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Uses of cross-media strategies for new ways of communicating

Uses of cross-media strategies for new ways of communicating

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Storytelling 2.0 Storytelling 2.0 Presentation Transcript

  • Storytelling 2.0uses of cross-media strategies for new ways of communicating IPIN summer school August 8th 2012 Kjetil Sandvik, associate professor, Media, Cognition and Communication, University of Copenhagen
  • Agenda• Focus on strategic storytelling, particularly in the field of communicating culture/cultural heritage in the light of digital, network-based and mobile media and the increasing use of web 2.0/social media-services.• From a cross-media perspective we will focus on the opportunities and challenges which these new media technologies, platforms and services represent to cultural organizations and institutions:• Storytelling 2.0 and a perpetual beta way of communicating focusing on dynamic and easy changeable formats with a strong focus on user participation, collaboration and co-creation).
  • MA in dramaturgyPHD on computer-gamesHead of master pro-gram in Cross-MediaCommunicationResearch: strategiccommunication, newmedia, storytelling etc.
  • This lecture• Some brief words about storytelling and cross-media communication – the general idea• Rich media experiences: from ’experi- ence+’ to ’experience universes’ – case studies: X factor and Harry Potter• Storytelling 2.0 – case study: an augmented reality game
  • Storytelling classic• A chain of events in time and space• Told by someone (a narrator) to somebody else (a reader or spectator)• through a specific media (novel, movie, TV series…)• And in a specific discourse (a genre defining the structure of the plot/storyline)
  • Storytelling 2.0: participation• The ingredients are the same, but the role of the recipient has changed• The story hands out the possibility for interaction: – to influence the course of events – to gain control over one or more characters – to play a part in the storyline• Storytelling  Storydwelling
  • Labyrinthine story structure Myst 2: Riven
  • Storytelling 2.0: co-creation• Added the possibility for the participants to be a part of creating the story, – adding new parts to it, – adding new characters, – adding new narrative spaces and so on• Storytelling  Storyprocessing
  • Storyspace World of Warcraft
  • Sandbox Concept Environment Design toolsSecond Life
  • Cross-media communication• Collaborative interplay between different media• Each media playing its specific role and delivering its part of the overall story• Putting to play the specific strengths of each media (the media does what it does best!)• Cross-media storytelling: putting both ‘storytelling classic’ and the two modes of storytelling 2.0 to effective use!
  • Cross-media communication• It is about getting through to the user• It is about giving the user a broader and richer media experience• It is about giving the user the possibility to get engaged and to be involved in the media experience on different levels and to various degrees• It is about giving the user the possibility for participation and co-creation.
  • Cross-media communicationThe art of having different (old andnew) media communicating together • Each media has its special qualities • Context: media evolution – CMC challenges the role of the media types • Context: participatory culture – CMC challenges our models of communication
  • Challenges of digital mediaParticipatory (social) media/web 2.0:• radical possibilities for dialogic processes, for collaboration and co-creation• Communication as dynamic processes• Fixed solutions  changeable, adaptive and user-centered solutions• Uses of web 2.0 apps mashups: combinations of cheap, effective and constantly updated and improved media technology• Storytelling 2.0: perpetual beta way of communication
  • Context: participatoryculture and 2G experience economy
  • Participatory culture• “Patterns of media consumption have been profoundly altered by a succession of new media technologies which enable average citizens to participate in the archiving, annotation, appropriation, transformation, and recirculation of media content. Partici- patory culture refers to the new style of consumerism that emerges in this environment.” » Henry Jenkins
  • 2G experience economy:participation  co-creation
  • Co-creation• Boswijk et.al. focuses on the creative dialogue between supplier and customer instead of the supplier deciding what the customer wants:• It builds upon communication as sharing of knowledge and the idea that value creation no longer takes place within the company but is created in the individual:• “The development of meaningful-experience concepts cannot take place without the direct participation of the (potential) customer”.
