TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE ANDPROLIFERATION OF HARDWARE AND CONTENT AS: MEDIA STUDIES Institutions and Audiences
Typical exam question• Discuss the issues raised by technological convergence and the proliferation of hardware and content for the media institution you have studied.• DONT PANIC!
What is technological convergence?• What does it mean for the film industry?
What is technological convergence?• Technological convergence is the merging of different technologies giving audiences access to media content (eg TV and films) from a variety of platforms in one system.• IPut simply, it is where 2 or more pieces of media technology (eg a camera and a phone) exist in the same piece of kit.• Often these different technological systems perform the same task.• This computer animation video on Xtranormal - made by a student helps explain:• http://asanda2mediastudies.blogspot.com/2011/01/technological- convergence-explained.html
What does proliferation of hardware mean?• What does this mean in the film industry?
Proliferation means• “to increase or spread at a rapid rate”.• Hardware technology includes:• digital cameras and 3D cameras• iphones and ipads• the internet - social networking sites and increased interactivity• mobiles with in built internet and cameras• DVD and Blue Ray• IMAX and 3D cinemas
Technological Convergence and proliferationIn the film industry the number of platforms where you can view filmsis proliferating all the time.Audiences can also watch films in a variety of ways WHEN THEY WANTTO.How many ways can you use digital technology to download a film or TVprogramme?Onto your mobile phone, laptop, I-Pad or PC;you can watch it on your flat-screen TV;you can also connect your HD TV to the Internet and watch the film on YouTube;of course, you can see the film on Blue Ray or ordinary DVDs;some might prefer to watch the film on Playstation or X Box; you could,perhaps, download it legally (or illegally)
What choice does proliferation of hardware give us as audiences?• How does it change your ability to watch films?
How proliferation of hardware haschanged audience consumption of film.• In the old days:• you would have to wait till a film came out at the cinema to watch it• You would have to wait to watch a film in your own home• There was no video or film on demand• You could not have instant access to films• You could not watch films wherever you wanted• You could not watch them on your phone, ipod, on a train or in the common room
So what pressures are oninstitutions because of this? • In production...• In distribution....• In exhibition.....
Production• The pressure is to compete against all the other films available in a highly saturated market, as audiences can consume films from numerous platforms, so the pressure is HUGE!• Majors can flex more muscle by spending more money on production than independent British film companies• They can have more tie ins and deals and therefore have more cross media promotion of a film• They can spend more on advertising• They can spend more money in technology within the film - 3D, special effects, CGI (computer generated imagery) ie computer graphics.
What is the pressure on distribution?• How does proliferation of hardware advantage the majors over the British independent film companies?
Technology, proliferation of hardware and distribution.• Majors can spend more on advertising - TV, radio, billboards,• They can use synergy more effectively - video games, DVDs, CDs, books• They can develop more advanced web interactivity• They can print more copies of a film whereas smaller companies may not be able to take this risk without known box office returns• BUT smaller companies can use the internet, TV, mobile, to target niche audience demographics in order to compete with the majors and gain as big an audience as they can.
Exhibition• How audiences watch film is changing at a rapid rate• They can choose to watch films at cinemas, on DVD, on Blue Ray,VOD, or download films from the internet• There is an increased pressure to target audiences because of these competing demands• Cinema has to offer a greater viewing experience - IMAX with better picture and sound quality - 3D films (and in the future 4D). Live music and sports events.
What are the positives and negatives of technological convergence?• POSITIVES• More people have access to films from different platforms• They can watch films when they want• It creates new opportunities for distribution and exhibition• NEGATIVES• the growing problem of piracy and lost revenue• There is less control on audiences by film distributors and exhibitors
Homework• Yes, you’ve guessed it......• Discuss the issues raised by technological convergence and the proliferation of hardware and content for the media institutions you have studied.• You must use your case studies and compare and contrast how this issue affects them.• Use the P-E-A-T principle.• 1200 words please.