Software Craftsmanship - JAX London 2011

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  • That's how software craftsmanship is seen by some people, mainly some agile coaches. Craftsmanship has a narrow view of the problem as if we were looking through a straw. I was annoyed by that but it made me thing that the SC community should send a message out.
  • Who is working on an agile environment? Who still works with messy code after doing agile for a few years? On February 2001, seventeen people representing XP, Scrum, DSDM, Adaptive Software Development, Crystal, Feature-Driven Development, Pragmatic Programming and others met in a ski resort in Utah to search for an alternative for documentation driven, heavy weight software development. They were: Kent Beck, Mike Beedle, Arie van Bennekum, Alistair Cockburn, Ward Cunningham, Martin Fowler, James Grenning, Jim Highsmith, Andrew Hunt, Ron Jeffries, Jon Kern, Brian Marick, Robert C. Martin, Steve Mellor, Ken Schwaber, Jeff Sutherland, Dave Thomas. The Agile Alliance was formed and Agile Conferences started.
  • All over the world, companies and teams started adopting Agile, with the hope that they would produce quality software. And the Agile Transformation Era began. “ We need to do better, we need to improve ” . Scrum became mainstream. Teams started having Scrum meetings every day, product backlogs, iteration backlogs, started working on an interactive way, burn down charts, requirement documents became user stories, white board with sticky notes became part of the office's furniture.
  • Over the years, companies and agile coaches focused on the process. They focused in the ecosystem, people interactions, removing unnecessary bureaucracy. People empowerment. Important problems that needed to be solved. And then Agile took a de-tour and Process became more important than technical practices and excellence.
  • And than it happened. P rojects were still failing or not delivering the value expected. S ame old problems. Features were still taking forever to be developed and deployed into production. Dedicated testing teams and testing cycles were still in place. Loads of bugs . Technical debt impeding teams to progress. (Mentioned TECHNICAL DEBT STORY – new feature) But it's not all bad news. At least now we can see it getting worse and worse TOYOTA DREAM. Would Toyota be successful if they were producing shit cars?
  • No one wakes up one morning and say: “ Today I'm gonna write some crap code. Today I'm gonna let my team down writing horrible code. Today I'm gonna do my worst. ” However, under pressure we ended up cutting corners. And we do that because we want to deliver, we want to get things done.
  • Developers have a complete wrong notion of time. W e give the ESTIMATIONS but DON'T PLAN for making our SYSTEM BETTER . “WE DON'T HAVE TIME” to do something. T hey were responsible for the estimations and they think they don't have time. But, do they have time for DEBUGGING the code? To RUN A FULL BUILD , DEPLOY the application and MANUALLY NAVIGATE through the system for everything they want to change or add to the system. Do they have time to TEST ALL OTHER AREAS of the system that may have been impacted by this change? If they don't test, that means that other people are spending time doing it. Maybe a full TESTING TEAM . What about the OTHER DEVELOPERS , when they try to UNDERSTAND THE CODE you've written. They also have a lot of time to do the same thing? All the developers, all the testers, WEEK AFTER WEEK , MONTH AFTER MONTH ? Can we imagine how much time is that? How much time we spend debugging and testing the application? Just because we “ don't have time ” to write and automate our tests?
  • Agile is about feedback. QUICK AND SMALL FEEDBACK LOOP . It's about constantly NARROWING the feedback loop. Now teams have a quicker feedback about their progress. WE CAN SEE that we are NOT GOING as WELL as we expected. We can see PROBLEMS arising. We can ADAPT OUR PROCESS . We can EMPOWER PEOPLE to do their work. The shorter and quicker the feedback loop is, the more agile you can become.
  • “ Working Software ” . But what does it mean? Is it enough? We can deliver something that WORKS but it TOOK AGES TO BUILD and had to go for a LONG PERIOD of TESTING and BUG FIXING . And for the next feature, the story will be repeated In a software project, the MOST IMPORTANT DELIVERABLE is the SOFTWARE itself. Anything else is secondary..
  • Difficult to see that with burndown charts and backlogs Like CANCER, when you notice it is too late Some people say that they just don't have time to do it properly but, in general, a lot more time and money is spent later on on tests and bug fixing. HOSTAGE of your own software To keep business progress, schedule and budget under control, HIGH QUALITY code needs to be MAINTAINED AT ALL COST. Rather than construction, programming is more like GARDENING.