  • Participation-based communication• We do not just want to be communication to (classical mass-media communication format: one-to-many).• We need new communication models which focuses on various forms of user involvement and user experiences (one- to-one and many-to-many communication) – personalization: online-services which adapt to the users’ actions
  • Participation based communication• We do not just want to be communication to (classical mass-media communication format: one-to-many).• We need new communication models which focuses on various forms of user involvement and user experiences (one-to- one and many-to-many communication) – personalization: online-services which adapt to the users’ actions – enabling dialogue (e.g. blogs), user participation (interactive elements creating unique user experiences) and user co-creation (possibility to create your own content).
  • LEGO Factory• A co-creative story: The user in centre of the design process in accordance with LEGO’s corporate values:• Stimulating creative play!
  • Users want to create their own toys
  • Co-creation: sharing and reworking design
  • Users want to design their own kitchens
  • Users want to tell their own stories
  • Users want to solve the crime mystery themselves
  • Users want to produce TV themselves
  • Users want to write the news themselves Citizen Journalism
  • Collective intelligence: crowdsourced, co-creative creation of knowledge
  • ’Traditional’ media com-munication (storytelling classic) Control of flowProducer Content User Interpretation/use MediaInspired by Randy Haykin:Multimedia demystified. A guide tothe world of multimedia from Apple Computer, 1994
  • Dialogic media communication Performance Control of flowProducer Content User Interpretation/use Media Feedback
  • Participatory media communication Production of content Control of flowProducer Content User Interpretation/use Produser Performance/Feedback MediaProdusage Reconfiguration (editing)
  • Producer prodUser prodUser Production of contentprodUser Content prodUser Use of content Media Platform prodUser prodUser Co-creation based communication model
  • Modes of user engagement• Communication as composition (the combination of related media contents by established media (the book, the movie, the game, the website) and/or the combined use of various media and applications by audiences (using a player to watch a TV program, using a browser to monitor its website, and news applications to get updates)).• Communication as collaboration (e.g., participating in debates relating to media content (chats, blogs, forums))• Communication as participation (e.g., influencing the content of television, such as using SMS to vote for one’s favorite in a talent show)• Communication as co-creation (the independent creation of media content, e.g. designing new features on Facebook)
  • • A networked, participatory environment enables all participants to be users as well as producers of information and knowledge - frequently in a hybrid role of produser where usage is necessarily also productive.• Produsers engage not in a traditional form of content production, but are instead involved in produsage - the collaborative and continuous building and extending of existing content in pursuit of further improvement. Axel Bruns: Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage, 2008
  • This lecture• Some brief words about storytelling and cross-media communication – the general idea• Rich media experiences: from experience + to experience universes – case studies: X factor and Harry Potter• Storytelling 2.0 – case study: an augmented reality game
  • The elements of the media cirquit (John Fiske 1987)• the primary text (the movie/tv-series)• the secondary text (pr/marketing, background material, bonus material: surrounding the primary text)• the tertiary text (the user’s own texts: are produced on the background of the primary and secondary text)• Cross-media productions (and their new media cirquits) changes this hierarchy
  • New media cirquits• Cross-media production:• Connects primary, secondary and tertiary texts into one common media text• Embeds possibilities for participation• Uses several communication matrixes: • One-to-many (the TV show in itself) • One-to-one (chats) • Many-to-many (debate forums, quizzes, games…) • One-to-one-as-group (communities on e.g. FB)• Attempt to create a sense of belonging in the user based on identification AND interaction
  • Convergence culture• This circulation of media content - across different media systems, competing media economies, and national borders - depends heavily on consumers active participation.• Convergence should NOT be understood primarily as a technological process bringing together multiple media functions within the same devices.• Instead, convergence represents a cultural shift as consumers are encouraged to seek out new information and make connections among dispersed media content. » Henry Jenkins
  • Rich media experiences• Experience through • engagement and identification • participation • collaboration • co-creation• Two types of rich media experience • Experience + (the augmentation of experience of one specific media by implementing other media in the communication-structure, e.g. a website to a TV-show) • Experience universe (interplay between different media: e.g. book, movies, games)
