Psychology 41 - Life Span
Pretest Chapters 20, 22
Dr. Lee - Fall 2009
1. As the former captain of the football team, John organized a game for his high school's 25th class reunion.
Afterward, all the players complained that they were aching, and that they were much stronger and faster
in high school. What is the nature of their biosocial changes?
A) Their fibers for Type I muscles have been reduced by about 25 percent since high school.
B) Their fibers for Type II muscles have been reduced by about 50 percent since high school.
C) Their back muscles, connective tissues, and bones have lost strength.
D) Their lung capacity is reduced.
2. Joanna, at adulthood, is finding that the size of newspaper print is getting smaller. To compensate, she
holds the paper farther away from her eyes than when she was younger. What is a more likely explanation
for her need to move the paper?
A) She has grown farsighted.
B) She has grown nearsighted.
C) She suffers from presbycusis.
D) She suffers from dementia.
3. Emily has experienced sleep deprivation lately caring for her ill mother-in-law late into the night. Though
she feels tired, she has been able to complete complex cognitive tasks at work. Indicate the reason for her
success at work with insufficient sleep.
A) She has been using more parts of her brain when completing complex tasks.
B) She completes the tasks early in the day when she feels fresher.
C) She relies on stimulants such as caffeine to keep her mind sharp.
D) She tries to sneak in several short naps during the day.
4. A sudden drop in sex hormones in a woman's bloodstream along with cessation of ovulation and
D) a need for assisted reproductive technology.
5. Who will most likely have marked symptoms of menopause?
A) Claire, who began menopause at age 40
B) Martha, who began menopause at age 56
C) Wendy, who is not particularly bothered by her frequent hot flashes
D) Norma, who just had a hysterectomy
6. The man least likely to experience “male menopause” is:
A) Hank, who is 50 and recently has been laid off.
B) Carl, who is 48 and having marital problems.
C) Mark, who is 47 and recovering from a serious heart attack.
D) Bob, who is 55 and has decided to retire early.
7. Diseases and chronic conditions associated with aging:
A) are inevitable, regardless of lifestyle.
B) may be slightly modified by lifestyle.
C) may have delayed onset due to lifestyle.
D) may be strongly affected by lifestyle.
8. The leading cause of cancer deaths in North America is:
A) prostate cancer.
B) breast cancer.
C) lung cancer.
D) colon cancer.
9. Examining worldwide trends in smoking shows that smoking:
A) is increasing worldwide, including in North America.
B) is increasing worldwide while decreasing in North America.
C) trends have remained the same for the past 10 years.
D) is decreasing worldwide.
10. Marie and Pete are good friends who are both HIV-positive. Marie is a moderate drinker; Pete never
drinks. How might their drinking habits affect their life expectancy?
A) Pete will probably live three years longer than Marie.
B) Marie will probably live three years longer than Pete.
C) Pete will probably live six years longer than Marie.
D) Pete and Marie will probably have quite similar life expectancies.
11. Reasons for low exercise rates cited in the text were primarily:
A) health related.
D) weather related.
12. The leading cause of premature adult death recognized by the World Health Organization is:
13. Following a series of major stressors, reactions to the stress often include:
B) suicide attempts.
C) increased resilience.
D) severe mental illness.
14. A researcher is compiling data on the incidence of all types of diseases. This data reflects:
15. One measure of health is morbidity, which:
A) is based on death certificates.
B) is a person's inability to act normally.
C) includes both acute and chronic illnesses.
D) measures how healthy an individual feels.
16. When mortality is low, morbidity:
A) must be high.
B) must equal mortality.
C) can be high.
D) must be low.
17. Rita has low vision yet she enthusiastically participates in many activities, including several sports. The
degree of her disability is determined by:
A) the severity of her visual impairment.
B) her limitations in functioning.
C) her need for assistance.
D) her ophthalmologist.
18. Allan has cancer and heart disease. When measuring his vitality, he:
A) will certainly score low.
B) will certainly score high.
C) could score high.
D) will most likely be too depressed to try.
19. To measure the QALYs lost due to a particular illness, you need to consider:
A) only mortality.
B) only morbidity.
C) only disability.
D) every measure of health.
20. Which of the following is a true statement about QALYs?
A) As QALYs decrease, DALYs increase.
B) If an individual loses half of his quality of life for the last 10 years of his life, he has lost 10 QALYs.
C) Subjective experience of vitality is not considered in the calculation of QALYs.
D) QALYs are not very useful in evaluating the costs and benefits of medical interventions.
21. Gender differences in senescence indicate that:
A) men age more slowly.
B) women age more slowly.
C) men and women age at comparable rates.
D) women age more quickly but refuse to admit it.
22. On the international average, Lauren can expect to live how many years longer than her husband?
A) 5 years
B) 8 years
C) 12 years
D) 15 years
23. A major safeguard of health, vitality, and reduced rates of chronic illness and disability is:
A) living in the countryside rather than in a city.
B) consuming adequate fresh fruits and vegetables daily.
C) maintaining a healthy weight and exercising regularly.
D) high-socioeconomic status.
24. According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in:
A) intermittent feelings of loneliness.
B) stagnation and personal impoverishment.
C) childlessness and a career orientation.
D) difficulties in mate selection or friendship.
25. Identify the stage of adulthood from Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.
A) trust versus mistrust
B) initiative versus guilt
C) generativity versus stagnation
D) industry versus inferiority
26. Susan's grandmother, at age 80, is in the final stage of adulthood, namely:
A) identity versus role confusion.