  • 1.Well-crafted software: Working code is just not good enough. Think about the applications you work on a daily basis. All the LEGACY SYSTEMS . How many times we DONT'T HAVE A CLUE what the code does. How many times we are SCARED TO TOUCH the existing code because we don't know if we are GOING TO BREAK IT . Writing TESTS for the EXISTING CODE is a MASIVE UNDERTAKE since it takes forever. We want good, quality code. Code that is easy to understand, that we can PRESS A BUTTON and after a few seconds or minutes we know if there is anything wrong with it. We want to UNDERSTAND what the CODE does just LOOKING AT THE TESTS at all levels. And all this, REGARDLESS HOW OLD the application is. 2.Steadily Adding Value: This is NOT JUST adding new FEATURES or changing existing one. This is NOT about BUG FIXING . This is about CONSTANTLY IMPROVE the STRUCTURE of the code, KEEP the code CLEAN , TESTED so our VELOCITY doesn't DECREASE over time and we stop adding as much VALUE as we were at the BEGINNING of the PROJECT . The SOFTWARE must be seen as an ASSET and the constant maintenance of the code will make it more VALUABLE DURING ITS LIFETIME , instead of letting it rot and devalue. 3.Community of professionals: This is what we are doing here today. We are expected to SHARE our IDEAS and PREPARE the NEXT GENERATION . It's our duty to MENTOR less experienced developers and help our industry to LEARN from all our MISTAKES and SUCCESSES . COMMUNITIES and USER GROUPS are essential for a healthy future of our industry. 4. Productive partnerships: We are NOT SIMPLE EMPLOYEES . We are PROFESSIONALS . We are NOT there to DO what WE ARE TOLD . We are there to PROVIDE SOLUTIONS , HELP our CLIENTS to ACHIEVE whatever they want to achieve. As professionals we have a REPUTATION TO CARE about and this reputation is totally RELATED to how we work with OUR CLIENTS . We are the main STAKEHOLDERS in a software project BECAUSE it is OUR REPUTATION that is on the line. NOT GETTING INVOLVED with the business, not questioning requirements, not helping on tasks that are not related to development but are related to the project, IS NOT A PARTNERSHIP . However, you may say, SOME CLIENTS are NOT READY for that and they will not “ allow ” you to get closer or to do anything that is not development. So in this case, they don't want the partnership and I don't think they will have software craftsmen working for them for too long.
  • Software craftsmanship is about professionalism.
  • Many people will say: “ But you don't know the context. My company is different, my project is different. In our case, according to our context, craftsmanship does not apply. You don't understand the constraints and pressure we have ” . Yes, context matters, but are there practices that don't depend on context? ARE THERE CASES WHERE QUALITY DOES NOT MATTER? BUGS? RELIABILITY? EASY TO MAINTAIN? CRAP CODE IS OK?
  • This is about FEEDBACK again. The QUICKER and SMALLER the FEEDBACK LOOP is, the better. With Agile processes we can know if we are building the right thing, but how do we know if we are building it right? Just looking at burn down charts in terms of features, we can't see it. And when we realise the CODE has DETERIORATE , normally it is ALREADY TOO LATE . We don't slow down abruptly. We slow down in a very gentle pace.
  • When we talk about context, are the practices in the INNER CIRCLES CONTEXT SPECIFIC ? Why these practices were forgotten or not emphasised during agile transformations? Those PRACTICES ADD VALUE , providing a quick and small FEEDBACK LOOP . They are key for us to know if we are BUILDING THE THING RIGHT .
  • 1. Automated testing: We click a button and in a few minutes we know if the system works or not. It give us regression test suite. That's value. That's short and quick feedback loop. 2. Test first: Help to think out ideas. Help to focus on the problem we are trying to solve. How we interact with the system. Are the API's useful? Is the code useful? 3. Test-Driven Development: Focus on de-coupling (modular design); focus on cleanliness; RED >> GREEN >> REFACTOR; Constant feedback on the quality of your code. SIMPLE DESIGN. 4. Pair-programming: Constant feedback on names; extra eyes to notice DUPLICATION ; knowledge sharing 5. Continuous integration: Feedback on team work; Quick indication of incompatible changes; That's how we get feedback if someone (or yourself) broke the code.
  • Whenever someone questions these practices or don't want to do them we should ask: How are your practices adding this value? What are you doing that is better than this? How long is your feedback loop?
  • We need to JUSTIFY the DECISIONS WE MAKE . When someone comes to you and says “ I'm not going to do something ” , we need to ask them: We have these practices that give value in an Agile fashion, shrinking the feedback loop down. If you are not going to do a practice that we do know, how do your practice provide quick feedback? How is your practice better? How is your practice adding the same value?
