Record industry 15

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MUS 419 Chadron State College

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Record industry 15

  1. 1. Recording Industry Chapter 15
  2. 2. Recording History <ul><li>1877 Edison invents cylinder recording </li></ul><ul><li>1887 Emile Berliner patented gramophone, 1890 first lateral-cut disks, 1893 formed United States Gramophone Company </li></ul><ul><li>1894 1st commercial recording </li></ul><ul><li>1901 Victor Talking Machine Co. </li></ul>
  3. 3. History cont. <ul><li>1917 1st Jazz Recording </li></ul><ul><li>1924 Bell Labs invents electrical recording process: range 100-5,000 Hz </li></ul><ul><li>1930s Great Depression, Sales Drop 90%, Jukebox growths helps industry </li></ul><ul><li>1939 Decca markets low cost 35 cent recording </li></ul>
  4. 4. History cont. <ul><li>1942-45 AF of M strike </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1940s one-stops (distributors with all labels); Independent Labels grow </li></ul><ul><li>1948 33 1/3 RPM record & 45 RPM born </li></ul><ul><li>1950s TV takes over, Radio stations fire live bands & use recorded music. </li></ul><ul><li>1953 - Les Paul perfects multi-track recording machine </li></ul>
  5. 5. History cont <ul><li>1955 Columbia Record Club </li></ul><ul><li>1957 Rack Jobbing begins </li></ul><ul><li>1958 Stereo introduced. Listening booths disappear. </li></ul><ul><li>1960s NARM National Association of Record Merchandisers. Major labels begin to reclaim market. </li></ul>
  6. 6. History cont. <ul><li>1970s - Independent Producers grow. 16-24 track recorders & synthesizers </li></ul><ul><li>1980s - Disco bust, MTV & Video Clips, CDs </li></ul><ul><li>1990s - DAT approved, internet begins to effect distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>2000 - MP3s, Napster, iPod, iTunes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Major Labels <ul><li>“their own distribution system” </li></ul><ul><li>Own manufacturing facilities, lower costs </li></ul><ul><li>Well financed international corps. </li></ul><ul><li>Can sign more artists for more money </li></ul><ul><li>Can promote at $100,000 per single </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 5 recoup </li></ul><ul><li>Can ride out continued losses </li></ul>
  8. 8. Independent Labels <ul><li>Must rely on various distributors, money slow in returning up the pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Closer to street level, release new styles earlier than majors </li></ul><ul><li>Can serve a niche market with loyal following </li></ul>
  9. 9. Specialty Labels <ul><li>Specific demographic - classical (Nonesuch & Deutsche Grammophon), Folk & ethnic (Folkways) </li></ul><ul><li>DIY - Do It Yourself. Sell from the stage or a web site </li></ul>
  10. 10. Major Labels <ul><li>Universal Music Group - 29.59% </li></ul><ul><li>Sony/BMG - 28.46% </li></ul><ul><li>Warner Music Group - 14.68% </li></ul><ul><li>EMI Music Group - 9.91% </li></ul>
  11. 11. Universal <ul><li>Interscope/Geffen/A&M </li></ul><ul><li>Island Def Jam Music Group </li></ul><ul><li>Motown </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Music Nashville </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Records </li></ul><ul><li>Verve Music Group </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Classics Group </li></ul>
  12. 12. Universal cont <ul><li>Universal Music Enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Music Latino </li></ul><ul><li>Island Records Group (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Polydor (UK) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sony <ul><li>Arista Records </li></ul><ul><li>BMG/Classics </li></ul><ul><li>BMG Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>BMG International Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Columbia Records </li></ul><ul><li>Epic Records </li></ul><ul><li>J Records </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy Recordings </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sony cont <ul><li>RCA Records </li></ul><ul><li>RCA Victor Group </li></ul><ul><li>RLG Nashville </li></ul><ul><li>Sony Classical </li></ul><ul><li>Sony Music International </li></ul><ul><li>Sony Music Nashville </li></ul><ul><li>Sony Wonder </li></ul><ul><li>Sony Urban Music </li></ul>
  15. 15. Warner Music Group <ul><li>Asylum Records </li></ul><ul><li>Atlantic Records Group </li></ul><ul><li>East West </li></ul><ul><li>Warner Bros. Records Inc </li></ul><ul><li>Warner Music International </li></ul><ul><li>Warner Strategic Marketing </li></ul>
  16. 16. EMI Music Group <ul><li>Angel Records </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Note Records </li></ul><ul><li>Capitol Records US </li></ul><ul><li>Capitol Records Nashville </li></ul><ul><li>EMI Latin </li></ul><ul><li>EMI Christian Music Group </li></ul><ul><li>Narada </li></ul><ul><li>Priority Records </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin Records America </li></ul>
  17. 17. Administrative Structure <ul><li>Executive (CEO, COO, CFO, General Manager) - Lawyers or Producers </li></ul><ul><li>A&R (Artist & Repertoire) - sign talent, listening to demos, visiting clubs & showcases. After signing guide project through </li></ul>
  18. 18. Structure cont. <ul><li>Distribution/Sales - get product into stores and one-stops </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing - Radio Promotion (visit stations, appearances, interviews, etc.), Video Promotion, Publicity (manage media coverage, articles & interviews), Advertising (ads in national and trade press, etc.) , </li></ul>
  19. 19. Structure cont. <ul><li>Creative Services (design products, album art, posters), Production Dept (oversee various steps), Product Manager, Special Products (licensing requests, repackaging back catalog) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Structure cont. <ul><li>International Dept - foreign sales and affiliates </li></ul><ul><li>Business & Legal Affairs - copyrights, contracts, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting - royalties, budgets, reports </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing Affiliates - all companies have a BMI & ASCAP publisher </li></ul>
  21. 21. Trade Associations <ul><li>NARAS (National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences - Grammy Awards </li></ul><ul><li>RIAA - Record Industry Association of America </li></ul><ul><li>NARM - National Association of Record Merchants </li></ul>

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