  • Experience + X factor
  • Engagement and identification• The use of the TV media’s strenghts: ‘Storytelling classic’ to create emotional intensification – A dramatic plot: the contest-format – The use of classical dramatic agents (most prominent in the first two seasons of the show): the good vs. the bad – Use of personal and emotionally loaded stories – Use of emotionally manipulative editing: production of ’magic moments’ (the Poul Potts-trick!): close-ups, cross-editing, tears, tears and more tears… – Website: augmentary media with a surplus of background materials about participants, their reactions to the judges and so on: extends the possibility for engagement and interaction and introduces a possibility for participation (guestbooks, chats, blogs…) – Web 2.0: connecting and spreading the experience through the users’ own networks
  • There can only be one winner… 51
  • Engagement and identification• The use of the TV media’s strenghts: ‘Storytelling classic’ to create emotional intensification – A dramatic plot: the contest-format – The use of classical dramatic agents (most prominent in the first two seasons of the show): the good vs. the bad – Use of personal and emotionally loaded stories – Use of emotionally manipulative editing: production of ’magic moments’ (the Poul Potts-trick!): close-ups, cross-editing, tears, tears and more tears… – Website: augmentary media with a surplus of background materials about participants, their reactions to the judges and so on: extends the possibility for engagement and interaction and introduces a possibility for participation (guestbooks, chats, blogs…) – Web 2.0: connecting and spreading the experience through the users’ own networks
  • The good… …the bad… …and the crybaby
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  • Engagement and identification• The use of the TV media’s strenghts: ‘Storytelling classic’ to create emotional intensification – A dramatic plot: the contest-format – The use of classical dramatic agents (most prominent in the first two seasons of the show): the good vs. the bad – Use of personal and emotionally loaded stories – Use of emotionally manipulative editing: production of ’magic moments’ (the Poul Potts-trick!): close-ups, cross-editing, tears, tears and more tears… – Website: augmentary media with a surplus of background materials about participants, their reactions to the judges and so on: extends the possibility for engagement and interaction and introduces a possibility for participation (guestbooks, chats, blogs…) – Web 2.0: connecting and spreading the experience through the users’ own networks
  • The Outsider taking the prize 56
  • Engagement and identification• The use of the TV media’s strenghts: ‘Storytelling classic’ to create emotional intensification – A dramatic plot: the contest-format – The use of classical dramatic agents (most prominent in the first two seasons of the show): the good vs. the bad – Use of personal and emotionally loaded stories – Use of emotionally manipulative editing: production of ’magic moments’ (the Poul Potts-trick!): close-ups, cross-editing, tears, tears and more tears… – Website: augmentary media with a surplus of background materials about participants, their reactions to the judges and so on: extends the possibility for engagement and interaction and introduces a possibility for participation (guestbooks, chats, blogs…) – Web 2.0: connecting and spreading the experience through the users’ own networks
  • Engagement and identification• The use of the TV media’s strenghts: ‘Storytelling classic’ to create emotional intensification – A dramatic plot: the contest-format – The use of classical dramatic agents (most prominent in the first two seasons of the show): the good vs. the bad – Use of personal and emotionally loaded stories – Use of emotionally manipulative editing: production of ’magic moments’ (the Poul Potts-trick!): close-ups, cross-editing, tears, tears and more tears… – Website: augmentary media with a surplus of background materials about participants, their reactions to the judges and so on: extends the possibility for engagement and interaction and introduces a possibility for participation (guestbooks, chats, blogs…) – Web 2.0: connecting and spreading the experience through the users’ own networks
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  • Engagement and identification• The use of the TV media’s strenghts: ‘Storytelling classic’ to create emotional intensification – A dramatic plot: the contest-format – The use of classical dramatic agents (most prominent in the first two seasons of the show): the good vs. the bad – Use of personal and emotionally loaded stories – Use of emotionally manipulative editing: production of ’magic moments’ (the Poul Potts-trick!): close-ups, cross-editing, tears, tears and more tears… – Website: augmentary media with a surplus of background materials about participants, their reactions to the judges and so on: extends the possibility for engagement and interaction and introduces a possibility for participation (guestbooks, chats, blogs…) – Web 2.0: connecting and spreading the experience through the users’ own networks: RSS-feeds, apps for mobile phone, Facebook profile, Twitter profile.
