chapter 8

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chapter 8

  1. 1. Part III The Play Years: Biosocial Development Chapter Eight Body Changes Brain Development Injuries and Abuse
  2. 2. The Play Years: Biosocial Development <ul><li>Children grow bigger and stronger… become more skilled at tasks… by age 6, they can skip, write, and much more, as long as they have had enough practice. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Body Changes <ul><ul><li>1-year-olds are cute and chubby, while 6 year olds are “grown up” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>…the body and brain develop according to powerful epigenetic forces, biologically driven as well as socially guided, experience-expectant and experience-dependent… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Body Changes <ul><li>Growth Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>during the play years: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>children become slimmer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the lower body lengthens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>baby fat turns to muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>at age 5 the body mass index is lower than at any other age in the entire life span </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Body Changes <ul><li>Growth Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>during the play years: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gone is the protruding belly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>round face </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>short limbs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>large head (that characterize the toddler) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Body Changes <ul><li>Growth Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>children increase in height and weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each year from age 2–6, well-nourished children add almost 3 inches and gain about 4 ½ pounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6-year-olds weigh about 46 pounds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Body Changes <ul><li>Growth Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A typical 6-year-old: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is at least 3 ½ feet tall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>weighs between 40 and 50 pounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>looks lean, not chubby </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>has adult-like body proportions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Body Changes <ul><li>Growth Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ethnic groups living together in the same developed nation, children of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African descent tend to be the tallest, then </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European descent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asian descent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latino descent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Body Changes <ul><li>Growth Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Over the centuries, low-income families encourage their children to eat, so that they would have a reserve of fat to protect themselves in times of famine.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 2020 it is predicted that more than 228 million adults worldwide will have diabetes as a result of unhealthy eating habits acquired in childhood </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Body Changes <ul><li>Eating Habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infants and young children today play outside less than their parents or grandparents did </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Body Changes <ul><li>Eating Habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional deficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>children in developed nations consume enough calories but lack iron, zinc, and calcium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most cultures encourage their children to eat sweets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Body Changes <ul><li>Eating Habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“just right” or “just so” phenomenon is normal and widespread among children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most young children’s food preferences and rituals are far from ideal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Body Changes <ul><li>Eating Habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>75% of 1500 parents reported that their children’s just-right phase peaked at about age 3... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have things done in a particular order or in a certain way </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong preference to wear or not wear cerain clothes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prepare for bedtime by engaging in a special activity, routine, or ritual </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strong preference for certain foods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Body Changes <ul><li>Eating Habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by age 6 the “just right” fades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parents should be patient until the “just right” obsession fades </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Brain Development <ul><li>“Brains grow rapidly even before birth.” </li></ul><ul><li>by age 2 the brains increase in size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a great deal of pruning of dendrites has already occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brain growth after infancy is a crucial difference between humans and other animals </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Brain Development <ul><li>Speed of Thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>after infancy, continued proliferation of the communication pathways (dendrites and axons) results in some brain growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the effects of myelination are most noticeable in early childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myelination is the process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parent must be patient when listening to young children talk or when helping them get dressed </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Brain Development <ul><li>Connecting the Brain’s Hemispheres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>corpus callosum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a long band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lateralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>literally, sidedness; the specialization of certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Brain Development <ul><li>The Left-Handed Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>infants and toddlers usually prefer one hand over the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For centuries, parents who saw a preference for the left-hand forced their children to be right-handed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>since most people are right-handed the assumption was that right-handedness was best </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Brain Development <ul><li>The Left-Handed Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developmentalist advise against trying to switch a child’s handedness… not only because of parent-child conflict but because it might interfere with the natural and necessary process of lateralization </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Brain Development <ul><li>The Whole Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The left half controls the right side of the body and contains the areas dedicated to logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The right half controls the left side of the body and contains the area dedicated to generalized emotion and creative impules, including appreciation of most music, art, and poetry. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Brain Development <ul><li>The Whole Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The left side notices details and the right side grasps the big picture </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Brain Development <ul><li>The Whole Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>severely brain-damaged people are exclusively left-brained or right-brained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>every cognitive skill requires both sides of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because older children have more myelinared fibers in the corpus callosum, they have better thinking and less clumsy actions are possible for them </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Brain Development <ul><li>Planning and Analyzing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the prefrontal cortex or frontal cortex is an area in the front part of the brain’s outer layer under the forehead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this area underlies higher-order cognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>planning and complex forms of goal-directed behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the prefrontal cortex is the executive part of the brain… ruling all the other areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Brain Development <ul><li>Planning and Analyzing </li></ul>