B) industry versus inferiority.
C) generativity versus stagnation.
D) integrity versus despair.
27. Greta is 48 years old and pregnant with her first child. She was determined to have a baby before her
biological clock rendered it impossible. She is facing criticism from family and friends who think she is
too old to give birth. Their standards are based upon:
A) the upper limits of the biological clock.
B) the social clock.
C) the prenatal demarcation.
D) the obstetric scale.
28. Researchers have found that the social clock is:
A) the same for all cultures and subcultures.
B) particularly important in determining retirement age worldwide.
C) greatly influenced by socioeconomic status.
D) biologically determined.
29. Bill has worked at a low-paying job in a lumber yard for many years. In comparison to his cousin who is a
physician, Bill expects to retire:
A) five years later than his cousin.
B) about the same time as his cousin.
C) five years sooner than his cousin.
D) when he reaches the age of forced retirement.
30. Which most accurately depicts middle age?
A) It is a time of severe emotional crisis.
B) There are very few changes at midlife.
C) Changes do not necessarily cluster around age 40.
D) It always begins at age 40.
31. Sam is moody, anxious, and self-punishing. Sam is high in:
32. Davetta is very organized and tends to conform easily. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?
33. With age, extroversion tends to:
A) increase slightly.
B) increase sharply.
D) remain stable.
34. The loosening of gender restrictions during middle age is most likely to lead to a gender:
35. As adults age, their friendships tend to:
36. Isaac has been experiencing job-related stress due to the threat of corporate downsizing and the
introduction of new advanced technology that he doesn't yet understand. Rather than seeking employment
elsewhere, he reminds himself about the valuable contributions he has made to the company for many
years and tries to remain optimistic. He is coping with his allostatic load with:
A) an emotion-focused approach.
B) a problem-focused approach.
C) an outcome-focused approach.
D) a solutions-based approach.
37. Typically, the relationship between middle-aged adults and their parents:
A) stays about the same.
B) improves for men but not for women.
C) worsens with age.
D) improves with age.
38. Familism may be defined as the:
A) belief that family members take care of each other.
B) notion that families must encourage independence.
C) belief that familiarity precedes family bond.
D) notion that families should all live together for economic reasons.
39. Adrian is in his mid-30s. He recently divorced and has experienced serious legal and financial problems.
This affected his parents by:
A) strengthening their relationship with him.
B) damaging their sense of well-being.
C) offering them the opportunity to help him.
D) opening their home to him once again.
40. Which of the following is a true statement about sibling relationships in middle adulthood?
A) They become indifferent over time.
B) They are rarely a source of support for middle-aged adults.
C) They can be strained when one sibling takes care of the parents.
D) They grow apart after marriage and remain that way.
41. When elderly parents become frail and are no longer able to care for themselves:
A) one of their children typically assumes the role of chief caregiver.
B) their children share caregiving responsibilities.
C) their children rotate their parents among their homes to care for them.
D) the child who assumes most of the responsibility for their care is appreciated by his or her siblings.
42. Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago.
The quality of their marriage should:
A) remain constant, no different than earlier years.
B) worsen since there are no children to act as buffers.
C) improve since they have more time to spend together.
D) be tumultuous since they had grown apart over the years.
43. Hal and Darcy endured many stressful years in their marriage resulting in much unhappiness. Over time,
their marriage rebounded and improved. Research indicates that:
A) once both spouses realize they would be alone without each other, marriages improve.
B) stress may motivate couples to work together.
C) divorce is not financially feasible for many couples.
D) learning to understand and forgive each other promotes happiness.
44. Jason and Eric, a couple of one year, will be spending Thanksgiving with Jason's family. This will be
Eric's first visit to Jason's family. According to recent research, Eric might expect to:
A) be disliked by Jason's mother.
B) feel full acceptance and goodwill.
C) be disliked by Jason's father.
D) feel welcomed by Jason's siblings.
45. After remarriage, women typically become more financially secure, and men:
A) work longer hours.
B) seek a close friendship with another female.
C) become healthier and more sociable.
D) become more interested in performing domestic chores.
46. According to Erikson, after the stage of intimacy versus isolation comes:
A) initiative versus guilt.
B) identity versus role confusion.
C) generativity versus stagnation.
D) integrity versus despair.
47. In a typical family, the “kinkeeper” is most likely to be:
A) a middle-aged mother.
B) a young adult son.
C) a middle-aged father.
D) the first grandchild.
48. The notion of the sandwich generation:
A) is not very accurate.
B) correctly describes the reality of many adult lives.
C) accurately conveys the financial strain adults often experience by caring for elderly parents.
D) clearly communicates the degree in which adults care for their elderly relatives.
49. After nearly 20 years with his company, Mike's job was outsourced. He wants his new job to offer not
only a good wage but also job satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment. He is focused on the:
A) intrinsic rewards of work.
B) self-fulfilling prophecy.
C) extrinsic rewards of work.
D) secondary gains of work.
50. Dual-income families often feel guilt over leaving their children while they work. Research indicates that:
A) their guilt is justified.
B) children suffer from not spending time with their parents but not to a great extent.
C) if the children are left with family members, time away from parents is irrelevant.
D) parents are spending more time with their children than they previously did.
51. Which is NOT a stage in the sexual response cycle?