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  • Live integration ofsocial media duringshows 72
  • Second Screen 73
  • Engagement and identification• The use of the TV media’s strenghts: ‘Storytelling classic’ to create emotional intensification – A dramatic plot: the contest-format – The use of classical dramatic agents (most prominent in the first two seasons of the show): the good vs. the bad – Use of personal and emotionally loaded stories – Use of emotionally manipulative editing: production of ’magic moments’ (the Poul Potts-trick!): close-ups, cross-editing, tears, tears and more tears… – Website: augmentary media with a surplus of background materials about participants, their reactions to the judges and so on: extends the possibility for engagement and interaction and Storytelling 2.0 introduces a possibility for participation (guestbooks, chats, blogs…) - participation – Web 2.0: connecting and spreading the experience through the - co-creation users’ own networks: RSS-feeds, apps for mobile phone, Facebook profile, Twitter profile.
  • X-factor cross-mediaOther media communication experience+ May not be (fully) controlled Other DR radio and TV shows Website Backstage TV-show Aftenshowet Updates: Mobile phone RSS, app, FB, Twitter Live events Viewers DR blogs + Aftenshowet’s and other Red arrows = participation and co-creation DR TV and radio shows’ website
  • X-factor is more than just at TV show• As a media event X-factor transgresses its boundaries as a stand-alone TV show• It invites the viewer not just to a TV experience but to become a participant in a collective course of events• The viewer can get involved, participate and have influence on several levels• And different media play specific – and coordinated – roles according to their strengths in creating this cross-media experience.
  • Experience universe Harry Potter
  • Rich media experience• The cross-media story about Harry Potter is not told by one single media which the other media relates to in a hierarchical sense.• Although it all starts with the novels of J.K. Rowlings, the movies based on the novels can be seen quite independent of the novels.• And the games (primarily) based on the movies, may also be played quite independently.• As such the cross-media structure of Harry Potter as an experience universe consists of 7 books, 7 movies and 7 games in three interconnected series each dealing with the same narrative across the 3 media – a year in the life of Harry Potter at the Hogwarts school of sorcery.
  • Rich media experience• The possibility for engagement and participation is ensured by the implementation of websites related to each novel/movie/game.• The experience is richened by the existence of websites (J.K. Rowling’s own Potter-site, various fansites etc.), books and games relating to the entire Harry Potter-universe across the 7-year episodic plot-structure etc.
  • JK Books based Games based on Fansites, fx on the entireRowlings the entire Merchan Harry Potter universe, e.g. universe, e.g. official -dise Fan Zone Quidditch LEGO Harrywebsite throuout times Potter Years 1-4 The entire Harry Potter universe Book series Film series Game series Harry Potter Harry Potter Harry Potter and the and the and the Sorcerers Sorcerers Sorcerers Stone Stone Stone (book) (movie) (game) Website Website Website User
  • Experience universe• As a cross-media production Harry Potter produces not just an augmentation of the experience of a specific media.• It creates an experience universe in which the user is offered a rich media experience in words, moving pictures and interactive action.• Storytelling classic: novels, movies• Storytelling 2.0 (participation): computer games, playable merchandise (e.g. LEGO), interactive features on official websites (e.g. jkrowling.com)• Storytelling 2.0 (co-creation): fan-sites and other forums for users expanding on the HP-universe (e.g. by writing fanfiction)
  • This lecture• Some brief words about storytelling and cross-media communication – the general idea• Rich media experiences: from experience + to experience universes – case studies: X factor and Harry Potter• Storytelling 2.0 – case study: an augmented reality game
  • Trust no-one!A conspiracy play in the King’s Kolding “Mixed reality, ubiquitous computing and augmented places as format for communicating culture”
  • Project scope• Mobile phones (smart phones) used for communicating culture• Fiction used for communicating history• Experiments with Augmented Reality (at low costs)• Creating an unorthodox city walk: – instead of an exhibition about renaissance Kolding, we let the renaissance pop up in the city space• The audience as participants and co- creators
  • Format not just forthe design process,but for ’the exhi-bitions’ itself
  • Project scope• Mixed media: – mobile phone as ’swizz army knife’ – mash-up of variety of services: low-cost and easy to adjust (Layar, Google Maps, Youtube and other file- sharing services)• Ubiquitous computing: – not so much embedded in the fabric of physical location – but accessible everywhere by ways of…• Mobile and location sensitive media:• Over-layering locations with digital information:• Augmentation!
