Soul: Motown and Mephis

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Powerpoint for a class called African-American Popular Music 1619-1970

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Soul: Motown and Mephis

  1. 1. Soul Music <ul><li>“ Soul” Applied to Culture 1903 “The Souls of Black Folk” W.E.B. DuBois </li></ul><ul><li>“ Soul” Applied to Music in 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Ray Charles “Soul Brothers” (1958) & “Soul Meeting” (1962) </li></ul><ul><li>John Coltrane “Soultrane” (1960) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Soul Music <ul><li>Identified by Location: Motown, Memphis, Chicago, Philly, Las Vegas </li></ul><ul><li>Motown & Memphis dominated the 1960s </li></ul>
  3. 3. Motown vs. Memphis <ul><li>Refined Gospel </li></ul><ul><li>Polished Arrangements (Funk Brothers) </li></ul><ul><li>Polite Scream </li></ul><ul><li>Artist Development </li></ul><ul><li>Black Studio Band </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctified Gospel </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Bop Horn Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Gut Wrenching Scream </li></ul><ul><li>No Artist Development </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Raced Studio Band </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motown
  5. 5. Motown Records <ul><li>Berry Gordy Jr. (& Wife) 1959 Started Label (Tamla Records) After Several Years in the Biz </li></ul><ul><li>Spent Time Crafting their Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious Intros & Hooks </li></ul><ul><li>Gospel Sound (Tambourine) </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet Soul (falsetto or Castrato) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Motown <ul><li>(cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Highly Syncopated Bass Lines </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conga Drums </li></ul><ul><li>6. Unusual Sounds </li></ul><ul><li> Tire Chains, Plywood Marching, Hollow </li></ul><ul><li>Percussive </li></ul>
  7. 7. Motown <ul><li>Spector-Like Studio Productions </li></ul><ul><li>Harp, big band, strings </li></ul><ul><li>Bells, celeste, cymbal bell </li></ul><ul><li>Flutes, w/vocal group </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ahs” tamb, conga, bass line, huge vocals </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken, fuzz guitar, strings </li></ul><ul><li>Orch interlude </li></ul><ul><li>group </li></ul>
  8. 8. Motown <ul><li>Corporate Production (“assembly-line’) </li></ul><ul><li>Developed A Sound to Overcome Airwave Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Spent Time Developing Artists: Dance Lessons, Charm School </li></ul>
  9. 9. Motown <ul><li>Production Teams: Holland-Dozier-Holland </li></ul><ul><li>Many Hits with the Supremes 1964-67 </li></ul><ul><li>Producers Had A Lock On An Act Until Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Motown Moved to LA 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Success eroded, the move? Too much time with Diana Ross? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Motown Groups <ul><li>Smokey Robinson & the Miracles </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with Gordy Before Motown </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shop Around” 1960, Motown’s first Million Seller </li></ul><ul><li>“ Second That Emotion” Smokey’s Sweet Soul voice & graceful Dance Steps </li></ul>
  11. 11. Motown Groups
  12. 12. Motown Groups <ul><li>Temptations (1960 signed 1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of Sounds Sweet & Rougher </li></ul><ul><li>“My Girl” (1965) 1st #1 </li></ul><ul><li>“Psychedelic Shack” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Motown Groups <ul><li>Four Tops (1963) </li></ul><ul><li>Had a Las Vegas Career before Motown </li></ul><ul><li>Had a Harder Vocal Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Reach Out (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>“Bernadette” (1966) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Motown Groups <ul><li>Marvelettes (Female Group) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Please Mr. Postman” (1961) Motown’s 1st #1 </li></ul><ul><li>The Beatles Recorded it also </li></ul>
  15. 15. Motown Groups <ul><li>Martha Reeves and the Vandellas </li></ul><ul><li>Hits with H-D-H </li></ul><ul><li>“ Heat Wave” (1963) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dancing in the Streets” (1964) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Motown Groups <ul><li>Diana Ross and the Supremes </li></ul><ul><li>Signed in 1961, no hits until H-D-H in 1963, also exposure from a Dick Clark Tour </li></ul><ul><li>“Baby Love” (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>“Stop in the Name of Love” </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Supremes