  25. 25. Brain Development <ul><li>Planning and Analyzing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturation of the Prefrontal Cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notable benefits of maturation of the prefrontal cortex occur from age 2 – 6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sleep becomes more regular </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emotions become more nuanced and responsive to specific stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>temper tantrums subside </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>uncontrollable laughter or tears become less common </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Brain Development <ul><li>Planning and Analyzing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a major function of the prefrontal cortex is to focus attention and thus curb impulsiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perseveration is the tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Brain Development <ul><li>Emotions and the Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amygdala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hippocampus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially the memory of location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Brain Development <ul><li>Emotions and the Brain </li></ul>
  29. 29. Brain Development <ul><li>Emotions and the Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stressful experiences… can foster growth if the child has someone or something to moderate the stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prolonged physiological responses to stress and challenge put children at risk for a variety of problems in childhood including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical and mental disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poor emotional regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cognitive impairments </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Brain Development <ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maturation of the prefrontal cortex improves impulse control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>myelinaton of the corpus callosum and lateralization of the brain permits better coordination </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Brain Development <ul><li>Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross Motor Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involves large body movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine Motor Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involve small body movement (are harder to master) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hands and fingers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>many fine motor skills involve two hands… both sides of the brain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Brain Development <ul><li>Artistic Expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>during the play years children are imaginative, creative, and not yet very self-critical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all forms of artistic expression blossom during early childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in every artistic domain, maturation of brain and body is gradual and comes with practice </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Brain Development
  34. 34. Brain Development <ul><li>Artistic Expression </li></ul>
  35. 35. Injuries and Abuse <ul><li>more children die of violence, either accidental or deliberate than from any other cause </li></ul><ul><li>in the U.S. out of every 100,000: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 to 4-year-olds, 10.9 died accidentally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 died of cancer (the leading fatal disease at this age) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 were murdered </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Injuries and Abuse <ul><li>young children are more vulnerable to injuries and abuse than older children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they are impulsive, yet depend on others </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Injuries and Abuse <ul><li>Avoidable injury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>worldwide injuries cause millions of premature deaths among young adults as well as children </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Injuries and Abuse <ul><li>Avoidable injury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>injury control/harm reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Injuries and Abuse <ul><li>Avoidable injury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>three levels of prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>primary prevention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstances, such as injury, disease, or abuse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Injuries and Abuse <ul><li>Avoidable injury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>three levels of prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>secondary prevention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Injuries and Abuse <ul><li>Avoidable injury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>three levels of prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tertiary prevention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event such as illness or injury occurs, and are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Injuries and Abuse <ul><li>Avoidable injury </li></ul>
  43. 43. Child Maltreatment <ul><li>Maltreatment Noticed and Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>child maltreatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of, anyone under 18 years of age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual well-being </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>child neglect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>failure to meet a child’s basic physical, educational, or emotional needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Child Maltreatment <ul><li>Maltreatment Noticed and Defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reported maltreatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>substantiated maltreatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>harm or endangerment that been reported, investigated, and verified </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Child Maltreatment <ul><li>Warning Signs of Maltreatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first signs of maltreatment are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>delayed development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>slow grow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immature communication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lack of curiosity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unusual social interaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Child Maltreatment <ul><li>Warning Signs of Maltreatment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is a delayed reaction to a trauma or shock, which may include hyperactivity and hyper-vigilance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, sudden terror or anxiety, and confusion between fantasy and reality </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Child Maltreatment <ul><li>Consequences of Maltreatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is effected by cultural context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>customs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maltreatment compromises basic health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>abused and neglected children are often injured, sick, hospitalized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maltreated children and adolescents are often bullies or victims or both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these perspectives can last for a life span </li></ul></ul>

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