Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A. 1 Part I Prenatal Development and Birth Chapter Four From Zygote to Newborn Risk Reduction The Birth Process
2 Prenatal Development and Birth The majority of newborns are male (52%), and more are Chinese (30%)… yet every baby is unique… every area of development is directly relevant to the 150 million babies born in the world every year… there are generalities and variation… but expect to be awed by the miracle of birth.
3 From Zygote to Newborn Prenatal development is divided into three main periods germinal Period (0-2 weeks) embryonic Period (3-8 weeks) fetal Period (9 weeks-birth)
4 From Zygote to Newborn Germinal: The First 14 Days Conception occurs in fallopian tubes Cell differentiation and multiplication 42% of conceptions successfully implant in uterus blastocyst when cells take on distinct characteristics and gravitate toward particular positions, the entire cell mass (still very fragile and tiny) placenta the organ that surrounds the developing embryo and fetus, sustaining life via the umbilical cord…attached to the wall of the uterus Implantation the process, beginning about 10 days after conception, which the developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop.
5 From Zygote to Newborn Embryo: from the third through the eighth week embryonic period (3-8 weeks) major organs develop at eight weeks, organism is less than 2˝ long
6 From Zygote to Newborn
7 From Zygote to Newborn Fetus: From the Ninth Week Until Birth Fetal Period (9 weeks-birth) Sex organs develop Brain development is significant Age of viability occurs around 22 weeks fetus a developing organism from the ninth week after conception until birth
8 From Zygote to Newborn The Third Month the fetus has all its body parts weighs approximately 3 ounces, about 3 inches long growth is rapid fetus is too small survive outside of the womb
9 From Zygote to Newborn
The Middle Three Months: Preparing to Survive
in the fourth, fifth and sixth months the heartbeat becomes stronger the cardiovascular system more active the brain increases about six times in size age of viability twenty-two weeks after conception a fetus can survive outside the mother’s uterus if specialized medical care is available
10 From Zygote to Newborn The Final Three Months: From Viability to Full Term Viability life outside the womb is possible born in the seventh month requires intensive hospital care and life-support systems difference between preterm and newborn is the maturation of neurological, respiratory, cardiovascular systems
11 Risk Reduction toxins, illnesses and experiences can harm a developing person before birth teratology a science of risk analysis, the study of birth defects teratogens Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child’s intellectual and emotional functioning behavioral teratogens Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child’s intellectual and emotional functioning
12 Risk Reduction Determining Risk risk analysis the science of weighting the potential effects of a particular event, substance, or experience to determine the likelihood of harm Timing of Exposure critical period In prenatal development, the time when a particular organ or other body part of the embryo or fetus is most susceptible to damage by teratogens
13 Risk Reduction Amount of Exposure Threshold effect a situation in which a certain teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level (the threshold) Interaction effect the result of a combination of teratogens. Sometimes risk is greatly magnified when an embryo or fetus is exposed to more than one teratogen at the same time
14 Genetic Vulnerability
15 Risk Reduction Protective Measures Benefits of Prenatal Care
16 The Birth Process The Newborn’s First Minutes
17 The Birth Process The Newborn’s First Minutes Apgar scale a quick assessment of a newborn’s body functioning. color heart rate reflexes muscle tone respiratory effort
18 The Birth Process Variations medical Intervention cesarean section fetus is removed through incisions in the mother’s abdomen and uterus birth complications includes anything in the newborn, the mother, or the birth process itself that requires special medical attention anoxia a lack of oxygen that, if prolonged during birth, can cause brain damage or death to the baby
19 The Birth Process Low Birthweight (LBW) the average weight of a newborn is 7½ lbs. LBW is considered less than 5½ lbs. preterm is less than 35 weeks lifestyle choices e.g., cigarette smoking accounts for 25% of LBW births worldwide! maternal malnutrition multiple births prescription drugs unknown causes
20 The Birth Process Social Support Mother, Father, and a Good Start Help from fathers parental alliance – cooperation between a mother and a father based on their mutual communication to their children… the parents agree to support each other in their shared parental roles Postpartum Depression 8-15% of women experience postpartum depression, a sense of inadequacy and sadness after birth. includes irritability, sleep and eating disruptions, sadness, feeling overwhelmed and inadequate as a mom, no interest or overly worried about baby.