different types, styles and designs of wall hangings that there is one for virtually every style of home decor. Tapestry Macramé Metal Mirror Quilted Handmade Fabric Shelves
32. 32. WALL HANGING Framed Fabric
33. 33. WALL HANGING Hand-made wall hangings Macramé
34. 34. WALL HANGING Metal
35. 35. WALL HANGING Mirror
36. 36. WALL HANGING Quilted
37. 37. WALL HANGING Tapestry
38. 38. WALL HANGING Shelves
39. 39. OPENINGS Arches: • • AN ARCH MAY BE DEFINED AS THE MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT OF WEDGE SHAPED BLOCKS OF STONES OR BRICKS MUTUALLY SUPPORTING EACH OTHER AND SUPPORTED AT THE ENDS BY PIERS OR ABUTMENTS. BECAUSE OF THEIR SHAPE THE BLOCKS SUPPORT EACH OTHER BY MUTUAL PRESSURE OF THEIR OWN WEIGHT AND THE STRUCTURE REMAINS IN POSITION BY THE RESISTANCE FROM THE SUPPORT.
40. 40. T Y P E S O F A R C H E S OPENINGS
41. 41. OPENINGS A SERIES OF ARCHES GIVES A LOOK OF CONTINUITY. OPENINGS IN THE WALL CAN BE USED AS STORAGE PLACE.
42. 42. OPENINGS SIMPLE AND FORMAL ENTRANCE ROYAL AND INFORMAL ENTRANCE WHEN SEGMENTAL ARCH USED
43. 43. OPENINGS SEMI OPEN SPACE CREATED IN AN ARCH OPENING VAULT SUPPORTED BY ARCH
44. 44. JAALI openings Partial separation Visual connection Acts like a window as it provides light and air
45. 45. OPENINGS Windows: French window Fanlight and sidelight window Bay window Palladian window Double-hung window Gliding Sash window Bow window Jalousie window Hingedcasemen t window
46. 46. OPENINGS Window Blinds Grills Curtains
47. 47. OPENINGS Curtain valances give an elegant look Plain window but emphasis is given by curtain Cornices play an important role in emphasising walls
48. 48. www.myspace.com BIBLIOGRAPHY www.interiordesign.net www.wallmuralsgallery.com www.home-designing.com “Design is a plan for arranging elements in such a way as best to accomplish a particular purpose” Images from “google” “For a house to be successful, the objects in it must communicate with one another, respond and balance one another”