Nursing philosophies

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Nursing philosophies

  1. 1. Nursing philosophies Presented by Sandeep kaur M.Sc (N) 1st year
  2. 2. Philosophy Introduction :Philosophy is derived from Greak word ‘philos’ means love, and ‘sophia’ means wisdom. It is the loving and searching for wisdom and truth
  3. 3. Conti…. • Philosophy is the science of knowledge. --- Fitche • Philosophy is the science of all sciences. ---- Coleridge
  4. 4. Definition of philosophy • Philosophy is an unceasing effort to discern the general truth that lies behind the particular facts ( that is the reality that lies behind the appearances).
  5. 5. Purposes of Philosophy • Guiding the education system.
  6. 6. Factors influencing the philosophy of education • Beliefs and values regarding God, man, life, health, diseases, nursing. • The philosophical values and beliefs of the institution. • Environment where education takes place. • Student life activities. • The culture and background of the people.
  7. 7. Factors influencing the philosophy of education conti,, • The goals and objectives of the health care system. • The diseases pattern and health awareness and facilities . • The available resources in term of man, money, and material.
  8. 8. Types
  9. 9. 1. Traditional philosophies A. Naturalism :• Concerned with natural self. • Believe in reality near to nature beyond nature there is no reality . • By naturalist nature is everything, they separate the nature from God.
  10. 10. Naturalism :- conti…. Definition :Naturalism is a system of which the salient characteristics is the exclusion of whatever is spiritual or supernatural.
  11. 11. Forms of Naturalism • Physical Naturalism • Biological Naturalism • Mechanical Naturalism
  12. 12. Principles of Naturalism 1) Child centered education 2) Education as the natural development of the child’s power and capacities. 3) Negative education in early childhood. 4) Education should be based on child’s psychology . 5) The role of teacher should be as a guide.
  13. 13. Education implications of Naturalism By using several methods, the teacher creates a congenital situation from the nature ,to provide sense of freedom for the individual development.
  14. 14. Naturalism and aims of education 1. Self expression. 2. Self-preservation. 3. Redirection of human instincts. 4. Struggle for existence. 5. Education according to the nature.
  15. 15. Naturalism and curriculum There is no rigid curriculum.
  16. 16. Naturalism and methods of education 1. Learning by doing. 2. Play-way method. 3. Observation. 4. Experimentation. 5. Self education and self efforts.
  17. 17. Naturalism and Discipline Naturalism is favor to total freedom.
  18. 18. Naturalism and teacher • Teacher place is behind the stage. • He / she arrange the environment with necessary opportunity and material. • Guiding the child when required .
  19. 19. Idealism Introduction:• It is the oldest philosophy. • It derived from Greek word “Idem” , means “to see” . • Plato is the father of Idealism • Idealists gives more importance to mind and self rather than matter and body.
  20. 20. Principles of Idealism 1. 2. 3. 4. Presence of universal mind. Regard man as spiritual beings. The world of ideas and values. The real knowledge is perceived in mind.
  21. 21. Educational implications of Idealism • Idealism considered student as an individual with inner potentialities and education should help the student to realize that potentialities.
  22. 22. Idealism and curriculum • It consist those knowledge and experiences that attain the development.
  23. 23. Idealism and aims of education • Self– realization. • Evaluation of personality through self realization. • Universal education. • Development of inventive and creative power.
  24. 24. Idealism and aims of education • Conservation promotion and transmission of cultural heritage. • Bringing out the cultural environment. • Development of moral senses. • Cultivation of spiritual values.
  25. 25. Idealism and curriculum The subjects which assist the child to develop morally, aesthetically, intellectually and physically, are included.
  26. 26. Idealism and methods of teaching • • • • Kindergarten Questioning Discussion Lecture
  27. 27. Idealism and discipline • Strict discipline • Against free discipline
  28. 28. Idealism and teacher • It serve a high place for teacher. • Recognize teacher as a philosopher, friend and guide. • He serve as a role model to the children.
  29. 29. Pragmatism Introduction :• It adopt a midway between idealism and naturalism. • Pragmatism is derived from Greek word “Pragma” means action. • It is also known as instrumentalism.
  30. 30. Pragmatism Definition:Pragmatism is essentially a humanistic philosophy maintaining that men creates his own values in course of activity. That reality is still in making and awaits its parts of completion from the future . (Ross)
  31. 31. Forms of Pragmatism • Humanistic pragmatism. • Experimentally pragmatism. • Biological pragmatism.
