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  • 1. Psychology 41 - Life Span Pretest - Chapters 3, 4 Summer 2009 1. The sperm and the ovum are: A) chromosomes. B) gametes. C) eggs. D) zygotes. 2. The molecular basis of heredity is: A) the gene. B) thymine. C) DNA. D) the cell. 3. An organism's entire genetic inheritance is referred to as its: A) gamete. B) genome. C) zygote. D) genotype. 4. An XX pattern in the 23rd pair of chromosomes indicates the fetus will: A) have Down syndrome. B) be female. C) be male. D) be homosexual. 5. The chromosomal make-up of a normal male is ______; the chromosomal make-up of a normal female is ______. A) YY; XY B) XX; XY C) XY; XX D) YY; XX 6. Phenotype is a result of: A) genetics only. B) environment only. C) both genetics and environment. D) neither genetics nor environment. Page 1
  • 2. 7. Genotype is to phenotype as: A) feminine is to masculine. B) feminine is to human. C) frequent is to rare. D) hidden is to observable. 8. Physical traits such as height are: A) totally determined by genetics. B) totally determined by environment. C) determined by environmental influences and genetic potential. D) not attributable to either genetics or environment. 9. If a human characteristic is the result of the interaction of genes and the environment, the characteristic is considered to be: A) multifactorial. B) mosaical. C) dominant. D) additive. 10. The difference between additive and nonadditive genetic patterns is whether: A) they are present in twins. B) the trait is observable. C) all alleles contribute. D) whether environment has an effect. 11. Color blindness is more common among males because: A) most color blindness is inherited by a recessive gene on the X chromosome. B) males have only one Y chromosome. C) most color blindness is inherited by a recessive gene on the Y chromosome. D) the gene for color blindness is a dominant gene. 12. Fraternal twins usually result from: A) two ova that were fertilized at about the same time. B) sperm from two different fathers. C) a zygote splitting during the first two weeks after conception. D) one ova that split in half. 13. Monozygotic twins: A) can be both male, both female, or one male and one female. B) originate from one zygote. C) are also known as fraternal twins. D) are genetically quite different. Page 2
  • 3. 14. Best friends Jennifer and Nancy are so alike that people jokingly refer to them as clones. True clones: A) would be spontaneously aborted. B) would be dizygotic twins. C) would share the same genotype. D) would share the same phenotype. 15. Identify the accurate statement about alcoholism: A) Alcoholism is entirely a genetic disorder. B) Alcoholism is genetic for men, but not for women. C) Alcoholism is entirely determined by your upbringing. D) Alcoholism is determined by both genetics and environment. 16. Chromosomal abnormalities are most often associated with: A) paternal age. B) maternal age. C) environmental agents. D) use of illegal drugs. 17. Trisomy-21 is called: A) fragile-X syndrome. B) Down syndrome. C) muscular dystrophy. D) Klinefelter syndrome. 18. If individuals with Down syndrome survive to middle age, they often develop: A) Alzheimer's disease. B) eccentric speech patterns. C) a variation of Klinefelter syndrome. D) spinal defects and coordination problems. 19. Andrew has fragile-X syndrome and suffers from cognitive deficits. His parents have come to observe that: A) Andrew experiences the most common form of inherited mental retardation. B) Andrew experiences a very rare form of mental retardation. C) Andrew possesses excellent social skills. D) Andrew is a very outgoing and friendly individual. 20. Mental retardation caused by a fragile-X chromosome appears: A) in males only. B) in females only. C) in both sexes equally. D) more frequently in males than in females. Page 3
  • 4. 21. Identify the couple that could benefit most from genetic counseling before pregnancy: A) The man is 39, the woman is 30; they have no children. B) The man and woman are both 27; they have had two spontaneous abortions. C) The man and the woman are both 30. D) The man and the woman are both 20; they are of different ethnic groups. 22. Couples at high risk for conceiving children with serious genetic disorders: A) frequently want to hear the results of the testing, good or bad. B) frequently want to hear the results of the testing if bad. C) often prefer to hear good news, and would prefer not to hear the bad news. D) only want to hear the bad news to start planning. 23. The germinal period ends approximately: A) two days after conception. B) two months after conception. C) two weeks after conception. D) twelve weeks after conception. 24. Pregnancy is most likely to end: A) before the germinal period. B) in spontaneous abortion in the period of the embryo. C) in spontaneous abortion in the period of the fetus. D) in induced abortion in the second trimester. 25. Buds that will become arms and legs appear by the ______ week. A) third B) fourth C) fifth D) sixth 26. The “age of viability” refers to the point when the preterm newborn: A) can survive. B) begins to move. C) will survive. D) has developed all its major organs. 27. External sex organs are fully formed by the: A) fourth week after conception. B) sixth week after conception. C) twelfth week after conception. D) fifth month after conception. Page 4
  • 5. 28. The critical factor in attaining the age of viability is: A) weighing at least 5 pounds (2.3 kg). B) having adequate brain development. C) having functioning digestive and respiratory systems. D) surviving at least 28 weeks past conception. 29. Teratology refers to: A) abnormalities in the birth process. B) the study of birth defects. C) research in new forms of birth control. D) the study of chromosomal abnormalities. 30. Maria used a prescription medicine for two weeks while she was pregnant. The potential damage: A) depends partly on when during her pregnancy she took the medicine. B) is the same throughout the pregnancy. C) is greater for structures that are fully developed. D) is highest during the last trimester. 31. Jan used several prescription drugs in early pregnancy, before she missed her first period. Her doctor will probably say: A) have an abortion because the embryo is damaged. B) the placenta ensured that no harm was done. C) prescription drugs never hurt a developing embryo. D) most drugs are harmless in low doses, but the doctor needs more specifics. 32. The condition where one substance intensifies the effects of another substance is the: A) critical period effect. B) threshold effect. C) fetal teratogen effect. D) interaction effect. 33. Dizyotic twins exposed to the same teratogens during pregnancy experience: A) the same effects of the teratogens. B) different effects of the teratogens. C) no effects of the teratogens since the twins protect each other. D) amplified effects of the teratogens since there are two fetuses. 34. An example of a psychoactive drug is: A) thalidomide. B) cocaine. C) Valium. D) estrogen. Page 5
  • 6. 35. A total Apgar score of 3 indicates that a newborn is: A) of very low birthweight. B) irritable and may be coughing and crying. C) in excellent condition. D) in critical condition. 36. Anoxia refers to: A) cerebral hemorrhaging. B) signs of cerebral palsy. C) lack of oxygen. D) toxic substances in the bloodstream. 37. Infants born more than three weeks early are called: A) low birthweight. B) premature. C) miracles. D) preterm. 38. Postpartum depression is partly influenced by: A) the amount of time spent in labor. B) having a Cesarean section. C) giving birth to a preterm infant. D) the mother's beliefs about her ability to care for her infant. 39. Kyoto's daughter is five days old. Kyoto is feeling sad and inadequate. She may be experiencing: A) postpartum depression. B) isolette. C) vernix. D) postnatal anoxia. 40. Margie gave birth to a 3 pound baby when she was 15 years old. The most likely reason for a teenager having a low birthweight baby is: A) a smaller pelvis than that of an older woman. B) that as a teenager, she is still growing. C) due to hormonal fluctuations. D) inadequate nutrition during pregnancy. Page 6