  • Augmentation• an informational, aesthetical and/or emotional enhancement of our sense and experience of place by use of various framing strategies (e.g. Ian Rankin’s Edinburgh) and media technologies (e.g. a guided Rebus Tour).
  • Augmentation of places• Construction of a kind of mixed reality• the place has a status both as an actual location in the physical world and as a storyspace• blend of fact and fiction• blend of physical and mediated space• blend of presentation and (user) performance• ‘charged spaces’ 100
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  • Split reality vs Mixed reality• Split reality: switching between mediated space (e.g. inside the mobile phone) and physical space• Mixed reality: blending between mediated and physical space (e.g. looking at physical space through an ‘augumented reality browser’ on the mobile phone)• Mixed reality implies a certain way of telling stories connecting the actual and the fictional space/the physical space and the mediated space • (this is where Hikuin’s Vendetta goes wrong – and we try to make things right) 102
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  • Kolding as augmented storyspace• Creating a dramatic meta-story connecting different location specific narrative tableaus containing various actual historical characters and events – (e.g. the co-operation between the public executioner and the pharmacist selling human fat and pulverized sculls for medical use)• within the same fiction frame providing connections between the narrative tableaus – (the castle is on fire (which is an actual event), a messenger is found murdered, a conspiracy against the King may be afoot).• The tale is taking place in the city space and interfaces with specific locations with historical significance – (e.g. the square where executions took place, the building housing the pharmacy)• Thus: a mediated version of renaissance Kolding is mapped onto the physical – and present-day – version of the city.
  • Kolding as augmented storyspace• Creating a dramatic meta-story connecting different location specific narrative tableaus containing various actual historical characters and events – (e.g. the co-operation between the public executioner and the pharmacist selling human fat and crushed sculls for medical use)• within the same fiction frame providing connections between the narrative tableaus – (the castle is on fire (which is an actual event), a messenger is found murdered, a conspiracy against the King may be afoot).• The tale is taking place in the city space and interfaces with specific locations with historical significance – (e.g. the square where executions took place, the building housing the pharmacy)• Thus: a mediated version of renaissance Kolding is mapped onto the physical – and present-day – version of the city.
  • Physical space as media• The physical space is to some degree functioning as media communicating specific types of information, specific types of stories. • the city quarters with its streets, alleys, buildings, ornamentations such as statues, gargoyles and so on function as a narrative architecture like a theme/themed park like Disneyland including buildings and landscapes known from the catalog of Disney fairytales• Several parts of the city of Kolding used as location for the “Trust No-one!” project have these qualities of being media in themselves, as carriers of the story of Kolding. 109
  • Physical space as media• With the use of mobile phones equipped with navigation tools and augmented reality browsers this information residing in the very architecture and infrastructure of the city may be pulled forth and made visible, accessible and interactive from the perspective of communicating history and cultural heritage. 111
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  • StoryspaceMeta-story Narrative tableaus
  • Summing up• Augmentation as a storytelling 2.0-strategy makes us see things in new ways:• Buildings are not just buildings, streets are not just streets – the carry stories, they carry cultural meaning• This meaning may be experienced through an interplay between the physical locations of the city and the ubiquitous and locative information layers provided by mobile media.• Connecting the dots, moving through physical and media space guessing the answer to who the murderer is constitutes the participatory and co-creative dimension.
  • Visit the project on Facebook• https://www.facebook.com//Stolpaaingen#! /Stolpaaingen• Online, open-accessed development site