The mr process

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The mr process

  1. 1. The MR process
  2. 2. The steps <ul><li>Formulating the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Determining the research design </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation for the field work </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing the field work </li></ul><ul><li>Process the data </li></ul><ul><li>Tabulation and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the report </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of MR <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul>
  4. 4. Uses of MR <ul><li>Filling in the gaps in knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Concept identification and exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant behaviour patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Identify attitudes, beliefs, opinions </li></ul><ul><li>To shortlist options where a large no. of options exist </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing comprehension, likeability, memory of business communication </li></ul>
  5. 5. Limitations of MR <ul><li>It is not an exact science </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation of the fact that there would be a difference from test conditions to actual practice </li></ul><ul><li>MR depends on responses. This can change depending on test conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Validation is a problem. Element of subjectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Biases can creep in owing to lesser skill of the MR team </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate preparation and analysis can lead to erroneous conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of motivation due to MR not being appreciated by many companies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Formulating the problem <ul><li>What is the marketing problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Translate it to the research problem </li></ul>
  7. 7. The research design <ul><li>It is a blueprint for the rest of the research process </li></ul><ul><li>What information? </li></ul><ul><li>Which instrument? </li></ul><ul><li>What sampling plan? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Research Designs <ul><li>Exploratory </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental </li></ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Exploratory Research <ul><li>Literature surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Experience surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of selected cases </li></ul>
  10. 10. Descriptive Research <ul><li>Case research </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical </li></ul>
  11. 11. Experimental Research <ul><li>Manipulating one variable in a controlled environment, while holding all other variables constant </li></ul>
  12. 12. Historical Research design <ul><li>Regression </li></ul><ul><li>Trend analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Time – series analysis </li></ul>
  13. 13. Simulation <ul><li>Imitation of a real world situation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of data <ul><li>Primary – observation, experimentation, </li></ul><ul><li>survey </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary – published information, guides, </li></ul><ul><li>syndicated studies, technical </li></ul><ul><li>manuals </li></ul>
  15. 15. Research Instruments <ul><li>Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>VCRS </li></ul><ul><li>Tally sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Tape recorders </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sampling <ul><li>What sampling unit to be studied? </li></ul><ul><li>What should be the sample size? </li></ul><ul><li>What sampling procedure to be used? </li></ul><ul><li>What sampling method to be used? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of errors <ul><li>Type I – when a true hypothesis is rejected </li></ul><ul><li>Type II – when a false hypothesis is accepted </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sampling techniques <ul><li>Probability sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Non-probability sampling </li></ul>
  19. 19. Probability sampling <ul><li>Simple random sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster sampling </li></ul>
  20. 20. Non – Probability sampling <ul><li>Judgement sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Quota sampling </li></ul>
  21. 21. Quantitative data collection <ul><li>Structured questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Structured interviews </li></ul>
  22. 22. Qualitative Research <ul><li>Open –ended questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>In –depth interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus group discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Word association </li></ul><ul><li>Projective techniques </li></ul><ul><li>TAT tests </li></ul><ul><li>Ink – blot tests </li></ul>
  23. 23. Selecting a survey technique <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of data </li></ul><ul><li>Response rate </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>control </li></ul>
  24. 24. Scaling Techniques <ul><li>Nominal </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinal </li></ul><ul><li>Interval </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio </li></ul>
  25. 25. Data analysis <ul><li>Averages </li></ul><ul><li>Variances </li></ul><ul><li>Proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Std. Deviation </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis testing </li></ul><ul><li>Regression </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Factor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Multivariate analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminant analysis </li></ul>
  26. 26. Report Writing <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Preface </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgements </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Results and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions/findings </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul>

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