  • Learning TDD, automated testing, pair-programming is hard. PRODUCTION DROPS . You will slow down at the beginning as you do every time you are learning something. But the benefits of it are enormous. And that's why we practice. Like musicians that practice before the concert, we practice. DRIVING A CAR Like other professionals, we are NOT EXPECTED to PRACTICE during WORKING HOURS . We are expected to PROVIDE VALUE .
  • Imagine you have all the time in the world, all the knowledge in the world. Image what would be your idea of good and quality code. And now imagine what you do in your day-to-day job. This gap measures how much you suck. And we all do. Practising is a way to reduce this gap. Practise helps us to internalise concepts and techniques so the next time we are at work, under pressure, good solutions (names, tests, etc) will flow more naturally. It's not practice that leads to perfection, it is perfect practice that leads to perfection. When practising, try to do you best. Try naming variables and attributes properly, spend as much time you need to write your test and doing refactoring. You don't need to deliver when you are practising. Focus on the techniques.
  • For each step towards mastery, the further away we get from it. You don't decide if you are a master or not. This is something that you can't achieve with certifications. A master craftsman needs to be recognised by other software craftsman. Mastery is something that very few of us will achieve but the road to it is an amazing one. So, my advice is: “ enjoy your journey ” .
  • 1. Owning your career: Don't rely on COMPANIES to give you TRAINING . Spend your own time and money on getting better as a professional. Mention DOCTORS, SOLICITORS, DENTISTS, REPUTATION, etc. 2. Not a 9 to 5 profession: If you think you STUDIED HARD at UNIVERSITY , sorry to say but that was a piece of cake. It will just get worse. We are not paid to study or practice. We are paid to do the work. It's UP TO US to keep ourselves UP TO DATE with new technologies and techniques. 3. Practice: Katas, dojos, user group and communities, reading, PET-PROJECT , open source 4. Boy scout rule: Always leave the camp ground cleaner than you found it.
  • How many of you work with legacy code? How many of you enjoy working with legacy code? I used to hate it. I was miserable, always complaining, moaning and cursing. However, over the time I realised that this would not make my life easier or better. I had to do something about it. Today I look at it as a challenge. And I like to be challenged. I make it personal. I challenge myself to understand it. To make it better. I challenge myself to be able to write tests for it. I treat it as a big jigsaw puzzle. Start isolating the corners, than the edges, then grouping pieces by colour or pattern. Then you start putting a few pieces together. The more pieces you put together, the more excited you become. You want to do more, it gets easier, and being able to see part of the picture keeps you motivated to see the full picture. That's what working with legacy code is for me today. Love the challenge.
  • First because we have this DISEASE where if we don't learn something every day our BRAINS DETERIORATE and we DIE . Besides that, we want to be BETTER PROFESSIONALS . We want to DELIVER , we want to IMPRESS OUR CUSTOMERS , delivering VALUE . REPUTATION.
  • … a church: Forget about trying to CONVINCE EVERYONE to be a software craftsman. You will be FRUSTRADE . Software craftsmanship is NOT FOR EVERYBODY . Not every developer out there will have this attitude towards their profession. Not all of them will be practising and getting better and many of them will still PRODUCE loads of CRAP without a minimum CONSIDERATION for their CLIENTS . But how do WE DEAL with that? We LEAD BY EXAMPLE , we show how we can DISTINGUISH OURSELVES . We show we are the COOL KIDS . Hopefully other developers will joining in because they can SEE OUR PASSION , the QUALITY and SPEED we DELIVER and how HAPPY we are. … about beautiful code: It's about being professional and adding value.
  • This is what we do to raise the bar of our industry
  • … being miserable and negative … spreading your frustrations As developers, mainly the senior developers, we have a responsibility of not being negative. We should always keep the team's morale up. Seniors being negative and frustrated cause a big impact in the morale of the team. Juniors are looking up to you and as soon as they see you frustrated or being negative, they will also be frustrated and negative. We should LOOK AT THINGS AS CHALLENGES NOT PROBLEMS .
  • Lead by example, make people feel that they want to be like you. CHANGING SOMEONE'S ATTITUDE is not an easy task. You CAN'T FORCE it. They will need to want to change their attitude.
  • If some companies don't want to invest on a team of craftsmen, well, good luck for them in their projects.
