What is LeadershipLeadership is the process of encouraging and helping others to workenthusiastically towards objectives. It is the behavior of anindividual when he is directing the activities of a group towards ashared goal. It is the relationship in which one person influencesothers to work together willingly on related task to attain goalsdesired by the leader and/or group.
Leadership & ManagementManagement, managership and leadership are terms whichare so closely related. But they are distinct in meaning.Management is a process of planning, organizing,coordinating, directing and controlling the activities ofothers.Managership is the authority to carry out these functions.Leadership is the process of influencing others for thepurpose of achieving shared goals.
Importance of Leadership• Initiates action- Leader is a person who starts the work by communicating thepolicies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts.• Motivation- A leader proves to be playing an incentive role in the concern’sworking. He motivates the employees with economic and non-economic rewardsand thereby gets the work from the subordinates.• Providing guidance- A leader has to not only supervise but also play a guiding rolefor the subordinates. Guidance here means instructing the subordinates the waythey have to perform their work effectively and efficiently.• Creating confidence- Confidence is an important factor which can be achievedthrough expressing the work efforts to the subordinates, explaining them clearlytheir role and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively. It is alsoimportant to hear the employees with regards to their complaints and problems.• Co-ordination- Co-ordination can be achieved through reconciling personalinterests with organizational goals. This synchronization can be achieved throughproper and effective co-ordination which should be primary motive of a leader.
What is LEADERSHIP STYLES• Leadership is not just limited to management, it is widely acceptedthat most successful organizations have strong and effectiveleaders. Leadership style is the approach which leaders adopt andreflect in their roles, rather the way in which authority is used.• The amount of authority retained and the decisions made play a vitalrole in determining the leadership style. Leadership style encouragesand promotes employee involvement planning, problem-solving anddecision making.
TYPES OF LEADERSHIP STYLESFollowing are the types of leadership styles :-• Style based on Authority Retained.• Style based on Task Versus People Emphasis.• Linkert’s Four style.• Entrepreneurship Leadership Style.
Style based on Authority Retained1. AUTHORITARIAN STYLE• It is also known as autocratic style.• Full authority.• Give instructions about the implementation of decision are given.Advantage :-• Tasks are efficiently completed.• No wastage of time.Disadvantage :-• Workers are made aware of what to do, but not why.• Low employee morale.• Worker following leader directions only.
2. PARTICIPATIVE STYLEThere are 3 related types of participative style: consultative, consensual anddemocratic.• Consultative leaders focuses on using the skills, experiences, and ideas ofothers. Before making any decision they ask other’s opinion in group butthe whole decision is taken by the leader only.• Consensual leaders encourage the group discussions and then make thedecision. This style leads to considerable delay in decision-making becauseevery member has to give his/her opinion.• Democratic leaders is also known as participative leadership, in thismembers of the group take a more participative role in the decision-makingprocess. Group members are encouraged to share ideas and opinions, even though theleader retains the final say over decisions. Members of the group feel more engaged in the process.
3. FREE- REIN STYLE• It is also called laissez-faire. Technically its not a leadership style.Positive effect-• Free-rein managers avoid the use of power.• Employees are allowed to establish their own goals and monitor progresstoward those goals.Negative effect-• Fear of failure. Some people are not good at setting their own deadlines,managing their own projects and solving problems on their own.• Miscommunication among managers and group members.
Style based on Task VersusPeople Emphasis.This leadership styles is based on the relative concern the leader places on the taskto be performed vis-à-vis the people performing the task.A leader who places greater emphasis on people tries to gain their relationships byexhibiting such behavior as:• Establishing channels of communication.• Extending psychological support to them.• Developing mutual trust.• Developing empathy for them.
LINKERT’S FOUR STYLESIt develops four styles of leadership to capture the management culture of anorganization.1. Exploitative authoritarian-communication is downward, superiors andsubordinates are psychologically distant and decisions are made by organizations.2. Benevolent authoritarian: Use reward to encourage the performance.3. Consultative: Communication is two-way although upward.4. Participative: Give economic rewards and makes full use of groupparticipation. Subordinates and superiors are psychologically close.
Entrepreneurship LeadershipStyle• Entrepreneur is a person who converts an innovative idea in to business.• Impatient towards employee as Entrepreneur are always busy.• Heavy task orientation combined with direct approach to give instructions toemployees.• A charismatic personality inspires others to join him.• A much strong interest with customer rather than employees & dislike forbureaucratic rules.
Leadership TheoriesWhat is Leadership Theories?Leadership as grounded in one or more of the following three perspectives:leadership as a process or relationship, leadership as a combination of traits orpersonality characteristics, or leadership as certain behaviors or, as they are morecommonly referred to, leadership skills.TYPES Trait theory Behavioral theory Leader – Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid Contingency Theory of Leadership
Trait theory• Trait theories focus on the particular personality or behavioralcharacteristics shared by leaders.• According to the theories, leaders possess a set of traits which make themdistinct from followers.EVALUATION OF THE TRAIT THEORY• The theory assumes that a leader is born and not trained. This assumption isnot acceptable.• Leadership effectiveness does not depend upon the personality of theleader alone. Its also depends on situation, the task, the organization.
Behavioral theory• Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that greatleaders are made, not born.• Applications of behavioral theory promote the value of leadership styleswith an emphasis on concern for people and participative decision making,encouraging collaboration and team development by supporting individualneeds and aligning individual and group objectives.• This theory study how a leader behaves.
Leader – Member Exchange(LMX) Theory• It is also called the vertical dyad model.• This approach focuses more on leader’s behavior.• According to LMX Theory, in most leadership situations not every followeris treated the same by the leader. Leaders and followers develop dyadicrelationships and leaders treat each follower differently, resulting in twogroups of followers—an in-group and an out-group. The in-group consists of a few trusted followers with whom the leader usuallyestablishes a special higher quality exchange relationship. The out-group includes the followers with whom the relationship of the leaderremains more formal.
BLaKE aNd MOUTON’S MaNaGERIaLGrid• A graphical depiction of a two dimensional view of leadership style hasbeen developed by Blake and Mouton.• They proposed a Managerial grid based on the styles of ‘concern forpeople’ and ‘concern for production’.• This theory delineates five styles of leadership, based on people and taskorientation. Task management- concerned with production. Country club management- concerned with people. Middle of the road management- moderate concern for both. Team management- high concern for people and production. Improvised management- identify the current styles.
Contingency Theory ofLeadership• Contingency Theory shows the relationship between the leader’sorientation or style and group performance under differing situationalconditions.• The theory is based on determining the orientation of the leader(relationship or task), the elements of the situation (leader-memberrelations, task structure, and leader position power).• Fiedler’s theory emphasizes two variables: motivational styles andfavorableness of situation.