  32. 32. Principles of Pragmatism • Biological and social organism. • Knowledge should be experimentally verified and it should be useful to the learner. • Pragmatism faith in man’s capacity to shape his destiny. • No absolute value.
  33. 33. Principles of Pragmatism conti.. • Practical situations are true. • It concerned with the present and immediate future. • Pragmatism accept only knowledge which is experienced by sensory level. • Only realized ideas in life are real.
  34. 34. Educational implications of Pragmatism • It revolutionized the education system. • Pragmatism trends in education is known as progressivism . • Pragmatism considered the learner as growing biological and social being , ready to adjust the environment needs.
  35. 35. Pragmatism and aims of education • Harmonious development . • Continuous experiences. • Social efficiency.
  36. 36. Pragmatism and curriculum • Principle of utility. • Principle of experiences. • Principle of integration.
  37. 37. Pragmatism and methods of teaching
  38. 38. Pragmatism and discipline • It does not believe in strict discipline.
  39. 39. Pragmatism and teacher role • It considered teacher as a friend , philosopher, and guide. • Two important qualities a) Interest b) Awareness about social conditions.
  40. 40. Realism Introduction :• The first ideology was Aristotle. • Later modified by Gemore, Russal, and John wield. • According to this philosophy thing we see and perceive are real and knowledge acquired through senses is true.
  41. 41. Realism • Definition :“ Realism is the reinforcement of our common acceptance of this world as it appears to us”.
  42. 42. Forms of Realism • • • • Humanistic realism. Social realism. Sense realism. Neorealism .
  43. 43. Principles of Realism • Every life reality are true. • Does not believe in existence of any truth. • It accept only sensory experiences of the external world as real. • It looks at a man like a physical being controlled by rules. • Real knowledge is experienced by sensation.
  44. 44. Education implication of Realism • The aim of education implication is to prepare the child to face realities of life and to solve the problems. • The school knowledge and experiences should be appropriate to achieve this aim.
  45. 45. Realism and curriculum • Subjects and activities which prepare the child for real life .
  46. 46. Realism and methods of teaching • Observation • Experimentation • Activities and demonstration
  47. 47. Realism and teacher • Honorable position for the teacher. • He is well known to the content and needs of the children. • He transfer the knowledge by using scientific methods.
  48. 48. 2. Modern philosophies
  49. 49. Supernaturalism Introduction :• Also known as theistic realism. • Organized as christen philosophy. • According to it there is personal a God . • God is a author creature of nature and man.
  50. 50. Supernaturalism and implication of education • Education is regarded as active social process. • It take place in the family school and church.
  51. 51. Supernaturalism and aims of education • • • • • Social development Economic competency Moral development Spiritual perfection Physical development
  52. 52. Supernaturalism and curriculum • Social science • Behavioral science • Biological science
  53. 53. Supernaturalism and discipline • It is against for rigid discipline .
  54. 54. Supernaturalism and teacher • Teacher play role as a guider.
  55. 55. Humanistic Existentialism • It is youngest philosophy . • Modern philosophy which is primarily build upon the work of the scholars of the 20th century.
  56. 56. Main assumptions 1) 2) 3) 4) Man’s existence Self knowledge Freedom and responsibilities Man is not complete
  57. 57. Eclectism • Educationist through motivation, create a new educational philosophy by pooling all good and relevant features from different educational philosophies , this philosophy is known as “Eclectism”.
  58. 58. Salient features of Eclectism • Aim of education is to prepare the good citizenship. • Flexible curriculum. • Emphasis various co-ordination of various subjects. • Importance to curricular activities. • Ensuring availability of subject experts and better teacher.
  59. 59. Salient features of Eclectism conti.. • Suggest scientific teaching methods based on the learning by doing principle, learning by play, learning by observation. • Highest responsibilities of the government to provide education. • Emphasis on the adult and social learning.
  60. 60. Bibliography • BRAUN, BARBARA.J.STEVEN (1994).NURSING THEORY; ANALYSIS, APPLICATION, EVALUATION. PHILADELPHIA: JB LIPPINCOTTCOMPANY.4TH EDITION:194-206. • SHANKARANARAYAN.B, SINDHU B. LEARNING AND TEACHING NURSING ; EDITION 3RD ; BRAINFILL PUBLISHERS ;2009: 23-43. • HTTP// WWW.NURSING PHILOSOPHIES.COM • HTTP// WWW.NURSING PHILOSOPHIES IN NURSING EDUCATION.COM • HTTP// WWW. WIKIPEDIA . NURSING PHILOSOPHIES IN NURSING EDUCATION. THE FREE ENCYCLOPEDIA.COM

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