  • Agile and Craftsmanship complement each other and both are important. Craftsmanship take technical excellence and professionalism to a whole new level.

Transcript

  • 1. Think you don't need Software Craftsmanship? http://www.londonswcraft.com @londonswcraft Sandro Mancuso @sandromancuso
  • 2. I'm an artist
    • I love my beautiful code
    • Customers, deadlines, adding value? You are kidding right?
  • 3. Agile Software Development
    • We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and  helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value:
    • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan
    • That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
  • 4.
    • We adopted Agile and now things will be OK
    • … and the Agile Transformation Era began.
  • 5. And then we spend 10 year focusing on...
    • … people, interactions, team building, the ecosystem
    • Process and Interactions became more important than technical practices
  • 6.
    •  
    •  
    • Many Agile projects are now, steadily and iteratively, producing crap mediocre software.
    The Agile Hangover
  • 7.
    • We want to get things done...
    • … but we are under pressure
  • 8.
    • The wrong notion of time
  • 9.
    • It's all about feedback !
  • 10. Agile Software Development
    • We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and  helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value:
    • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan
    • That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
  • 11. The invisible threat Code quality Time per feature
  • 12. Manifesto for Software Craftsmanship raising the bar
    • As aspiring Software Craftsmen we are raising the bar of professional software development by practising it and helping others learn the craft. Through this work we have come to value:
    •  
    •              Not only working software, 
    •                              but also well-crafted software
    •              Not only responding to change ,  
    •                              but also steadily adding value
    •              Not only individuals and interactions , 
    •                              but also a community of professionals
    •              Not only customer collaboration , 
    •                              but also productive partnerships
    •  
  • 13. What is Software Craftsmanship?
    • Software Craftsmanship is all about putting responsibility, professionalism, pragmatism and pride back into software development
  • 14.
    • Does context matter?
    • Does it always matter?
  • 15.
    • How do we know we are building the right thing?
    • How do we know we are building the thing right?
  • 16.  
  • 17. Adding value through practice
    • Automated testing
    • Test first
    • Test-Driven Development
    • Pair-programming
    • Continuous Integration
  • 18.
    • Don't discuss practices, discuss value .
  • 19.
    • Healthy Intolerance
    • How can you add more value and/or have smaller feedback cycles when not using our practices?
  • 20.
    • Mastering the practices is hard …
    • … and that's why we practice
  • 21.
    • Perfect practice
    • (narrowing the gap)
  • 22.
    • Software Craftsmanship is a long journey to mastery
  • 23. Software Craftsmanship Attitude
      • - Owning your career
      • - Not a 9 to 5 profession
      • - Practice
      • - Boy scout rule
  • 24.
    • The attitude towards
    • legacy code
  • 25.
    • Why do we want to be better developers?
  • 26. Software Craftsmanship Movement
    • - Pragmatic Programmer and Software Craftsmanship books are published (1999 and 2001)
    • - Dec, 2008: Meeting in US defining a set of principles for Sofware Craftsmanship
    • - Feb, 2009: First Software Craftsmanship Conference in London
    • - Mar, 2009: Software Craftsmanship Manifesto
    • - Apr, 2009: Craftsman swap between Obtiva and 8th Light
    • - Aug, 2009: First SCNA conference in Chicago
    • - Oct, 2009: Apprenticeship Patterns is published
    • - Aug, 2010: LSCC was founded
    • - Oct, 2010: Second edition of conferences in London and Chicago
    • - Sep, 2011: Software Craftsmanship Conference in Germany
  • 27. Software Craftsmanship is not...
    • … a church, trying to convert all developers
      • It's about leading by example and showing how we can be better
    • … about beautiful code
      • It's about continuously delivering value not writing crap code
  • 28.
    • Raising the Bar
  • 29.
    • Stop...
      • … being miserable and negative
      • … spreading your frustrations
  • 30.
    • The only way to have people buying into what you believe is if they see you happy.
  • 31.
    • Craftsmanship is not enough to guarantee the success of a project but the lack of it can be the main cause of its failure
  • 32.
    • Agile and Craftsmanship complement each other and both are necessary.
    • Agile processes assume technical excellence and a professional attitude.
    • Software Craftsmanship takes technical excellence and professionalism to a whole new level.
  • 33. London Software Craftsmanship Community - LSCC
    • http://www.londonswcraft.com
  • 34.
    • Thank you
    • @sandromancuso
    • http://craftedsw.blogspot.com
    • http://www.londonswcraft.com