  18. 18. Motown Groups <ul><li>Jackson Five </li></ul><ul><li>Sign in 1969, Father had been in Show Business </li></ul><ul><li>Young Michael was the star “Never Can Say Goodbye” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Motown Groups
  20. 20. Michael Jackson <ul><li>The Group left Motown in 1976 Signed with Columbia (Epic) </li></ul><ul><li>“Thriller” (1982) </li></ul><ul><li>Dancing a Major Influence on Pop Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Videos Influenced the Genre </li></ul>
  21. 21. Motown Solo Singers <ul><li>Mary Wells, Several hits 1962-65. </li></ul><ul><li>She Left Motown, Gordy Focused His Attention on Diana Ross </li></ul><ul><li>“ My Guy” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Mary Wells & Beatles
  23. 23. Motown Solo Singers: Stevie Wonder <ul><li>Signed at 11 Yrs. Old </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Ray Charles </li></ul><ul><li>1st Hit “Fingertips Pt II” Harmonica </li></ul><ul><li>“Up Tight” 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>“You Are The Sunshine of My Life” </li></ul><ul><li>“Superstition” Beginning of Synthesizer Funk </li></ul>
  24. 24. Stevie Wonder & The Funk Brothers
  25. 25. Motown Solo Singers: Marvin Gaye <ul><li>Started with the Moonglows Doo Wop </li></ul><ul><li>Several Hits But Motown Had Problems with His Direction, Wanted to Do Jazz </li></ul><ul><li>“ What’s Goin’ On” A Jazz Protest Album </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mercy Mercy Me” (The Ecology) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Memphis Soul <ul><li>Stax & Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>Stax Founded by Jim STewart (Banker & Country Fidler) and Estelle AXton 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Moved to Old Theater In Memphis </li></ul><ul><li>He “didn’t know what R&B was” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Memphis <ul><li>1960 Rufus Thomas (WDIA DJ) & Daughter, Carla Thomas Walked In. </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic records Noticed the Success </li></ul><ul><li>Stax & Atlantic Joined in Distribution Deal (So They Said) </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic Recorded in the Stax Studios </li></ul>
  28. 28. Memphis <ul><li>Parted 1967, Realized that Atlantic Owned Everything </li></ul><ul><li>Split: Atlantic recorded 15-20 weekends per Year </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic Moved across the River to Muscle Shoals, AL (Duane Alman connection) </li></ul><ul><li>House Band Booker T. & the MGs with added horns became the Mar-Kays (Blues Brothers Band Members) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Memphis <ul><li>Otis Redding, Many Hits Before His Cross Over Hit </li></ul><ul><li>“ Got - Ta-Got-Tas” </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote “Respect” </li></ul><ul><li>Performed at Monterey Pop Festival 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dock of the Bay” Major Hit, But Killed in Plane Crash 4 Days After Recording Session </li></ul>
  30. 30. Otis Redding
  31. 31. Memphis <ul><li>Wilson Pickett, Had some Success as Lead Singer of the Falcons </li></ul><ul><li>Signed With Atlantic/Recorded at Stax </li></ul><ul><li>“ Midnight Hour” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Land of A Thousand Dances” </li></ul>
  32. 32. Wilson Pickett
  33. 33. Memphis <ul><li>Aretha Franklin, Daughter of Rev. C L Franklin, Child Gospel Star </li></ul><ul><li>Signed by Hammond to Columbia, Marketed Her as A Jazz Singer </li></ul><ul><li>Signed with Atlantic 1966, But They Offered Her to Stax </li></ul><ul><li>“ Respect” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Natural Woman” </li></ul>
  34. 34. Aretha Franklin
  35. 35. Memphis <ul><li>Sam & Dave, Signed to Atlantic But Released on Stax </li></ul><ul><li>“ Soul Man” Also hit for the 1st Blues Brothers </li></ul>
  36. 36. Memphis <ul><li>Isaac Hayes, Stax Writer/Arranger </li></ul><ul><li>20 Min Love Rap “By The Time I Get to Phoenix” </li></ul><ul><li>Roots of Barry White Love Unlimited Orch </li></ul><ul><li>Big Hit “Shaft” </li></ul>
  37. 37. Isaac Hayes
  38. 38. 1960s Soul Ends <ul><li>After Break Up Stax Flounders: Sold and Repurchased, A Few Hits But Dead By 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>1970s Brings Funk, Philly Soul and Disco </li></ul>

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